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  • 301.
    Alasuutari, Pertti
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    The relevance of qualitative research2007In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 302.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Forskning om skriftspråksundervisning i förskola, förskoleklass och skolans tidigare år2015In: SCIRA Läsning, ISSN 0349-9855, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 4-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 303.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Forskning som stöd i professionaliseringen av lärarna2008In: Pedagogiskt arbete: Ett forskningsämne i utveckling vid IPD / [ed] Rönnerman, Karin; Runesson, Ulla, Göteborg: Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Göteborgs universitet , 2008, p. 9-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Förskollärares och grundskollärares uppfattningar om undervisning och lärande i förskoleklass2017In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 79-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks två lärarkategoriers, förskollärares och lärares, uppfattningar om undervisning och lärande i förskoleklassen, mötet mellan de båda lärargrupperna samt deras uppfattningar om en obligatorisk förskoleklass med en tydligare skolförberedande roll. Studien är genomförd utifrån sociokulturell teori och diskuterar möjligheter som studiens resultat öppnar för vad gäller utvecklandet av förskoleklassens pedagogik i enlighet med önskade intentioner. Resultatet visar att samverkan mellan förskollärare och lärare med bakgrund i de olika praktikgemenskaperna kan vara av betydelse för utvecklandet av förskoleklassens skolförberedande pedagogik.

  • 305.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Har lärare i förskoleklass nytta av att känna till vilka processer barn går igenom i sin skriftspråkliga utveckling?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Teoretiskt ramverk

    Studier visar att uppemot 30 procent av eleverna i förskoleklassen redan vid starten av höstterminen kan ha knäckt den alfabetiska koden (Lundberg et al., 2012). Samtidigt vet man att andra barn inte är lika förtrogna med skriftspråket, vilket främst gäller barn från utbildningsmässigt mindre gynnade hemförhållanden (t.ex. Hansen, Rosén, & Gustafsson, 2004) och barn som möter läs- och skrivinlärningen på ett språk som inte är deras (Aukrust & Rydland, 2009). Forskning visar att dessa barn har extra stor fördel av tidiga insatser i förskola, förskoleklass och tidiga skolår (Europeiska Unionen, 2006). För lärare i förskoleklass utgör denna spridning av elevers skriftspråkliga förmåga en utmaning då de behöver ha kunskaper att möta och stimulera varje elevs lärande oavsett var de befinner sig i sin språkliga utveckling.

    För att läraren ska ha möjlighet att hjälpa och stötta eleven vidare i sitt lärande, behöver han eller hon känna till både elevens faktiska och proximala utvecklingszon (Vygotskij, 1987), vilket utgör teoretiskt ramverk för föreliggande studie. Detta innebär att förskoleklassens lärare behöver grundläggande kunskap om processer och förmågor i barns skriftspråksutveckling. Läraren behöver också vara medveten om hur läs- och skrivaktiviteter i den pedagogiska verksamheten bi­drar till elevernas skriftspråkliga lärande. Studier har visat att förskollärare lägger grunden för barns språkliga medvetenhet men att de inte har lika stor kännedom om elevernas läs- och skrivlärande (Fast, 2007; Ivarsson, 2008). I förskollärarutbildningen ingår traditionellt sett relativt lite kurser om läsinlärning (Frank, 2009).

    Studiens design   Samtliga lärare i förskoleklass (n=23) i en kommun i Sverige medverkar i ett tvåårigt projekt med interventionsforskning. Interventionen består av föreläsningar om språkets strukturer, språklig medvetenhet, avkodning, läsflyt, läsförståelse samt bedömning av läsförmåga. Efter varje föreläsning genomför lärarna med sina elever två praktiska uppdrag som anknyter till föreläsningen. Uppdragen följs av kollegiala samtal i smågrupper under ledning av en specialpedagog för att knyta ihop teori och praktik. Lärarnas kunskapsutveckling bedöms genom återkommande intervjuer med åtta lärare under forskningsprocessen. Dessutom genomförs observationer av kollegiala samtal för att undersöka och beskriva lärarnas lärande och erfarenheter i samband med de genomförda uppdragen. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa förskollärares erfarenheter av att kartlägga och bedöma den skriftspråkliga förmågan hos elever i förskoleklass. Forskningsfrågorna är följande:

    • Vilka upptäckter i elevers läsutveckling gör förskollärare?

    • Hur uppger lärarna att deras upptäckter och erfarenheter inverkar på deras undervisning?

    Preliminära resultat Det framkommer att förskoleklassens lärare upptäcker elever som känner till samtliga bokstäver, som befinner sig i den logografiska, alfabetiska och ortografiska fasen i sin skriftspråkliga utveckling. Pedagoger uttrycker att de inte gjort en liknande kartläggning tidigare. Kartläggningen ger dem möjlighet att anpassa och variera undervisningen efter elevernas behov.

    Relevans för forskningsområdet

    Studien ämnar bidra till diskussionen om förskoleklasslärares behov av fördjupad kunskap om förmågor och processer i skriftspråksutvecklingen för att ha möjlighet att möta och stimulera elevernas lärande oavsett var de befinner sig i sin språkliga utveckling. Dagens barn blir välbekanta med symboler och bilder i tidig ålder, vilket kan innebära att deras inträde i skriftspråket kan komma att tidigareläggas.

     

  • 306.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Har lärare i åk 1-3 möjligheter att genomföra skicklig läs- och skrivundervisning?2012In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 11-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Introduktion2019In: Läsundervisningens grunder / [ed] Tarja Alatalo, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2019, 2, p. 13-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    ”Kalle, du kan ju läsa!”: Förskoleklasslärare synliggör förskoleklasselevers skriftspråksutveckling2017In: Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, ISSN 2464-1596, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien tar sin utgångspunkt i ett kompetensutvecklingsprojekt där lärare i förskoleklass gavs möjlighet att genom erfarenhet i handling samt reflektion stärka sina ämneskunskaper inom skriftspråksområdet. Sju lärare i förskoleklass intervjuades om sina erfarenheter i samband med bedömning av elevers skriftspråksutveckling. Studiens syfte var att undersöka vilket meningsskapande som enligt lärarna sker i samband med bedömningsaktiviteten. Fokus riktades mot lärarnas beskrivningar av det egna men också elevernas meningsskapande. Studiens grund i sociokulturell teori och pragmatismens begrepp erfarenhet och meningsskapande som centrala analysverktyg, synliggjorde lärarnas fördjupade förståelse för elevers skriftspråksutveckling. I materialet framträder en bild av att tidigare erfarenheter omvärderades och användes tillsammans med nya erfarenheter för att skapa ny kunskap hos både lärare och elever. Exempelvis beskriver lärare hur elever i samband med bedömningsaktiviteten upptäckte att de kunde läsa. I mötet mellan projektets ämnesfokus och praktisk handling kunde lärarna omvärdera tidigare erfarenheter och upptäcka att elever i förskoleklassen läser, hur de läser och hur de själva kan stimulera eleverna vidare. Studiens avsikt är att öppna för en diskussion om hur kompetensutveckling om skriftspråksutveckling kan öka förskoleklasslärares möjligheter att stimulera elever vidare och öka elevernas förutsättningar att utvecklas i riktning mot skolans kunskapskrav.

