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  • 301.
    Neplokh, Vassili
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Sexscener med filmmusik av kvinnliga kompositörer: En undersökning av filmmusik i sexscener i fyra moderna västerländska filmer, där USA är ett av produktionsländerna2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete analyseras filmmusiken, skriven av kvinnliga kompositörer, som spelas i sexscener i fyra moderna spelfilmer där USA är ett av produktionsländerna. Vassili Neplokhs analysmetod består av fem musikaliska parametrar. Författaren sammanställer även forskning som berör ämnet inom bland annat musikpsykologi och utökar en redan fungerande metod med fler parametrar som grundar sig i musikpsykologi. Avslutningsvis jämförs studiens resultat med resultat av en tidigare utförd undersökning av manliga kompositörers filmmusik i sexscener.

  • 302.
    Newstam, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Widlert, Annika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Visuell identitet åt Café Forsnäs – ett arbetsintegrerande socialt företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This survey is conducted in collaboration with Café Forsnäs. The purpose of the

    survey was to find out how the visual identity of Café Forsnäs work integration

    social enterprise should look to convey their value and vision, humanity.

    The study starts with a semi-structured interview with Café Forsnäs for a deeper

    insight into the company's value and vision. A visual observation was performed

    with the purpose of gaining an overview of how other work integration social

    enterprises choose to profile themselves. A semi-structured interview was

    conducted with an already established company with social goals with the

    purpose of finding out how other social enterprises look at their visual identity.

    A further semi-structured interview was conducted with employees in a

    company with social goals. The purpose was to find out if the visual expression

    of a company was a decisive factor in the search for an internship or workplace.

    A survey was conducted with the aim of exploring how Café Forsnäs vision was

    best served: a charitable, organic café in the country. Based on the survey,

    design work began in close cooperation with the client.

    From the survey it has been found that companies with social goals usually do

    not prioritize their visual identity. It also emerged that it is very important for a

    work integration social enterprise to appear structured and serious towards

    authorities and partners. Research shows that a clear visual identity contributes

    to a serious impression and the conclusion that can be drawn is that a work

    integration social enterprise should therefore have a visual identity that clearly

    communicates the company's vision.

    The visual identity was created on the basis of the visual sentiment of the

    questionnaire and on the basis of discussions with the client.

  • 303.
    Niklasson, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Zizak, Filip
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Teknikens påverkan på filmfotografens yrkesroll: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om filmfotografens kreativa arbetsprocess2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen undersöker hur filmfotografens yrkesroll och kreativitet påverkas av valet

    av teknik. Trots att det snart gått 20 år sedan digitala kameror började användas i

    filmproduktioner används än idag analoga kameror i stor utsträckning. Kameran är

    fotografens viktigaste verktyg och den här uppsatsen belyser skillnader i arbetsprocessen med

    analog och digital film samt hur detta påverkar filmfotografens kreativa process. Vi har

    genomfört kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra filmfotografer som har arbetat med både analog och

    digital film och med hjälp av dessa genomfört en diskursanalys. Resultatet visar att det finns

    skillnader i arbetet med analog och digital teknik. Det finns dock lika mycket för- som

    nackdelar med de båda teknikerna och de lämpar sig bäst i olika typer av produktioner. Det

    går inte att säga att fotografen kan vara mer eller mindre kreativ beroende på vilken teknik

    som används. Teknikvalet påverkar fotografen främst i det tekniska arbetet men

    nödvändigtvis inte i den kreativa processen.

  • 304.
    Nilsson, Beatrice
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Digitala verktyg och läsmotivation: Hur digitala verktyg används i högstadiet för att stimulera elevernas vilja att läsa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 305.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Dialekter och röstigenkänning: Ett röstigenkännings-API:s förmåga att uppfatta svenska dialekters kännetecken och röstkombinationer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the development of applications and systems progress so does the ways in which we interact with the application or system. So far, the navigation and usage of applications and systems have been made by hand, through keyboard and a mouse. Recently navigation through touch-screens and voice has been more common. When you are going to navigate the application with your voice, it´s crucial that anyone can navigate the application despite their dialect. To be able to see how a voice recognition API (Application Programming Interface) understands Swedish dialects a study on the characteristics on Swedish dialects were made. These characteristics and combinations of sound were the foundation to the words used for testing the API. Each dialect got a specific word that were supposed to be difficult for the API to understand when the word was pronounced by the actual dialect. A prototype of an android application was developed as a tool for data generation. This thesis contains a prototype and a research and therefore the strategy used for this thesis is Design & Creation Research, with document studies and observation as data generation methods to achieve the desired result. The data were collected through observations with the prototype as a tool and also through studies of documents. Our empirical data that has been registered through the observations and with the help of the application proved that some dialects were easier to understand correctly by the API. In some cases the results were expected because some words were made of combinations of sounds according to the theory that were going to be pronounced in a special way from a certain dialect. Some of the results were low on these certain words but in some other cases the results were surprisingly high. The conclusion we drew from this was that the words we chose with the intention of making it hard for the API to understand only proved to be working on two separate occasions. It was the word containing the combination of the sounds "sje" and "tje" that had common characteristics to all dialects, according to the theory, that got the lowest result.

  • 306.
    Nilsson, Linnea
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Varför ser vi på tv-serier?: En kvalitativ undersökning om publikens känslor, motiv och relationer som uppstår2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vad publiken känner när de ser på tv-serier och vad som motiverar publiken till att följa dem. Tillgången till tv-serier har ökat under de senaste åren på grund av internets utveckling och i takt med detta har också konsumtionen ökat. För att undersöka vad publiken har för känslor för de tv-serier de följer har kvalitativa intervjuer utförts med fem informanter som flitigt ser på tv-serier. Materialet har analyserats utifrån teorier om reception av film- och tv-tittande. Resultatet visade på att tv-serier får publiken att känna en samhörighet, eller en vänskap, till karaktärerna i sina tv-serier, det får dem att reflektera över sin tillvaro, fly verkligheten och samtidigt får tv-serier publiken att må bra. Dessa resultat kan vara motiv till varför publiken fortsätter att se på tv-serier, avsnitt efter avsnitt.