  • 309.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Koppling mellan ljud och bokstav är a och o2015In: Läs & skriv. En tidning för Dyslexiförbundet FML samt Skrivknuten., ISSN 1104-8808, Vol. 19, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 310.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Livet i Bokstavslandet: Lärarhandledning åk 12015 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 311.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Livet i Bokstavslandet: Lärarhandledning åk 12016 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 312.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Livet i Bokstavslandet: Lärarhandledning åk 12018 (ed. 3)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 313.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Lärarens ämneskompetens är av betydelse för elevers läs- och skrivutveckling2015In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 314.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsflyt – en komponent som möjliggör läsförståelseförmågan2016In: Läsundervisningens grunder / [ed] Tarja Alatalo, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 71-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 315.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsflyt – en komponent som möjliggör läsförståelseförmågan2019In: Läsundervisningens grunder / [ed] Tarja Alatalo, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2019, 2, p. 93-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsundervisning i förskoleklass2019In: Läsundervisningens grunder, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2019, 2, p. 73-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsundervisningens grunder2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Läsundervisningens grunder2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 319.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Nationella uppdrag i läs- och skrivundervisning vid Högskolan Dalarna2017In: SCIRA Läsning, ISSN 0349-9855, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 320.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Professional content knowledge of grades one – three teachers in Sweden for reading and writing instruction: language structures, code concepts, and spelling rules2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 477-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Swedish teachers of grades 1-3, with various teacher-training backgrounds, were tested to determine if they have the requisite awareness of language elements and the way these elements are represented in writing. The results were poor, yet the indication was that teachers with a good educational background in literacy and a good deal of teaching experience know significantly more than teachers whose teacher training included fewer or no courses in literacy instruction and who had less experience. The results indicate that it may be difficult for many teachers in the sample to provide adequate instruction in basic reading and writing. However, the study did not investigate how knowledge is used in practice, on which further research is needed. The importance of professional content knowledge is discussed.

  • 321.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Riskerar insikter om läs- och skrivinlärning att gå förlorade när nya perspektiv på lärande ges allt större utrymme i lärarutbildning och skola?2014In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 322.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Ruotsalainen interventiotutkimus pyrkii vahvistamaan lukuopetusta esikoulussa ja ensimmäisellä luokalla2014In: Kielikukko, ISSN 0780-0940, no 3, p. 41-42Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 323.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    Skicklig läs- och skrivundervisning i åk 1-3: Om lärares möjligheter och hinder2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study focuses on teachers’ opportunities and obstacles to perform skillful reading and writing instruction. It’s about the ability to accurately identify where students are in their reading and writing process and to help them develop good reading skills. It is also about the ability to recognize signs of difficulties that students may have in their written language development and to know what efforts are needed to help them advance their reading and writing skills. The research is based on teachers’ own statements and survey responses on the external conditions for teaching and on their approach, attitudes and knowledge in reading and writing. The empirical material consists of interviews, surveys and test data. The interview study was conducted with eight teachers. The questionnaire was answered by 249 teachers, while the knowledge test was conducted of 269 teachers and 31 special education teachers. Many of the teachers in this study have lack knowledge in the structure of language and common Swedish spelling rules. Furthermore, it appears that a large part of them are unaccustomed to explaining, in detail, students’ reading development and find it difficult to systematically describe the aspects of daily literacy instruction. The overall picture is that many teachers teach without having tools to reflect on how their education really affects students’ reading and writing. These shortcomings make it difficult to conduct effective literacy instruction. Once students have learned to decode or if they have reading difficulties, many teachers seem to one-sidedly focus on getting students to read more. The consequence could be that those who would need to practice more on the technical basic of reading or comprehension strategies are left without support. Lack of variety and individuality in fluency and comprehension training can challenge the students’ reading and writing development. The teachers in the study, who have the old junior school teacher and elementary teacher education, have the highest amount of knowledge of reading and writing (the test). Good education can provide student teachers with professional skills that they may develop further in their careers. Knowledge of the meaning of phonological and phonemic awareness as well as knowledge of how to count phonemes seem to be important for knowledge of reading and writing (the test). Knowledge of basic reading processes can be obtained by systematic and structured work with students’ linguistic development, and through continuous dialogues with experienced colleagues on how and why questions. This is one important way to work also in teacher training. When essential professional skills are established in the teacher education, in practice students will obtain the school’s learning goals.

  • 324.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Skriftspråksutvecklingen i övergången från förskoleklass till årskurs ett2017In: Barns övergångar: Förskola, fritidshem, grundsärskola och grundskola / [ed] Anne Lillvist & Jenny Wilder, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 1, p. 59-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Språkstimulans och skrivundervisning i förskoleklass2018Other (Other academic)
  • 326.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Statliga åtgärder för att stärka lärandet i skolans tidiga år2016In: Scira Läsning, ISSN 0349-9855, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 327.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Sustainable Knowledge of Reading and Writing Instruction: A Question for Teacher Education2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My study of 300 Swedish teachers in primary school grades 1-3 (Alatalo, 2011), showed that too many teachers lack understanding of children's reading and writing development. A large part of the teachers in the study, had difficulties describing and reasoning about the basic elements of reading and writing instruction. These knowledge gaps cause difficulties for teachers to implement good reading and writing instruction. One consequence of this is that students, who are at risk for getting any kind of difficulty in reading and writing, are not identified as early as possible and thus do not get the support they need. Another consequence is that many teachers teach without knowing how their instruction actually affects student learning. What can the teacher education do to increase teachers’ knowledge of students’ reading and writing? It is not enough to know that learning occurs in interaction with others, because there are abilities that each individual himself must develop and master. Automated decoding, reading fluency and comprehension are neither abilities that necessarily arise by itselves, but usually require a proficient teacher’s systematic instruction (Moats, 2009; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998). Teachers' knowledge of the processes in students' reading and writing development are needed even more in the interactive learning process and in a time of rapidly emerging new technological tools for teaching. These skills can be said to be sustainable. My above-mentioned study (Alatalo, 2011) indicates that teachers, who have knowledge of the language structures, and know the meaning of phonological awareness, also have more knowledge of reading and writing in general. Specifically, it may mean that those who know the meaning of phonologic awareness also find it easier to understand processes that lead for example to reading fluency and comprehension. This is something that the teacher education should notice.