  • 307.
    Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Norberg, Patrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Automatisering av test av legacysystem: Utmaningar och faktorer att beakta2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems are used by most organisations today and are critical to the business. Many organisations got one or more legacy systems which have been used for a long period of time. Failures and disruption in these systems can lead to great consequences and it is important to test the systems to avoid them. Manual testing requires much resources. To automate the tests are a possibility and our partner in this study, Stora Enso Skog, wanted to look into the possibilities.The purpose of this study is to describe what challenges you meet when automating tests for legacy systems. The purpose is also to describe what factors you need to consider when implementing test automation. To do this we have used a case study and gathered data through interviews and study of documents. The interviews have been conducted with experienced experts within the testing area.Our conclusions shows that there are a number of challenges to consider when automating tests for legacy systems. The challenges include problems trying to automate some sort of tests for legacy systems due to the code being unstructured and not prepared for tests. There’s also a risk of spending too much resources in automating the tests instead of improving the systems.A number of factors to consider when implementing automated tests for legacy systems have also been found. Examples given are that automating tests can never fully compensate for a bad architecture and design. Focus should also be on the most important tests and start automating small parts. Also to improve the possibility to test in legacy systems instead of just adopting the testing tool to the system is to be considered.Finally we have noted that there are different types and levels of legacy systems and because of that challenges and factors to consider when automating tests may vary. Many challenges and factors presented in this study also applies to systems not considered legacy.

  • 308.
    Niskanen,, Tom
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Nyström, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ensidesapplikationers kodkvalitet och förvaltningsbarhet: En jämförelse av förvaltningsbarhet hos single-page applications utvecklade med AngularJS och React2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Single-page applications have historically been subject to strong market forces driving fast development and deployment in lieu of quality control and changeable code, which are important factors for maintainability. In this report we develop two functionally equivalent applications using AngularJS and React and compare their maintainability as defined by ISO/IEC 9126. AngularJS and React represent two distinct approaches to web development, with AngularJS being a general framework providing rich base functionality and React a small specialized library for efficient view rendering. The quality comparison was accomplished by calculating Maintainability Index for each application. Version control analysis was used to determine quality indicators during development and subsequent maintenance where new functionality was added in two steps.

    The results show no major differences in maintainability in the initial applications. As more functionality is added the Maintainability Index decreases faster in the AngularJS application, indicating a steeper increase in complexity compared to the React application. Source code analysis reveals that changes in data flow requires significantly larger modifications of the AngularJS application due to its inherent architecture for data flow. We conclude that frameworks are useful when they facilitate development of known requirements but less so when applications and systems grow in size.

    Sammanfattning: Ensidesapplikationer har historiskt sett påverkats av starka marknadskrafter som pådriver snabba utvecklingscykler och leveranser. Detta medför att kvalitetskontroll och förändringsbar kod, som är viktiga faktorer för förvaltningsbarhet, blir lidande. I denna rapport utvecklar vi två funktionellt ekvi-valenta ensidesapplikationer med AngularJS och React samt jämför dessa applikationers förvaltningsbarhet enligt ISO/IEC 9126. AngularJS och React representerar två distinkta angreppsätt på webbutveckling, där AngularJS är ett ramverk med mycket färdig funktionalitet och React ett mindre bibliotek specialiserat på vyrendering. Kvalitetsjämförelsen utfördes genom att beräkna förvaltningsbarhetsindex för respektive applikation. Versionshanteringsanalys användes för att bestämma andra kvalitetsindikatorer efter den initiala utvecklingen samt två efterföljande underhållsarbeten.

    Resultaten visar inga markanta skillnader i förvaltningsbarhet för de initiala applikationerna. I takt med att mer funktionalitet lades till sjönk förvaltnings-barhetsindex snabbare för AngularJS-applikationen, vilket motsvarar en kraftigare ökning i komplexitet jämfört med React-applikationen. Versionshanteringsanalys visar att ändringar i dataflödet kräver större modifikationer för AngularJS-applikationen på grund av dess förbestämda arkitektur. Utifrån detta drar vi slutsatsen att ramverk är användbara när de understödjer utvecklingen mot kända krav men att deras nytta blir begränsad ju mer en applikation växer i storlek.

  • 309.
    Niskanen, Tom
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Nyström, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ensidesapplikationers kodkvalitet och förvaltningsbarhet: En jämförelse av förvaltningsbarhet hos single-page applications utvecklade med AngularJS och React2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Single-page applications have historically been subject to strong market forces driving fast development and deployment in lieu of quality control and changeable code, which are important factors for maintainability. In this report we develop two functionally equivalent applications using AngularJS and React and compare their maintainability as defined by ISO/IEC 9126. AngularJS and React represent two distinct approaches to web development, with AngularJS being a general framework providing rich base functionality and React a small specialized library for efficient view rendering. The quality comparison was accomplished by calculating Maintainability Index for each application. Version control analysis was used to determine quality indicators during development and subsequent maintenance where new functionality was added in two steps.

     

    The results show no major differences in maintainability in the initial applications. As more functionality is added the Maintainability Index decreases faster in the AngularJS application, indicating a steeper increase in complexity compared to the React application. Source code analysis reveals that changes in data flow requires significantly larger modifications of the AngularJS application due to its inherent architecture for data flow. We conclude that frameworks are useful when they facilitate development of known requirements but less so when applications and systems grow in size.

  • 310.
    Nordlund, Rick
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utvärdering av PC-baserade kassasystem för mindre företag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem that many businesses inevitably face is the issue of choosing which Point of Sale system to use. The choice could lead to increased expenses, especially for a smaller company. This study attacks the problem together with the help of the SIV method (“Standardized systems in businesses”, translated from Swedish) in order to select a few of the most suitable Point of Sale systems on the market and then compare these systems to the demands and needs of the affiliate for the study, in order to reach a conclusion on which of these systems suits the affiliate the most. The aim of this study has been to evaluate Point of Sale systems suitable for smaller companies and then assess the credibility of the method used with the help of the meta method SIMM. In this case, the result was one single system out of four final candidates (out of a total of 976 candidates). The final system that was chosen as a winner was EasyCashier.

  • 311.
    Nordström, Ernst
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Carlström, Jakob
    Communication networks: a new reward model for MDP state aggregation with application to CAC and routing2005In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 495-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal solution of the call admission control and routing problem in multi-service loss networks, in terms of average reward per time unit, is possible by modeling the network behavior as a Markov decision process (MDP). However, even after applying the standard link independence assumption, the solution of the corresponding set of link problems may involve considerable numerical computation. In this paper, we study an approximate MDP framework on the link level, where vector-valued MDP states are mapped into a set of aggregate scalar MDP states corresponding to link occupancies. In particular, we propose a new model of the expected reward for admitting a call on the network. Compared to Krishnan's and Hübner's method [11], our reward model more accurately reflects the bandwidth occupancy by different call categories. The exact and approximate link MDP frameworks are compared by simulations, and the results show that the proposed link reward model significantly improves the performance of Krishnan's and Hübner's method.

  • 312.
    Nordström, Ernst
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dziong, Zbigniew
    CAC and routing for multi-service networks with blocked wide-band calls delayed, part I: exact link MDP framework2006In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the call admission control (CAC) and routing issue in multi-service networks. Two categories of calls are considered: a narrow-band (NB) with blocked calls cleared and a wide-band (WB) with blocked calls delayed. The objective function is formulated as reward maximisation with penalty for delay. The optimisation is subject to quality of service (QoS) constraints and, possibly, grade of service (GoS) constraints. A suboptimal solution is achieved by applying Markov decision process (MDP) theory together with a two-level approximation. First, the network is decomposed into a set of links assumed to have independent Markov and reward processes respectively. Second, the dimensions of the link Markov and reward processes are reduced by aggregation of the call classes into call categories. The CAC and routing policy is computed by the policy iteration algorithm from MDP theory. The numerical results show that the proposed CAC and routing method, based on the exact link MDP framework, is able to find an efficient trade-off between reward loss and average call set-up delay, outperforming conventional methods such as the least loaded routing (LLR).

  • 313.
    Nordström, Ernst
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dziong, Zbigniew
    CAC and routing for multi-service networks with blocked wide-band calls delayed, Part II: approximative link MDP framework2007In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 13-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the call admission control (CAC) and routing issue in multi-service networks. Two categories of calls are considered: a narrow-band with blocked calls cleared and a wide-band with blocked calls delayed. The optimisation is subject to several quality of service (QoS) constraints, either on the packet or call level. The objective function is formulated as reward maximisation with penalty for delay. A suboptimal solution is achieved by applying Markov decision process (MDP) theory together with a three-level approximation. First, the network is decomposed into a set of links assumed to have independent Markov and reward processes respectively. Second, the dimensions of the link Markov and reward processes are reduced by aggregation of the call classes into call categories. Third, by applying decomposition of the link Markov process, the link MDP tasks are simplified considerably. The CAC and routing policy is computed by the policy iteration algorithm from MDP theory. The numerical results show that the proposed CAC and routing method, based on the approximate link MDP framework, is able to find an efficient trade-off between reward loss and average call set-up delay, outperforming conventional methods such as least loaded routing (LLR).

  • 314.
    Norin, Christine
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Var är brudarna?: En litteraturstudie om kvinnor i musikproduktionsutbildningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då det kvinnliga deltagandet på musikproduktionsutbildningar på högskole- och universitetsnivå idag är väldigt lågt, trots att det inte finns några formella hinder för dem att delta i dessa utbildningar, ville jag undersöka varför det ser ut som det gör. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka kunskapsläget inom genus och musikproduktion på högskole- och universitetsnivå.

    Metoden som använts för att kunna besvara dessa frågor är en systematisk litteraturstudie, vilket innebär att tidigare publicerad litteratur och forskning letats upp, granskats och analyserats. Litteratursökningarna visade på knapphändig och spretig forskning inom området och därför breddades sökningarna till att inkludera separata beståndsdelar inom musikproduktion som till exempel teknik och komposition.

    Resultaten visade på hur gamla föreställningar om vad som är kvinnligt respektive manligt fortfarande finns kvar och reproduceras, omedvetet eller inte. Detta visar sig bland annat i lärarens kontakt med elever och hur män och kvinnors kunskaper värderas olika. Man har också sett att det råder en form at maskulin hegemoni inom området, där det är männen som har makten att avgöra vad som är bra eller inte. Detta i kombination med att många kvinnor upplever ett sämre självförtroende än män och att de ofta känner sig alienerade från gruppen gör att kvinnor har svårt att tilldelas status, vilket i sin tur leder till ett osynliggörande i offentligheten och spär på bilden av musikproduktion som ett område där det är männen som dominerar.

  • 315.
    Norman Uhlin, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Olsson, Mirjami
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Testverktyg för test av mobila applikationer: En jämförande fallstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile applications has grown dramatically in recent years and they interact with many systems. Therefore the requirement on the quality is higher and the application must often be adapted to many devices, operating systems and platforms. This means the testing of mobile applications becomes more and more important. This study has been conducted as a comparative case study in the field testing of mobile applications and testing tools. The aim has been to describe how the testing of mobile applications takes place today which have been made through literature studies and interviews with IT-companies. Another aim was to evaluate four testing tools, their advantages and disadvantages and how they can be used in the testing of mobile applications and compared to manual testing without testing tools. This was done by using and experience the testing tools. During the study, we have used mobile applications that we got access from Triona, who has been our partner.Today there are many different testing tools that can be used to support testing, but few companies have implemented these because it requires both time and expertise as well as the selection of testing tools can be difficult. Testing tools have different advantages and disadvantages which make them fit differently depending on the type of project and application. Advantages of using testing tools is the ability to automate, test on multiple devices simultaneously and get access to physical devices via the cloud. The challenges are that it can be difficult to install and learn the testing tool and that the licenses can be expensive. It is therefore important that even before implementation to know which tests and applications the testing tools will be used in and who will use it. Based on our study we can conclude that no testing tools are complete but they may contribute with different features which streamlines parts of the mobile applications testing.

  • 316.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Changing to a Biometric Access System: and Its Effect on the Work Environment2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 317.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    A machine learning approach for recognising woody plants on railway trackbeds2016In: International Conference on Railway Engineering (ICRE 2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work in progress study was to test the concept of recognising plants using images acquired by image sensors in a controlled noise-free environment. The presence of vegetation on railway trackbeds and embankments presents potential problems. Woody plants (e.g. Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) often establish themselves on railway trackbeds. This may cause problems because legal herbicides are not effective in controlling them; this is particularly the case for conifers. Thus, if maintenance administrators knew the spatial position of plants along the railway system, it may be feasible to mechanically harvest them. Primary data were collected outdoors comprising around 700 leaves and conifer seedlings from 11 species. These were then photographed in a laboratory environment. In order to classify the species in the acquired image set, a machine learning approach known as Bag-of-Features (BoF) was chosen. Irrespective of the chosen type of feature extraction and classifier, the ability to classify a previously unseen plant correctly was greater than 85%. The maintenance planning of vegetation control could be improved if plants were recognised and localised. It may be feasible to mechanically harvest them (in particular, woody plants). In addition, listed endangered species growing on the trackbeds can be avoided. Both cases are likely to reduce the amount of herbicides, which often is in the interest of public opinion. Bearing in mind that natural objects like plants are often more heterogeneous within their own class rather than outside it, the results do indeed present a stable classification performance, which is a sound prerequisite in order to later take the next step to include a natural background. Where relevant, species can also be listed under the Endangered Species Act.

  • 318.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Edinburgh Napier University.
    Automating condition monitoring of vegetation on railway trackbeds and embankments2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation growing on railway trackbeds and embankments present potential problems. The presence of vegetation threatens the safety of personnel inspecting the railway infrastructure. In addition vegetation growth clogs the ballast and results in inadequate track drainage which in turn could lead to the collapse of the railway embankment.