  • 328.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Sustainable reading and writing instruction: a question for teacher education2013In: The International Journal of Literacies, ISSN 2327-266X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning occurs in meaningful situations and is tied to cooperation and interaction, which teacher education needs to emphasize in all teacher preparation programs. Furthermore, communication in the information era is built largely on multimodal languages such as symbols and images, which teacher education also must pay attention to. But still the written word is fundamental in communication and therefore needs to be in focus in teacher education. For that reason, parallel to knowledge about sociocultural approaches on learning and development and multimodality in the literacy area, teacher students need basic knowledge about children’s reading and writing development. Such knowledge is essential for the teacher to be able to accurately identify where each student is in her or his reading and writing processes in order to be able to respond to and support her or his literacy development. In the literacy area there are skills that children need to learn by practicing on their own. In reading for example, such items are decoding, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. This means that teacher education students also need to possess the theoretical knowledge of literacy instruction. Thus teachers’ knowledge of reading and writing development is an important foundation for sustainable reading and writing instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether teacher education should increase teacher education students’ opportunities to provide sustainable reading and writing instruction. The present study, with a teacher knowledge survey (TKS) completed by 269 Swedish teachers in primary school grades 1-3, indicated that a large part of them lack understanding of children’s written language development as well as of reading and writing instruction. For the reading and writing instruction to be sustainable, the conclusion is that teacher education should focus more on basic elements in reading and writing development, of course without forgetting the benefits of cooperative and multimodal learning. Limitations of the study are that the data only shows teachers’ knowledge but not how they use it in practice. Nor is there any data about teachers’ attitudes and knowledge of socio-cultural perspectives on learning or of multimodal learning. 

  • 329.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Svensk interventionsstudie med syftet att stärka läs- och skrivundervisningen i förskoleklass och årskurs 12014In: Kielikukko, ISSN 0780-0940, no 3, p. 39-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 330.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Swedish K-1 Teachers’ Knowledge of Basic Literacy Instruction: Examining Gains From a Professional development Program.: Participation on a symposia: Literacy learning and its relations to teachers’ knowledge and practices in kindergarten and first school years.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Research indicates that explicit, systematic instruction in phoneme awareness and in orthographic principles facilitates the reading process and many children’s likelihood of success (Adams, 1990; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Lundberg, 2006). Teachers’ knowledge of language structures and processes in the reading development has a direct connection with the students’ reading skills (Moats & Foorman, 2003, Lane et al., 2009). For this reason, teachers should know the meaning of phonological and phonemic awareness and spoken language structures, that is, phrases, words, morphemes, syllables and phonemes (Brady et al., 2009; Joshi et al., 2009; Moats, 1994; 1999; 2000; Piasta et al., 2009). This basic knowledge, gives teachers the potential to be able to choose appropriate activities, provide accurate feedback, address students’ instructional needs, and adjust their teaching accordingly (Moats, 1994, 2009). Many Swedish teachers in the earlier grades lack knowledge of basic reading and writing skills (Alatalo, 2011). This means that they cannot perform systematic reading instruction or identify children’s literacy development. Studies have shown that in-depth professional development for teachers in the first grades of school on topics including linguistic awareness and language structures increase teachers knowledge on literacy instruction as well as students literacy progress (Brady et al., 2009; McCutchen 2002).    

    Purpose and research questions The main goal was to evaluate whether gains in Preschool class-1 teachers’ knowledge in reading instruction would be obtained with a professional development program that continues for two years. The program consists of lectures on language structures, linguistic awareness, decoding, reading fluency and reading comprehension. To extend and intensify the professional development, the lectures are followed by recurrent missions on each topic that the teachers would perform with their students. The missions are followed of peer talks in small groups led by a special educator. The research questions are defined as follows: How does the professional development program influence preschool class-1 teachers’ knowledge of literacy instruction? How do the teachers state that the training affects their teaching?

    Method 23 teachers from preschool class and 23 from grade 1 are taking part of the study. Pre- and post tests with focus on the actual skills assess teachers’ knowledge. Observations of peer talks as well as recurrent interviews with 10 teachers during the two years investigate teachers learning and experiences about effects on their teaching.    

    Results There are only preliminary results since the research is in progress. Pre-test, observations and interviews show that the preschool class teachers generally are familiar with the meaning of phonological and phonemic awareness but do not know about decoding, reading fluency or comprehension. Grade 1 teachers do generally know more about reading fluency and comprehension but less about linguistic awareness. Many teachers seem to follow the textbook without reflecting on how their instruction affects the students learning.  All respondents state that the theoretical connection to their practical experiences makes them more aware of children’s literacy development, which also influences their teaching.