    Assessing vegetation within the realm of railway maintenance is mainly carried out manually by making visual inspections along the track. This is done either on-site or by watching videos recorded by maintenance vehicles mainly operated by the national railway administrative body.

    A need for the automated detection and characterisation of vegetation on railways (a subset of vegetation control/management) has been identified in collaboration with local railway maintenance subcontractors and Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration (STA). The latter is responsible for long-term planning of the transport system for all types of traffic, as well as for the building, operation and maintenance of public roads and railways.

    The purpose of this research project was to investigate how vegetation can be measured and quantified by human raters and how machine vision can automate the same process.

    Data were acquired at railway trackbeds and embankments during field measurement experiments. All field data (such as images) in this thesis work was acquired on operational, lightly trafficked railway tracks, mostly trafficked by goods trains. Data were also generated by letting (human) raters conduct visual estimates of plant cover and/or count the number of plants, either on-site or in-house by making visual estimates of the images acquired from the field experiments. Later, the degree of reliability of(human) raters’ visual estimates were investigated and compared against machine vision algorithms.

    The overall results of the investigations involving human raters showed inconsistency in their estimates, and are therefore unreliable. As a result of the exploration of machine vision, computational methods and algorithms enabling automatic detection and characterisation of vegetation along railways were developed. The results achieved in the current work have shown that the use of image data for detecting vegetation is indeed possible and that such results could form the base for decisions regarding vegetation control. The performance of the machine vision algorithm which quantifies the vegetation cover was able to process 98% of the im-age data. Investigations of classifying plants from images were conducted in in order to recognise the specie. The classification rate accuracy was 95%.Objective measurements such as the ones proposed in thesis offers easy access to the measurements to all the involved parties and makes the subcontracting process easier i.e., both the subcontractors and the national railway administration are given the same reference framework concerning vegetation before signing a contract, which can then be crosschecked post maintenance.A very important issue which comes with an increasing ability to recognise species is the maintenance of biological diversity. Biological diversity along the trackbeds and embankments can be mapped, and maintained, through better and robust monitoring procedures. Continuously monitoring the state of vegetation along railways is highly recommended in order to identify a need for maintenance actions, and in addition to keep track of biodiversity. The computational methods or algorithms developed form the foundation of an automatic inspection system capable of objectively supporting manual inspections, or replacing manual inspections.

  • 319.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering. Edinburgh Napier University.
    Gupta, Narendra K.
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Machine vision for condition monitoring vegetation on railway embankments2015In: 6th IET Conference on Railway Condition Monitoring (RCM 2014), The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) , 2015, p. 3.2.1-3.2.1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National Railway Administrations in Northern Europe do not employ systematic procedures in monitoring the current state of vegetation to form the basis of maintenance decision making. Current day vegetation maintenance is largely based on human visual estimates. This paper investigates a machine vision (MV) approach to be able to automatically quantify the amount of vegetation on a given railway section. An investigation assessing the reliability of human estimates is also conducted along the same railway section.A machine vision algorithm was developed and implemented. Initially, the algorithm determines a region of interest (ROI), i.e. the desired monitored area in each collected image. This ROI is dependent on fixed objects in the image, namely the two rails. When the rails are found the algorithm will compute the ROI, which is predetermined by e.g. the railway administrator. After this, a perspective projection correction will be made, and the vegetation will be segmented. Cover is reported as a percentage of the total ROI for each image. Results: The machine vision algorithm is capable of processing 98% of the images. Failure in the remaining 2% of cases is attributed to the algorithms' inability in find the rails within the image. Analysis of variance tests were conducted to compare the observers cover assessments in sample plots. Upon comparing the observers plot wise mean estimates with the machine vision output, results show that the human visual estimates do not correlate with the results reported by the machine vision output. As such, the result indicates that it is very hard to fit human estimates by regression with the machine vision result. Additionally the results show that humans are not in agreement with each other, and often are exaggerating the extent of vegetation cover compared to the machine vision output.The investigation shows that one should be very careful when trusting/interpreting human visual estimates. In conclusion, based on the results, the automated machine vision solution is proposed as complementing, or replacing, manual human inspections serving as a base for vegetation control decisions. Impact: By objectively measuring the quantity of vegetation, the maintenance planning and procurement can be effectively improved over time. A machine vision approach for condition monitoring of vegetation will enable condition based maintenance with prior consideration on issues mainly relevant to vegetation type, quantity and biodiversity.

  • 320.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering. School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, EH10 5DT Edinburgh, UK.
    Gupta, Narendra K.
    School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, EH10 5DT Edinburgh, UK.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Monitoring vegetation on railway embankments: supporting maintenance decisions2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, 2013, p. 1-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The national railway administrations in Scandinavia, Germany, and Austria mainly resort to manual inspections to control vegetation growth along railway embankments. Manually inspecting railways is slow and time consuming. A more worrying aspect concerns the fact that human observers are often unable to estimate the true cover of vegetation on railway embankments. Further human observers often tend to disagree with each other when more than one observer is engaged for inspection. Lack of proper techniques to identify the true cover of vegetation even result in the excess usage of herbicides; seriously harming the environment and threating the ecology. Hence work in this study has investigated aspects relevant to human variationand agreement to be able to report better inspection routines. This was studied by mainly carrying out two separate yet relevant investigations.First, thirteen observers were separately asked to estimate the vegetation cover in nine imagesacquired (in nadir view) over the railway tracks. All such estimates were compared relatively and an analysis of variance resulted in a significant difference on the observers’ cover estimates (p<0.05). Bearing in difference between the observers, a second follow-up field-study on the railway tracks was initiated and properly investigated. Two railway segments (strata) representingdifferent levels of vegetationwere carefully selected. Five sample plots (each covering an area of one-by-one meter) were randomizedfrom each stratumalong the rails from the aforementioned segments and ten images were acquired in nadir view. Further three observers (with knowledge in the railway maintenance domain) were separately asked to estimate the plant cover by visually examining theplots. Again an analysis of variance resulted in a significant difference on the observers’ cover estimates (p<0.05) confirming the result from the first investigation.The differences in observations are compared against a computer vision algorithm which detects the "true" cover of vegetation in a given image. The true cover is defined as the amount of greenish pixels in each image as detected by the computer vision algorithm. Results achieved through comparison strongly indicate that inconsistency is prevalent among the estimates reported by the observers. Hence, an automated approach reporting the use of computer vision is suggested, thus transferring the manual inspections into objective monitored inspections

  • 321.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Gupta, Narendra K.
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Inter-rater reliability in determining the types of vegetation on railway trackbeds2015In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Wang, J., Cellary, W., Wang, D., Wang, H., Chen, S.-C., Li, T., Zhang, Y., Springer, 2015, Vol. 9419, p. 379-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation growing on railway trackbeds and embankments can present several potential problems. Consequently, such vegetation iscontrolled through various maintenance procedures. In order to investigate the extent of maintenance needed, one of the first steps in anymaintenance procedure is to monitor or inspect the railway section in question. Monitoring is often carried out manually by sending out inspectorsor by watching recorded video clips of the section in question.To facilitate maintenance planning, the ability to assess the extent of vegetation becomes important. This paper investigates the reliability ofhuman assessments of vegetation on railway trackbeds.In this study, five maintenance engineers made independent visual estimates of vegetation cover and counted the number of plant clusters fromimages.The test results showed an inconsistency between the raters when it came to visually estimating plant cover and counting plant clusters. The resultsshowed that caution should be exercised when interpreting individual raters’ assessments of vegetation.