  • 331.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Teachers’ knowledge and experiences of teaching reading and writing2011In: ECER 2011, Urban Education, Berlin, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers’ knowledge and experiences of teaching reading and writing The aim of this study is to perform an analysis of teachers’ experiences and knowledge in teaching students with reading and writing difficulties. Reading is an unnatural process and most children need instruction in reading and writing (Blachman, 2000). There is considerable evidence that competent teaching will alleviate or reduce the severity and consequences of reading failure (Blachman et al., 2004; Foorman et al., 2006). Investigators have begun to pay increasing attention to the role of the teachers’ domain-specific knowledge in the area of reading (Cunningham, Perry, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2004; Moats, 1996, 2009; Moats & Foorman, 2003). As an introduction an interview study was conducted with teachers in grades 1-2. This study pointed out that the identification of students that have reading and writing difficulties differ among schools. Among other things, it depends on the gathered knowledge about reading and writing that the teachers at the school posses. Further, a questionnaire study with 300 Swedish teachers in the grades 1-3 has been completed. The questionnaire contents partly the teachers’ implementations, attitudes and conditions in their practical teaching. Partly it is a survey of teachers’ knowledge about and attitudes towards reading instruction and students’ further development in reading and writing. There is also a test on teachers’ knowledge about linguistic awareness, general orthographic rules and spelling conventions as well as on teachers’ knowledge about practical reading instruction and abilities to identify students’ writing difficulties. The research questions are defined as follows: • How do teachers state that they identify students that have reading and writing difficulties? • How are teachers reasoning about their experiences, knowledge and conditions in other respects, with relevance for the opportunity to give these students support? • Which concrete support do teachers consider that they give students that have reading and writing difficulties? • Which knowledge do teachers have in basic reading and writing instruction? • Which criterions do schools have for students that have reading and writing difficulties in order to give them special education? As in research done in USA, even this study shows that teachers achieve relatively low results on parts in the test. While the research has been going on, one comprehensive question has made a starting point, but also been clear in both the interview and questionnaire studies: Who should teach students that have reading and writing difficulties? Is it the class teacher or the special educator or both of them? It is significant that students that have some kind of difficulties in reading and writing are identified early and given opportunities to get support to develop and to get improved. Consequently in this dissertation, it is important to investigate and problematize the teachers’ opportunities and conditions to meet that kind of demands. Blachman, B. (1984). Relationship of rapid naming ability and language analysis skills to kindergarten and first-grade reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, s. 610-622. Blachman, B. (2000). Phonological awareness. I R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds. ), Handbook of Reading Research, Vol. 3, s. 483-502. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Cunningham, A. E., Perry, K. E., Stanovich, K. E. & Stanovich, P. J. (2004). Disciplinary knowledge of K–3 teachers and their knowledge calibration in the domain of early literacy. Annals of Dyslexia, 54, s. 139–172. Moats, L. C. (1994). The missing foundation in teacher education. Knowledge of the structure of the spoken and written language. Annals of Dyslexia, 44 s. 81-104. Moats, L. C. (2009). Knowledge foundations for teaching reading and spelling. An interdisciplinary Journal, 22 (4) s. 379-399. Moats, L.C., & Foorman, B. (2003). Measuring teachers content knowledge of language and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, p. 23-45.

  • 332.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Vad är hållbara kunskaper om läs- och skrivundervisning?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är hållbara kunskaper om läs- och skrivundervisning? Min studie med 300 lärare i grundskolans årskurser 1-3 (Alatalo, 2011), visar att alltför många lärare har bristfälliga kunskaper om elevers skriftspråksutveckling. En stor del av främst de lärare som examinerats i grundskollärarutbildningarna har svårt att redogöra för och resonera om grundläggande moment i läs- och skrivundervisningen. Dessa kunskapsbrister orsakar svårigheter för lärarna att genomföra god läs- och skrivundervisning. En konsekvens av detta är att elever som ligger i riskzonen för att få någon slags svårigheter i sin läs- och skrivutveckling, inte identifieras så tidigt som möjligt eller får den hjälp som de behöver. En annan konsekvens är att många lärare undervisar utan att känna till hur deras pedagogik egentligen inverkar på elevernas lärande. Vad kan lärarutbildningen göra för att öka blivande lärares kunskaper om läs- och skrivinlärning? Det räcker inte med att känna till att lärandet sker i samspel med andra, eftersom det finns förmågor som varje individ själv måste utveckla och bemästra. Automatiserad avkodning, läsflyt och läsförståelse är dessutom inga förmågor som nödvändigtvis uppkommer av sig självt, utan kräver oftast en kunnig lärares systematiska undervisning (Myrberg, 2003; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998). Lärares kunskaper om processerna i elevers läs- och skrivutveckling behövs än mer i det interaktiva lärandet och i en tid med snabbt uppkommande nya tekniska redskap för undervisningen. Sådana kunskaper är hållbara. Vare sig eleverna använder ”padda” i sin läs- och skrivinlärning eller sitter i internetseminarier, behöver läraren ha insikt om var eleven befinner sig i läs- och skrivprocessen. Därigenom kan läraren hjälpa varje elev att utveckla god läsförmåga. Min ovan nämnda studie (Alatalo, 2011) indikerar att lärare som har kunskap om språkets byggstenar samt känner till innebörden av fonologisk medvetenhet också har mer kunskap om läs- och skrivinlärning i övrigt. Konkret kan det innebära att de som känner till innebörden av fonologisk medvetenhet också har lättare att förstå innebörden av läsflyt och läsförståelse. Detta är något som lärarutbildningen bör ta till sig. Källor: Alatalo, T. (2011). Skicklig läs- och skrivundervisning i åk 1-3: Om lärares möjligheter och hinder. (Akademisk avhandling). Göteborg. Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. Myrberg, M. (2003). Att skapa konsensus om skolans insatser för att motverka läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Stockholm: Skolverket. Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S. & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

  • 333.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Frank, Elisabeth
    Divergent views among Swedish preschool teachers and primary school teachers regarding exchange of information on children’s linguistic development in the transition from preschool to school2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study’s overall purpose is to increase the knowledge of how children’s linguistic skills are taken advantage of and transmitted from preschool to school. The study focuses on teachers’ assumptions and statements of the linguistic work, with particular attention to the transmission of information on children’s early reading development from preschool to school.

    The following research questions are essential:

    • How do teachers in preschool and school define the language work in respective practices? 

    • Does transfer of information on children’s linguistic development take place from preschool to school and in that case, which methods are used?

    To collect data on preschool and school linguistic work as well as priorities and transmission of information on children’s linguistic development, a questionnaire was constructed. During fall 2012, 100 preschool and school teachers from different parts of Sweden responded to the questionnaire. The questionnaire concentrates on questions about the work on children’s linguistic development with main focus on the transition phase from preschool to school.

    Our preliminary results show that focus in preschool teachers’ and primary school teachers’ linguistic work seem to differ from each other in some domains. Nor do they agree about if, what and how information on children’s linguistic development is transferred in the transition from preschool to school.

  • 334.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Frank, Elisabeth
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Exchange of information on children's linguistic development in the transition from preschool to preschool class - a pilot study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate teachers’ experiences with information sharing regarding children’s linguistic development in the transition from preschool to preschool class. Research questions:

    * To what degree do teachers prioritize work with children’s linguistic development?

    * To what extent does exchange of information regarding children’s linguistic development take place in the transition from preschool to preschool class?

    * How is the information transmitted?

    * What kind of information is transmitted?

    To collect data on preschool and school linguistic work as well as priorities and transmission of information on children’s linguistic development, a questionnaire was constructed. During fall 2012, 76 preschool and preschool class teachers from different parts of Sweden responded to the questionnaire.

    Our results show that language development activities are highly prioritized in preschool and preschool class. A transfer of information on children’s language skills between preschool and preschool class takes place though focus seem to differ in some domains. Information is transferred both orally and written, mainly on a group level. Further research is needed on what- how- and why-questions. Another question is what impact the information transmission may have on preschool class activities.

  • 335.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Hansson, Åse
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik.
    Characteristics of Teacher Competence: Trends over Time and Between Student Groups in the Swedish Compulsory School2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Achievement differences across schools have increased in Sweden during the past two decades, at the same time as average achievement levels have declined, for example in mathematics (Holmlund et al., 2014; SOU 2014:05) and reading (Skolverket, 2013). These negative trends may be related to schools’ demographic, organizational and resource prerequisites. The organizational basis for the Swedish compulsory school has undergone significant changes since the late 1980s, with free school choice, an increasing number of private schools and a larger autonomy for school leaders. The increased school segregation with respect to migration background since the implementation of these reforms (Yang Hansen & Gustafsson, 2016), could possibly be caused by the continuing decline in inclusion of migrant students and a related educational inequality in instructional quality and teacher competence. Inclusion is defined as a structure of organizing integration according to particular rules and regulations.

    The results of research on effects of teacher competence are, however, somewhat fragmented and unclear, at least with respect to effects on different student groups. This can partly be explained by uncertainties in the determination of crucial teacher characteristics. Making comparisons between for example authorized and unauthorized teachers has been shown to be problematic. There is vast research in this field which is characterized by severe methodological problems, e.g. with respect to drawing causal conclusions from cross-sectional observational data. For example, no correlation between student achievement and various resource factors has been found in some studies (e.g. Hanushek, 1997), whereas others found a positive correlation (e.g. Greenwald, Hedges & Laine, 1996).

    A teacher effect on student achievement is, however, well manifested (e.g., Gustafsson, 2003; Gustafsson & Myrberg, 2002; Johansson, Myrberg, & Rosén, 2015; Nye, Konstantopoulus, & Hedges, 2004; Rockoff, 2004), and the results also suggest that lower achieving students, as for example immigrants, are the more likely to benefit from increases in teacher effectiveness (e.g., Sanders, 1998). Teacher quality is, furthermore, one of the resource factors that explains most of the increase in performance differences between schools in Sweden (Björklund, Fredriksson, Gustafsson, & Öckert, 2010, Ch 7; Gustafsson & Myrberg, 2002). The general reduction in teacher quality in Sweden the last decades (SOU 2014:05), and the decreased equality of allocation of teacher competence between schools (Hansson & Gustafsson, 2016; OECD, 2013), supports these results. However, the variation between student outcomes that different teachers are achieving (Hanushek, 2003) needs to be further problematized and discussed. Teacher knowledge and skills, teacher training and teaching experience are examples of characteristics highlighted in different meta-studies (e.g., Greenwald, Hedges & Laine, 1996), that should be subject of such an investigation.

    This study intends to develop a precise and differentiated description of teacher quality for use in future analyses of relations between teacher competence and educational results, with focus on interactions with student composition of schools due to students’ socio-economic and migration backgrounds. The description is among other factors focusing on teacher’s basic knowledge, subject-related and pedagogical training, and type of teacher training program. One aim is to investigate the variation over time in access to qualified teachers and the variation in teacher qualifications between schools. In further analyses, the significance of the teacher characteristics for literacy and mathematics in grades 1 to 6 will be focused.

    Overall, the project, which this study is a part of, is expected to generate insights about essential conditions for effective and equitable teaching in Swedish and mathematics in primary school, and about distributions of teacher competence across schools with different student composition.

  • 336.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Johansson, Annie-Maj
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Natural Science.
    ”Kan man köra en skottkärra med fyrkantigt hjul?”: Läs- och skrivutvecklande praktiker i teknikundervisning i förskoleklass2019In: Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, E-ISSN 2464-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en rad svenska avhandlingsstudier har man funnit att läs- och skrivundervisningen i förskoleklass sker i formaliserade sammanhang och att utan att koppla till elevers erfarenheter. I den här studien är syftet att utveckla kunskap om läs- och skrivutvecklande sociala praktiker i teknikundervisning i en förskoleklass. Fyra tekniklektioner observerades med fokus på lärarens läs- och skrivutvecklande undervisning. Det teoretiska ramverket utgörs av Freebody och Lukes resursmodell som beskriver läs- och skrivkunnighet som en uppsättning sociala praktiker. Dessutom analyseras huruvida läs- och skrivundervisningen är formaliserad, funktionaliserad eller om den är balanserad, det vill säga genomförs i sammanhang där formaliserad och funktionaliserad undervisning är i samspel med varandra. Resultatet visar att teknikundervisningen skapar rikliga möjligheter för elever att medverka i de sociala praktikerna i Freebody och Lukes modell. Undervisningen är funktionaliserad och läraren undervisar inte explicit om språkets formaspekter eller om hur texters kommunikativa delar samspelar, utan det är oftast underförstått. Studien öppnar för en diskussion om förskoleklassens möjligheter att skapa läs- och skrivundervisning i balanserade sammanhang, för att stödja elevers läs- och skrivutveckling även när undervisningen har fokus på ämnesområden som teknik.

  • 337.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Meier, Joanna
    Överlämning av information från förskola till förskoleklass gällande elevers skriftspråkliga utveckling2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning om överlämningar mellan olika skolformer har funnit att det är av betydelse för barns kontinuerliga och långsiktiga lärande att mottagande verksamhet tar tillvara de erfarenheter barnet redan erövrat. Detta eftersom lärandet gynnas av att verksamheten fortsätter på samma sätt utan onödiga avbrott. I föreliggande studie undersöks verksamma lärares erfarenheter av överlämning av information från förskola till förskoleklass gällande elevers skriftspråkliga utveckling. Traditioner, bristande samarbete och öppenhet mellan verksamheterna anges hindra samverkan kring överlämnandet. Det överlämnande som görs fokuserar i hög grad barn som ”sticker ut”, det vill säga ligger långt framme eller är sena i sin utveckling. Rädsla för bedömning uppges också vara en orsak till att överlämnandet inte genomförs mera nyanserat. Bristfällig utbildning om både skriftspråksutveckling och kontinuerligt lärande framstår emellertid som den huvudsakliga orsaken till att överlämnande vad gäller barns skriftspråkliga utveckling i det närmaste är obefintligt.