  • 322.
    Nyberg Åslund, Tim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Abdilahi Khalif, Hassan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Hur Borlänge kommun kan öppna sina data2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how Borlänge municipality can initiate their work with open data. To open data means that the organisation has in the past kept their datasets closed from public, the point with the project is to publicize datasets to encourage opportunities and innovation in society.Since 2016 Riksarkivet has had a mission to make sure that Swedish governmental bodies have opened a dataset of some type, this mission will finish at the end of 2018. The mission itself has originated from an EU directive and been fitted to Swedish law.This study has collected data and experiences from other municipalities but also from stakeholders and an expert in open data. The study has also collected information online, such as guides, frameworks and processes. All of the collected data served as a foundation for the startplan we composed for Borlänge municipality.

  • 323.
    Nygårds, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Hur ska en bra sångmikrofon låta?: En studie om hur vana och ovana lyssnare upplever och beskriver bra/dåligt mikrofonljud med en manlig sångare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att utreda skillnader och likheter mellan vad vana

    musiklyssnare (ljudstudenter) och ovana musiklyssnare (fritidslyssnare) lyssnar efter

    när de hör en sånginspelning. Syftet är även att utreda hur dessa faktiskt tycker att en

    sångmikrofon bör låta för att låta bra.

    Metoden jag valde att använda mig av var ett blint lyssningstest där jag med hjälp av

    fyra olika mikrofoner spelade in två olika sångstilar vilka sedan användes som grund för

    utredning. Testpersonerna fick lyssna på dessa inspelningar och sedermera beskriva vad

    de tyckte lät bra respektive dåligt med de olika mikrofonernas inspelningar.

    Då lyssningstestet var blint visste inte deltagarna om vilken mikrofon som var vilken,

    utan fick enbart beteckningarna ”Clean 1” till ”Clean 4” för första sångstilen och

    ”Distorsion 1” till ”Distorsion 4” för den andra sångstilen. Efter att testet väl utförts och

    alla resultat sammanställts visade det på en relativt liten skillnad i vad de två olika

    grupperna tyckte om mikrofonerna. Dock framgick det att de flesta gick på ”tydlighet”

    eller ”klarhet” som ett viktigt rekvisit när de lyssnade på mikrofonernas ljudåtergivning.

    Även ifall det i de olika kategorierna av sångstilar alltid fanns en mikrofon som var

    omtyckt mest av flest personer fanns det alltid avstickare från den gruppen.

  • 324.
    Nyholm, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Röd: arg eller glad?: En kvalitativ analys av färgen som narrativ förstärkning.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad betyder färg för oss människor och blir vi påverkade känslomässigt utav färg? Är

    det så att man blir påverkad på ett sätt om man går in i ett blått rum och på ett annat sätt

    om man går in i ett rött rum? Är det då så att man kan förstärka sinnelag eller

    egenskaper med hjälp av färger i film?

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om det finns någon betydelse i färgläggningen i

    Disneyfilmer. Jag har plockat ut tre karaktärer i tre olika filmer för att se om det finns

    något mönster i färgläggningen och karaktärernas egenskaper. Finns det en narrativ

    funktion i färgläggningen av karaktärerna.

  • 325.
    Odd, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Vinylens två världar: Unga människors relation till vinylen i den digitala eran2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vinylen har lyckats överleva trots att både CD:n och det digitala formatet gett oss nya och lättare sätt att lyssna på musiken. Vinylen tilltalar personer i yngre åldrar som inte växte upp med vinylen som det vardagliga formatet. Det tydligaste resultat som kommit att visa sig i undersökning för denna uppsats är att vinyler fortfarande upplevs tilltalande av intervjupersonerna, även om det digitala formatet fortfarande används dagligen. Intervjupersonerna tilltalas av olika aspekter av vinylen som gör det värt att gå och köpa en skiva, även om vi lever i en tid där vi näst intill har obegränsad tillgång till musik digitalt. Vinylen lockar personer på olika sätt när det kommer till användningen av skivorna och på samma sätt när det kommer till det materiella och det estetiska. Detta är dock inte tillräckligt för att personerna ska ändra sina lyssningsvanor och byta format från det digitala till analogt. För det är fortfarande det digitala formatet som används mest av intervjupersonerna.

  • 326.
    Odh, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Den nya predikstolen: En studie om kristen film på Youtube2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är öka kunskapen om vad kristen film på Youtube kan betyda för dem som tar del

    av denna, utifrån frågeställningen: Vilka hyllande respektive kritiska reaktioner ger personer uttryck

    för då de tar del av kristen film på Youtube? För att besvara detta har tolv olika responser som ger

    uttryck för en stark reaktion till tre kristna filmer på Youtube valts ut och analyserats med en

    hermeneutisk metod utifrån teori om dimensioner av filmengagemang samt rörelsen mellan

    narrativet, intra-text, till dess betydelse för det verkliga livet, extra-text. Responserna består av en

    videorespons och elva kommentarer, där vissa har resulterat i fortsatta konversationer. Denna

    respons är gjord av personer med olika livsåskådningar. Resultatet ger en bild av hur personer kan

    reagera på dessa filmer. För vissa tycks filmupplevelserna få positiva konsekvenser inom områden

    av deras liv, medan andra blir starkt provocerade av filmerna och uttrycker kritik mot bland annat

    kristna.

  • 327.
    Ograhn, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Wande, August
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Automatiserade regressionstester avseende arbetsflöden och behörigheter i ProjectWise.: En fallstudie om ProjectWise på Trafikverket2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing is done in order to see whether the system meets specified requirements and to find bugs. It is an important part of system development and involves, among other things, regression testing. Regression tests are performed to ensure that a change in the system does not affect other parts of the system adversely.

    Document management systems often deals with sensitive data for organizations, which place high demands on safety. Permissions in the system has to be tested thoroughly to ensure that data does not fall into the wrong hands. Document management systems make it possible for organizations to pool their resources and knowledge together to achieve common goals. Common work processes are supported through workflows that contains a variety of states. These different permissions apply to different states. When a permission changes regression tests are required to ensure that the changes has not made an impact on other permissions.