  • 338.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Meier, Joanna
    Frank, Elisabeth
    Linneaus University.
    Information sharing on children’s literacy learning in the transition from Swedish preschool to school2017In: Journal of Research in Childhood Education, ISSN 0256-8543, E-ISSN 2150-2641, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 240-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration and continuity between school types are important factors that favour long-term learning and that need to be given attention in the transition between early childhood school institutions. This study highlights teachers’ experiences of information-sharing during the transition from Swedish preschool to preschool class (i.e., from the daycare to school) with regards to children’s literacy learning. To find out and evaluate the individual child’s development, both the child’s actual and proximal development zone need to be taken into account in the transition. It appears that some preschool teachers wish to share information on children’s literacy learning but that it is mainly about the children’s interest in literacy activities. Also the preschool class teachers’ wishes to know more about the children’s literacy learning are too much on a general level as to be able to provide a  good enough basis for planning literacy activities that fit every individual child. A large part of the outcomes derive from the preschool tradition that has viewed care as being core to its work, and considered learning and achievement as domains associated with compulsory school. This article discusses whether the training of teachers in early childhood education needs stronger focus on literacy learning.

  • 339.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Meier, Joanna
    Frank, Elisabeth
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Transition between Swedish preschool and preschool class: a question about interweaving care and knowledge2016In: Early Childhood Education Journal, ISSN 1082-3301, E-ISSN 1573-1707, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 155-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study highlights teachers’ experiences with transition from Swedish preschool to preschool class, i. e. from the daycare centre to the formal school. One assumption was that transition activities, to favour continuity in the long-term, need to focus on children’s learning within the target areas that the policy documents specify for preschool. Empirical data were collected through a combination of a questionnaire and interviews. The study shows that transition activities occur between institutions. These are in place to allow for a safe transition for children rather than to allow for continuous and long-term learning in the target areas in the curriculum. Care for children and beliefs about the types of school activities have an impact on the activities and standpoints in the transition processes. Professional assessment of children’s learning and the need for greater consensus within various types of schools in terms of the learning of the individual child in different fields are discussed.

  • 340.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Meier, Joanna
    Frank, Elisabeth
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Överlämningar från förskola till förskoleklass2014In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 13, p. 30-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att synliggöra verksamma förskollärares erfarenheter av överlämning från förskola till förskoleklass. Ett antagande var att överlämningen, för att gynna kontinuitet och långsiktighet, behöver fokusera barns lärande inom målområden som styrdokumenten anger för förskolans verksamhet. Empirisk data samlades in genom en kombination av frågeformulärmetod och intervjumetod. 36 förskollärare i förskolan och 38 förskollärare i förskoleklassen besvarade en enkät, medan 4 förskollärare i respektive verksamhet intervjuades. Analysen genomfördes abduktivt genom att studiens teoretiska utgångspunkter och frågeställningar utgjorde grund för teman som identifierades i det empiriska materialet. Studien visar att det genomförs överlämningar mellan verksamheterna. Dessa görs för att ge barnen en trygg övergång snarare än för att gynna kontinuerligt och långsiktigt lärande inom angivna målområden. Omsorg om barnen och föreställningar om skolformernas verksamhet ger avtryck på agerande och ställningstagande i överlämningarna. I artikeln diskuteras professionell bedömning av barns lärande samt behovet av ökad samsyn inom förskola och förskoleklass vad gäller enskilda barns lärande inom olika områden. 

  • 341.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Vinterek, Monika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Tegmark, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Amount of text read at school and the motivation for reading: a large scale study in grade 6 and 92018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on some preliminary results from the project “To read or not to read: A study of reading practices in compulsory school” funded by the Swedish Research Council. The aim of the project is to develop knowledge of existing reading practices and to find out what kind of teaching that promotes such practices in a way that enables students to learn from reading. The decline in students’ reading literacy is something that concerns and worries many European and other Western countries. But surprisingly it is difficult to find large scale studies focusing on how much students read at school. To be a good reader one needs to practice (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003; Campell et al., 2001); it takes more than 5000 hours of reading to achieve a well-functioning reading capacity (Lundberg & Herrlin, 2005). To learn from text one needs to be able to read a longer text (Topping et al., 2007; Merisuo-Storm & Soininen, 2014). Prior research in the field further shows that it is important for students to read different types of texts (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003) and thus develop vocabulary and reading skills in many subjects (see, for example, Biemiller, 2001).The amount of reading, at school or at leisure, correlates positively with reading ability (Anderson et al., 1988; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997; Taylor et al., 990). In our study we therefore are interested in the total amount of coherent and continuous text students read during an average school day in all their subjects, with a particular focus on reading habits in Swedish (L1), English (L2), Chemistry and History. We also want to find out how the amount of reading correlates with the students’ self-assessed motivation for their school-initiated reading activities. In the first part of the project there is a predominantly quantitative focus in which we seek to find out the extent to which students read continuous prose texts – fictional as well as non-fictional – as part of their everyday school work, and how their reading is related to different types of motivation. The second part of the project has a predominantly qualitative focus where a limited number of groups will be selected for a series of closer classroom studies of teachers as well as students through observations, interviews and questionnaires in order to find out what characterizes the reading practices of these schools and classes. This paper will report on some preliminary results from the first part of the project where the following research questions are to be answered:

    • To what extent do students in years 6 and 9 read continuous prose text—fiction as well as nonfiction— as part of their school work?
    • What kind of motivation do students express for reading nonfiction and fiction texts in different school subjects?
    • What is the nature of the relationship between students’ reading motivation and the extent of their reading in school?
    • What differences in the interest of reading and in the reading habits among females and males, between school years 6 and 9, and between schools can be detected?

    The overall framework of the study is the didactic triangle and the meeting between the teacher, the student and the subject matter in terms of meaning making and reading activities that occur in this meeting (Uljens, 1997; Hudson & Meier, 2011; Liberg et.al. 2002.) We also draw on motivation theories that stress the importance of constructing classroom practices that support student reading motivation by fulfilling the basic needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2008; De Naeghel et al, 2014)  

  • 342.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Westlund, Barbro
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Fokusgruppstudie om förskollärares uppfattningar om högläsning som ett redskap för att stödja barns framväxande läsförståelse i förskolan2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Eftersom tidig språkstimulans är av betydelse för den skriftspråkliga utvecklingen kan det anses vara motiverat att förskolans undervisning genomförs medvetet utifrån en språkutvecklande pedagogik. Detta är en utgångspunkt för föreliggande studie, som har som syfte att undersöka verksamma förskollärares förhållningssätt till och uppfattningar om högläsning som verktyg för att stötta barns skriftspråkliga utveckling. Studiens centrala fokus riktas mot följande frågeställning: Hur och för vilket ändamål anger förskollärare att de organiserar högläsning i förskolan?

     

    Teoretiskt ramverk

    Högläsning har en given plats i förskolans verksamhet (Yopp & Yopp, 2006) och möjliggör språkutveckling i en social interaktion. Språkstimulans som ges i funktionella situationer och i en social kontext är gynnsam för barns språkutveckling (Guo et al., 2012). Dooley och Matthews (2009) använder begreppet “emergent comprehension” när de skriver om barns erfarenheter för att utveckla och påverka den framtida läsförståelsen. För att hjälpa barn att utveckla olika läs- och skrivpraktiker (kodknäckning, meningsskapande, textanvändning och kritisk textläsning) behöver läraren planera aktiviteter både utifrån kunskap om lärande och undervisning och kunskap om processer i barns läs- och skrivutveckling (Freebody & Luke, 1990). Särskilt viktig är denna breda kunskapsförankring då enbart miljö och material som stimulerar till skriftspråklig utveckling inte ger optimalt lärande, utan läraren behöver dessutom uppmuntra, instruera och ge respons, vilket implicerar en bred kunskapsbas hos läraren (Guo et al., 2012).

     

    Metodologi/forsningsdesign

    Högläsning av berättelser och faktatext för olika stora barngrupper i 3-4-års ålder i förskolan videofilmades för att användas i fokusgruppssamtal. De filmade lärarna intervjuades efteråt kort om didaktiska frågor om högläsningssituationen. Tre grupper om fem andra förskollärare från olika förskolor i två kommuner deltog i fokusgruppssamtal med fokus på högläsning i förskolan. Fokusgruppssamtalen som leddes av en moderator utgick från videosekvenser i början och slut av högläsning. Dessutom diskuterades i fokusgrupperna utsagor från intervjuerna med de tidigare videofilmade lärarna.

     

    Resultat

    Studiens bidrag till kunskapsområdet utgörs av dess fokus på lärares utsagor om riktade aktiviteter för att stötta barns språkutveckling. Även om informanterna framhåller högläsningens möjligheter som verktyg för språkutveckling, framträder endast undantagsvis att högläsning genomförs som en medveten eller systematisk språkutvecklande undervisning. Högläsning framstår snarare som en i raden av pedagogiska verktyg i förskolans vardag, där omsorgsfaktorn framträder som viktigare än språkutvecklande undervisning.

     

    Relevens för forsningsfältet

    Då förskolan har fått utökat ansvar för barns lärande och utveckling bidrar studien med kunskap för såväl verksamma som blivande förskollärare. 

                                                                                                                                                          

     

    Referenser

    Guo, Y., Justice, L. M., Kaderavek, J. N., & McGinty, A. (2012). The literacy environment of preschool classrooms: contributions to children’s emergent literacy growth. Journal of Research in Reading, 35(3), 308-327.

    Dooley, C. M. & Matthews, M. W. (2009). Emergent comprehension: Understanding comprehension development among young literacy learners. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 9(3), 269-294.

    Freebody, P., & Luke, A. (1990). Literacies programs: Debates and demands in cultural context. Prospect: Australian Journal of TESOL, 5(7), 7-16.

    Yopp, R. H., & Yopp, H. K. (2006). Informational text as read-alouds at school and home. Journal of Literacy Research, 38, 37-51.

     

     

  • 343.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Westlund, Barbro
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Preschool teachers’ perceptions about read-alouds as a means to support children’s early literacy and language development2019In: Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, ISSN 1468-7984, E-ISSN 1741-2919, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined active Swedish preschool teachers’ thoughts and perceptions in terms of read-alouds as a tool to support children’s language and literacy development. The research question was “How and for what purpose do preschool teachers say that they organize read-alouds in preschool?” Three focus group interviews were conducted with five preschool teachers from different preschools in each group. The findings reflect traditions that influence preschool education, and the general picture is that teachers’ personal and practical knowledge informs their daily teaching. The informants try to organize read-alouds but do not always succeed as a result of logistical and practical challenges. Teachers describe external factors, such as large groups and the requirement to teach math and science, as obstacles in the planning and implementing of read-alouds. Teachers that have received in-service training and professional development say that they have daily read-alouds, followed by text talk.  The need for professional development is discussed.

  • 344.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Westlund, Barbro
    Stockholms universitet.
    Strid, Anna
    Nacka kommun, Elevhälsan.
    Förskollärares uppfattningar om högläsningens potential som skriftspråksutvecklande pedagogik2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att läsning i olika genrer och sagoberättande anses vara ett av de bästa redskapen för att stärka barns språkliga utveckling (Svensson, 2005). Man har sett att förskollärare ofta läser främst för att skapa lugn och ro och att ha en trevlig stund tillsammans (t.ex. Eskebaek, Basse & Sehestad, 2008).

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka förskollärares uppfattningar om vad som är god pedagogik i samband med högläsning och vad man grundar sina uppfattningar på. Följande forskningsfrågor är centrala: Vilka pedagogiska möjligheter beskriver lärare gällande högläsning? Vilka argument används för att underbygga egna uppfattningar om god pedagogik i samband med högläsning? Med vilken medvetenhet talar förskollärare om barns (skrift)språkliga utveckling?

    Studien genomförs med fokusgruppmetod. Studiens fokus är lärarnas samtal med varandra om olika aktiviteter i förskolverksamheten. Tre fokusgrupper med fem förskollärare i varje genomfördes. Fokusgrupperna samtalade utifrån filmavsnitt från högläsning samt korta intervjuer om högläsarens val av bok och lässtrategier.

    Samtalsanalysen bygger på riktlinjer som gäller för hur man arbetar med fokusgrupper (t.ex. Wibeck, 2000). I analysen söks efter underliggande teman enligt Bernard och Ryans (2003) modell för kvalitativ analys. Tre analysenheter används: individnivå, gruppnivå och jämförd gruppnivå. För att urskilja graden av olika metaspråk i samtalen används Naeslunds (1997) analysmodell i tre steg (oreflekterat vardagsspråk, facktermer, metaspråk med förklaringsmodeller och utredande resonemang).