    This study was conducted as a qualitative case study whose purpose was to describe the challenges of regression testing of roles and permissions in document workflows in a document management system. Through interviews and an observation it emerged that the major challenges of these tests is that workflow states follow a predetermined sequence. To complete this sequence, a huge amount of permissions must be tested. This provides a very extensive test work that is time consuming and costly.

    The study was directed toward the document management system ProjectWise, managed by Trafikverket. Supporting documentation for decision making was produced for a technical

    solution for automated regression testing of roles and permissions in workflows for ProjectWise. Based on a requirement gathering decision-making was provided that involved the Team Foundation Server (TFS), Coded UI and a keyword-driven test method for a technical solution. Finally, a comparison was made of differences in the technical solution versus today's manual testing. Based on literature, document studies and first hand experiences, test automation provides differences in a number of problem areas, including time and cost.

  • 328.
    Olofsson, Robin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Gestaltande klipprytm: En undersökning av klipprytmens gestaltande bidrag i filmen Låt den rätte komma in.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har klipprytmens komponenter bildernas längd, ordningsföljd, klipphastighet,

    rörelsemängd och rörelseförändring, analyserats i två sekvenser från Låt den rätte komma in. Dessa

    komponenter får, beroende på hur de används, en koreografisk funktion mot bildernas komposition.

    Undersökningen syftar till att se hur klipprytmen ter sig gestaltande av filmens rollkaraktärer.

    Analysen visar på att klipprytmen i de valda sekvenserna fungerat gestaltande. Detta genom

    betoningar i ordningsföljden av bilder och hur bildernas längd och rörelsemängd skapar intryck och

    förväntningar. Klipprytmen skapar tolkningsvärden kring karaktärernas rörelser, deras intentioner

    och avsikter. Rimligtvis reflekteras det olika beroende på vem som tolkar, men just främjandet av

    tolkning och reflektion är grunden till klipprytmens gestaltande bidrag.

  • 329.
    Olsson, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Att ge musik tid: Kreativitet och motivation ur musikers perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie är att bidra med kunskap om åldersrelaterad

    motivation, kreativitet och målorientering från musikers perspektiv. Resultatet är

    användbart för forskning inom ljud- och musikproduktion samt för musiker,

    kompositörer och liknande kreativa yrkesinriktningar. De övergripande

    forskningsfrågorna är: hur beskriver yngre och äldre utövande musiker sin musikaliska

    motivation?; när upplever de sig vara mest kreativ? Urvalet har delats upp i två

    kategorier, yngre och äldre. Sex intervjuer har genomförts med tre respondenter i

    respektive ålderskategori. Analysprocessen består av sammankopplingar mellan

    respondenternas svar och tre teorier: målorienteringsteorin, flow-teorin samt

    behovshierarkin.

    Studiens resultat påvisar ingen tydlig skillnad mellan yngre och äldre musikers

    uttalade motivation. Skillnad finns i hur de beskriver uppkomsten av kreativitet. De

    yngre menar att de är som mest kreativa när de har tid avsatt för ändamålet; ofta på

    ledig tid under lugna omständigheter. De äldre beskriver istället att kreativitet uppstår

    när de skapar förutsättningar för detta; ofta när de har mycket att göra. Förslag till

    vidare forskning är således förståelse kring åldersrelaterade skillnader i individers

    upplevda kreativitet. Fortsatt förslag gäller musikers anseende i Sverige i förhållande till

    andra länder.

  • 330.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Det svenska musikundret, tack vare eller trots grundskolans musikundervisning?: En studie av skolmusikens möjliga betydelse för professionell framgång2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att bidra med nya kunskaper gällande musikundervisningen i

    grundskolan, sett utifrån personer som arbetar med musik på heltid och som är

    verksamma inom musikbranschen. Studien syftar även utifrån resultatet kunna bidra till

    ny kunskap om vilken roll musikundervisningen i grundskolan kan ha haft för de

    svenska framgångarna inom musikexport. Studien är av kvalitativ form då resultatet

    utgörs av sex intervjuer med respondenter som är väl insatta i musikbranschen.

    Resultatet visar att respondenterna tillsammans med tidigare studier som gjorts inom

    ämnet, är överens om att låta elevernas egna intressen inom musik ligga till grund för

    hur undervisningen utformas och genomförs. Med detta menas att eleverna själva får ett

    större inflytande på den undervisning de tar del av. Resultatet visar även hur musiken

    som fanns under respondenternas uppväxt, idag påverkar respondenternas musikaliska

    sätt att uttrycka sig. Det är något som kan förklara den svenska musikexportens

    framgång. Vidare finns det samband mellan de framgångar den svenska musikexporten

    har och den musik som upplevs under barns uppväxt.

  • 331.
    Olsson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Android file browsing: Comparing file explorer features andforensic artefacts2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work was to determine what kind of traces of user activity is left by the most popular filemanagers available on Android. This was determined by investigating their functionality, deciding onappropriate data and actions to test them and then go through them one app at a time, saving the state of filescreated by the app in-between different actions.Investigating the files that were generated by apps showed that there is a wide variety of traces depending onwhich app it was and what features it had. Some apps focus on device information while others are moreaimed at the files themselves, some even cataloguing all of the files, their sizes and location on the device.Many of them save thumbnails of pictures the user has viewed, which are kept even when that picture itselfis deleted.Not all information used in the app features was able to be gathered since the exact location they are storedwas not determined before the end of the work. However the information that was gathered was enough tostate that there is potential value in including this kind of application during a forensics investigation.

  • 332.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Parking Occupancy Detection Using Thermal Camera2019In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems - Volume 1: VEHITS, 2019, p. 483-490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle is a daunting task during peak hours. The search for a parking space leads to congestion and increased air pollution. Information of a vacant parking space would facilitate to reduce congestion and subsequent air pollution. This paper aims to identify parking occupancy in an open parking lot which consists of free parking spaces using a thermal camera. A thermal camera is capable of detecting vehicles in any weather and light conditions based on emitted heat and it can also be installed in public places with less restrictions. However, a thermal camera is expensive compared to a colour camera. A thermal camera can detect vehicles based on the emitted heat without any illumination. Vehicles appear bright or dark based on heat emitted by the vehicles. In order to identify vehicles, pre-trained vehicle detection algorithms, Histogram of Oriented Gradient detectors, Faster Regional Convolutional Neural Network (FRCNN) and modified Faster RCNN deep learning networks were implemented in this paper. The detection rates of the detectors reduced with diminishing of heat in the vehicles. Modified Faster RCNN deep learning network produced better detection results compared to other detectors. However, the detection rates can further be improved with larger and diverse training dataset.