    Mycket preliminära resultat indikerar följande:

    • Högläsning är ett viktigt redskap för organisering av vardagen
    • Högläsning har minskat eftersom mycket annat ska få plats i verksamheten
    • Lärarens intresse är avgörande för om det läses och för kvaliteten i läshändelsen
    • Högläsning ses som särskilt viktigt för andraspråkslärande
    • Högläsning av faktatext är inte vanligt förekommande i alla förskolor
    • Mysfaktor, pedagogiskt redskap och temaarbete framkommer som läsningens syften
    • Det är inte självklart att högläsning ses som en pedagogik för språkutveckling

     

     

     

  • 345.
    Alayan, Sophia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Design of a PV-Diesel Hybrid System with Unreliable Grid Connection in Lebanon2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study on integration of photovoltaic generators into an existing diesel-unreliable grid connected system at the Lebanese village of Khiam. The main goal of implementing PV-diesel hybrid system is to reduce diesel consumption and the import of fossil fuel used in electricity power supply. Before designing the system, it is necessary to create a load profile for 120 households and pre-design the size of the PV generator, the capacity of storage system and inverter type/size selection. The load profile data is based on the average of monthly energy consumption gathered from Khiam village households.

    Detailed simulations and financial analysis are performed with HOMER to compare different systems and their viability. The simulations include four different designs starting from the existing system, diesel generator with unreliable grid, followed by PV generator and unreliable grid, PV and diesel generator and ended with the complete hybrid system. Once the Hybrid system is determined a detailed design is done to optimize the lowest cost PV-diesel hybrid system. The final simulated PV-diesel hybrid system is suggested with a PV capacity of 270 kWp, existing diesel capacity with 200 kVA, an inverter output of 115 kW and battery bank nominal capacity is 1872 kWh. The system renewable fraction is 53% and the project life cycle is 25 years. The PV-diesel hybrid system is projected to produce electricity at a cost of 0.12 USD/kWh. This cost is significantly lower than the 0.26 USD/kWh paid to the diesel operator, as well as lower than 0.13 USD/kWh paid to the utility grid.

    In addition, and according to the given information from the owner, an estimated diesel consumption of 104000 ltr/year, the simulation result shows diesel consumption at 40000 ltr/year. The reduced carbon dioxide production by 65%, from 776 to 272 tons per year, provides further justification for the PV installation in a commercial PV-diesel hybrid system.

  • 346. Albaric, Michael
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Drueck, Harald
    Gagnepain, B.
    Kuhness, G.
    Letz, T.
    Mette, B.
    Thür, A.
    Nielsen, J.E.
    Papillon, P.
    Solar CombiSystems Promotion and Standardisation (COMBISOL project)2008In: Eurosun 2008, Lisbon, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar combisystems (SCS) are solar heating installations providing space heating as well as domestic hot water in buildings. Within a global solar thermal energy strategy, SCS are a key element to decrease the fossil energy demand for heating in existing and new buildings. This project will help to reduce the use of fossil fuels and hence also the emission of greenhouse gases. During 3 years December 2007 – December 2010), experts from research, testing institutes and industry will work in the aim to encourage an accelerated deployment of SCS market – hence a higher share of heat produced by solar energy - and promote an improved quality of the installed systems.

  • 347.
    Albatrok, Husam
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Våningspåbyggnad i trä på befintligt betong bostadshus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the years 1965–1975, the politicians chose to start a large housing development, which resulted in a million homes being built in 10 years. It was called Miljonprogrammet. Tjärna Ängar is an area located in Borlänge where some of those building took place. The area has 1,179 apartments in 3-storey slab houses and the Tjärna Angar area is divided into three different blocks: Kornstigen, Klövern and Plogstigen. These are built next to Tjärna center, with good bus connections to the rest of Borlänge.

    The purpose of this work was to produce a storey building for an existing slab of concrete. the reference building is at Kornstigen 25.

    With the help of Drawings, the existing building will be studied. Information search will be done on the subject regarding floor buildings and the history of the million program and construction. Walls and ceilings will be developed and an extension for the lift. Finally, a model is made in a Cad-programe that illustrates the result.

    The result of the storey building was a wooden walkway with a total of 10 apartments. Two corner apartments became three rooms and the kitchen while the rest became two rooms and kitchens in varying surfaces. Storey building wood is a good way to be able to build on the heigt, but many aspects considered and be and checked before a storey buildig takes place.

  • 348.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Ryden-Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lunds universitet.
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Improved tracking performance of lagrangian block-matching methodologies using block expansion in the time domain: in silico, phantom and in vivo evaluations2014In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2508-2520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean - 48%, p<0.005 [in silico]; mean - 43%, p<0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean - 19%, p<0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. 

  • 349.
    Aldea, Silvia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    A comparative study of approaches to audiovisual translation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For those who are not new to the world of Japanese animation, known mainly as anime, the debate of "dub vs. sub" is by no means anything out of the ordinary, but rather a very heated argument amongst fans. The study will focus on the differences in the US English version between the two approaches of translating audio-visual media, namely subtitling (official subtitles and fanmade subtitles) and dubbing, in a qualitative context. More precisely, which of the two approaches can store the most information from the same audiovisual segment, in order to satisfy the needs of the anime audience. In order to draw substantial conclusions, the analysis will be conducted on a corpus of 1 episode from the first season of the popular mid-nineties TV animated series, Sailor Moon. The main objective of this research is to analyze the three versions and compare the findings to what anime fans expect each of them to provide, in terms of how culture specific terms are handled, how accurate the translation is, localization, censorship, and omission. As for the fans’ opinions, the study will include a survey regarding the personal preference of fans when it comes to choosing between the official subtitled version, the fanmade subtitles and the dubbed version.

  • 350.
    Aldén, Joakim
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Hedging Rule Discussions: A study on hedging and emoticons in an online board game discussion forum2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday language, people tend to speak in a non-committing fashion when making claims, either to save their own face or to save another person’s face. In linguistics, this is called hedging, with common words and expressions such as probably, assume and I don’t know often revealing that a hedging speech act has been performed. In computer-mediated communication, Skovholt et al. (2014) discovered that emoticons, rather than signaling the sender’s emotions, were used to hedge. This study aims to further investigate the matter by looking at how users on a board game forum hedge when speaking about board games’ complexity with the research question “do more complex games involve more hedge usage on the board game forum Boardgamegeek?” as the point of departure. Data was taken from forum posts tagged with rules. The results showed that complexity barely increases the likelihood of hedging, with a slight edge given to simpler games.

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