  • 333.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Deep learning-based vehicle occupancy detection in an open parking lot using thermal camera2019In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking vehicle is a daunting task and a common problem in many cities around the globe. The search for parking space leads to congestion, frustration and increased air pollution. Information of a vacant parking space would facilitate to reduce congestion and subsequent air pollution. Therefore, aim of the paper is to acquire vehicle occupancy in an open parking lot using deep learning. Thermal camera was used to collect the data during varying environmental conditions such as; sunny, dusk, dawn, dark and snowy conditions. Vehicle detection with deep learning was implemented where image classification and object localization were performed for multi object detection. The dataset consists of 527 images which were manually labelled as there were no pre-labelled thermal images available. Multiple deep learning networks such as Yolo, ReNet18, ResNet50 and GoogleNet with varying layers and architectures were evaluated on vehicle detection. Yolo, GoogleNet and ResNet18 are computationally efficient detectors which took less processing time while Resnet50 produced better detection results compared to other detectors. However, ResNet18 also produced minimal miss rates and is suitable for real time vehicle detection. The detected results were compared with a template of parking spaces and IoU value is used to identify vehicle occupancy information.

  • 334.
    Paulsson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Sazesh, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Att presentera en antagonist: En undersökning av konventionen om höga och låga kameravinklar vid presentationen av en antagonist2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En konvention inom filmbranschen är att grod-, fågel- eller normalperspektiv kan användas för att skapa olika maktperspektiv på karaktärer i filmer. Filmens motståndskaraktär, antagonisten bör generellt vara stark och mäktig något som kan förstärkas med hjälp av grodperspektivet. Denna undersökning vill ta reda på hur de olika kameraperspektiven används vid introduktionen av kända antagonister från American Film Institutes lista över de "50 bästa filmskurkarna genom tiderna".

    Denna uppsatsundersökning utgår från vetenskapliga teorier om vad ett grod-, fågel- och normalperspektiv är för att genom en kvantitativ metod ta reda på hur kameraperspektiven används vid introduktionen av framgångsrikt genomförda antagonister.

    I resultatet visas att en majoritet av bilderna är grodperspektiv. Uppsatsen innehåller även diskussion om olika sätt att använda konventionen. I detta avsnitt diskuteras även problematiken med att bedöma kameraperspektiv utifrån rådande vetenskap vilket pekar på ett behov av att utveckla begreppen.

  • 335.
    Persson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Spöklig studie av Ringu och The Ring: Identifierande av kulturella konventioner i filmernasljudläggning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om att undersöka kulturella konventioner i båda filmatiseringarna av Koji Suzukis novell The Ring. Den går igenom den tidigare forskning och kunskap över ämnet filmljud och filmmusik. Teorierna av Bruner (2002) och Säljö (2005) som jag har valt kommer inspirera min undersökning. Valet av att göra en gruppintervju som metod för att införskaffa empiriskt material. Vi får även inblick i några av de kulturella konventioner som deltagarna lyckades uppfatta under undersökningen. Ett par av de konventioner som respondenterna upptäckte om filmmusik och användandet av tystnad. Till sist en diskussionsdel om resultaten och vad som gick bra. I diskussionen står det även om delar som kan utvecklas till framtida undersökningar inom ämnet skräckfilm

  • 336.
    Persson, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Hur ser vi musik?: En undersökning kring förmågan att kunna se musik2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks musikupplevelser hos personer mellan 20-30 år. Populationen

    består av två olika grupper där den ena gruppen innefattar musikstudenter på Högskolan

    Dalarna och den andra gruppen består av människor som inte studerar musik på

    högskola. Denna studie har undersökt hur det är möjligt att visualisera musik samt om

    det är någon skillnad mellan musikstudenter och personer som inte studerat musik på

    högskola. Genom en kvantitativ metod har insamlingen av data skett med hjälp av

    webbenkät. Resultaten visar att informanterna kan visualisera musik men att det inte är

    någon skillnad mellan musikstudenter på högskolan och personer som inte studerar

    musik.

  • 337.
    Persson-Halvarsson, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Enhancement of Communication in EU Collaboration Project with Enterprise Modeling: A case study on the Interreg project ecoINSIDE 22019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ecoINSIDE2 is an EU financed collaborative project between Sweden and Norway that focus on environment friendly driven business development. In the summer 2018 ecoINSIDE started their second project period. They have a well-established plan for external communication and when they hold face-to-face meetings the communication and collaboration work well. However, the internal, digital communication does not work on a satisfying level. So, to change the current situation this research uses Enterprise Modeling to map out, analyze and find ways to improve the internal communication. The research focuses on three questions:  Question 1. What difficulties/challenges arise in communication and interaction within a cross-border collaboration project?  Question 2. How can Enterprise modeling be used to develop/improve communication and interaction in complex collaborations?  Question 3. What aspects need to be considered in the start-up of similar projects to create the best possible conditions for communication and interaction? By using document studies, questionnaires and seven interviews, the goals, problems and the structure of the project have been identified. With the help of these models eight solutions was created to address 18 communication problems identified. Out from these eight solutions a set of recommendations has been created that would benefit ecoINSIDE2 and if they are implemented, they could solve many of the problems by chain reactions in the problem-structure. In this report, the three research questions have been answered with the help of the problem model, the solutions and how well the models could contribute to the work of empowerment of the communication. This research also aims at providing valuable insight to new projects as how they can avoid the problems that have occurred in the project ecoINSIDE2.

  • 338.
    Petersson, Örjan
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Ligger det tidskrifter i dödens väntrum?: En fallstudie om skandinavisk tidskriftindustris beredskap för att strategiskt möta en digitalt publicerad marknad.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet

    med

    denna

    studie

    är

    att

    undersöka

    i

    vilken

    utsträckning

    tidskriftindustrin

    i

    Skandinavien

    har

    strategisk

    beredskap

    och

    kunskaper

    för

    att

    möta

    en

    digitalt

    publicerad

    samtid

    och

    framtid.

    Studien

    är

    genomförd

    i

    form

    av

    två

    kvalitativa

    fallstudier

    från

    förlagsindustrin.

    Undersökningens

    teoretiska

    ramverk

    bygger

    Rogers

    (1995)

    diffusionsteori

    samt

    Andersons

    (2007)

    long

    tail

    theory.

    Undersökningens

    resultat

    visar

    att

    tidskriftindustrin

    står

    tröskeln

    till

    en

    femte

    utvecklingsfas,

    den

    digitala

    divergensfasen,

    och

    att

    de

    skandinaviska

    förlagen

    till

    stor

    utsträckning

    saknar

    strategier

    för

    att

    möta

    nya

    förändrade,

    teknikdrivna,

    läsarvanor.

    Inom

    de

    områden

    som

    strategibristerna

    visade

    sig

    vara

    störst

    i

    är;

    förändringsbenägenhet

    inom

    de

    egna

    organisationerna,

    affärsmodeller

    för

    digitalt

    distribuerade

    produkter

    samt

    kunskaper

    för,

    med

    audio

    och

    video,

    utökat

    multimodalt

    gestaltande.

  • 339.
    Pettersson, Christoffer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Sökmotoroptimering för alternativa sökmetoder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Search engine optimization is today something that can boost a site's placement in search results on a search engine. What we are seeking information on today has evolved tremendously in recent years with the rise in popularity in the use of apps on mobile devices. There are now a number of applications that have different types of search methods. These may differ to some extent compared with the traditional search method of searching via computer in Internet search engines. I have done research on search engine optimization and its various methods and alternative search engines from apps. This is to find out which parts of the search engine that are relevant to the search engine optimization of alternative search methods.

  • 340.
    Pettersson, Denise
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Ljussättning ur filmfotografens perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I uppsatsen utreds filmfotografens yrkesroll och riktar främst in sig på fotografens arbete med ljussättning, samt vilka faktorer som kan påverka filmfotografen och ljusteamets arbete. Information och kunskap har främst inhämtats från litteratur om ljussättning för video och film, och från intervjuer med filmfotografer. Det uppsatsen har kommit fram till är att fotografen har en ledarroll, vilket gör att fotografen har ett stort ansvarar under produktionen. Däribland har fotografen huvudansvaret för ljussättningen. När det kommer till ljussättning är det viktigaste att den bidrar till de känslor som scenen och filmen ska förmedla. Det är även viktigt att ljussätta så att det upplevs realistiskt snarare än att det ska vara konstnärliga och estetiska bilder.

  • 341.
    Pettersson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Stenback, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Att överföra geospatiala data från en relationsdatabas till densemantiska webben2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Semantiska webben är ett begrepp som handlar om att göra data tillgängligt på ett sätt som gör att datorer kan söka, tolka och sätta data i ett sammanhang. Då mycket av datalagring idag sker i relationsdatabaser behövs nya sätt att omvandla och lagra data för att det ska vara tillgängligt för den semantiska webben.Forskning som genomförts har visat att transformering av data från relationsdatabaser till RDF som är det format som gör data sökbart på semantiska webben är möjlig men det finns idag ingen standardisering för hur detta ska ske.För att data som transformeras ska få rätt betydelse i RDF så krävs ontologier som beskriver olika begrepps relationer. Nationella vägdatabasen (NVDB) är en relationsdatabas som hantera geospatiala data som används i olika geografiska informationssystem (GIS). För samarbetspartnern Triona var det intressant att beskriva hur denna typ av data kan omvandlas för att passa den semantiska webben.Syftet var att analysera hur man överför geospatiala data från en relationsdatabas till den semantiska webben. Målet med studien var att skapa en modell för hur man överför geospatiala data till i en relationsdatabas till en RDF-lagring och hur man skapar en ontologi som passar för NVDB’s data och datastruktur.En fallstudie genomfördes med dokumentstudier utifrån en inledande litteraturstudie.En ontologi skapades för det specifika fallet och utifrån detta skapades en modell för hur man överför geospatiala data från NVDB till RDF via programvaran TripleGeo. Analysen har skett genom att transformerad data har analyserats med hjälp av befintlig teori om RDF och dess struktur och sedan jämföra och se så att data får rätt betydelse. Resultatet har också validerats genom att använda W3C’s tjänst för att validera RDF.Resultatet visar hur man transformerar data från en relationsdatabas med geospatiala data till RDF samt hur en ontologi för detta skapats. Resultatet visar också en modell som beskriver hur detta utförs och kan ses som ett försök till att generalisera och standardisera en metod för att överföra geospatiala data till RDF.

  • 342.
    Pettersson, Kim
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Android Messaging Investigator: Forensic text analysis tool for SMS, Kik and Hangouts conversations2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing usage of smartphones and text messaging through SMS and instant messaging applications, comes an increased need to be able to effectively analyze textual content in a forensic manner. Many of the common forensic applications relies on simple key word searching and regular expressions to find potential evidence in smartphones.

    In this report a forensic analysis application for Android SMS, Kik and Hangouts conversations named Android Messaging Investigator (AMINV) is proposed.

    The application aims to make the forensic analysis more effective by providing the forensic investigator with sentiment analysis technology. A message written with a negative mood might contain threats or harassments that may be of interest during a forensic investigation.

    Visualization is offered to make it possible for the forensic investigator to gain an extensive visual overview over conversation and sentiment data. Common forensic software features as being able to create forensic cases, search and filter data, save evidence, validate input data through hash-sums and generating forensic reports are also provided.

    The report covers the whole software implementation process. The final results are the developed forensic application, performance measurements of the sentiment analysis tool, a general performance analysis and an extensive stress-test.

  • 343.
    Pettersson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Detektering av långsam portskanning i realtidssystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report I describe my investigation of a method for slow port scanning detec-tion in a real-time analysis system. Port scanning is used as a reconnaissance technique used by perpetrators in the IT world. It is used to form an idea of any vulnerabilities that may exist in a network. Slow port scanning is used to try to bypass detection systems and thus able to per-form a scan without being detected. Slow port scanning detection may be resource-intensive for the computer memory since a large buffer is traditionally established to analyze network traffic over a longer period of time. There are also solutions that analyze netflow data, which provides less information and is unable to detect port scanning in real time. I have created a detection system where I investigate the possibility of using data-base in order to detect slow port scanning. The method is part of a system that ana-lyzes real-time packages. The result is a program is capable of doing just that. It detects regular port scan attacks in real time and slow attacks through presentation of the database.

  • 344.
    Pettersson, Tom
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Bulai, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Passive MVC och MVVM designmönster i Android: En jämförelse av kodkomplexitet mellan Passive MVC och MVVM2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the mobile operating system Android has a firm grip on the mobile market due to its open source code and the availability due to the variety of phones available, from very cheap models to the high-end exclusive ones. However, Android currently has no defined design pattern which causes a bit of a problem during the initial stages of development because the developer has to make that decision before the initial development starts. This sometimes causes excessive complexity in the finished application, which then becomes difficult to test and manage.

    In this report we compare the two design patterns Passive Model View Controller (PMVC) and Model View View-Model (MVVM) to decide which one is the least complex. For this we used so called metrics to show the complexity of the finished applications. The metrics were calculated using the existing library of functions called Cyclomatic Complexity Numbers (CCN). The study is based on the workflow Design & creation and aim to contribute with: knowledge that will make it easier to choose design pattern when developing an Android application, and if you can with CCN point out which areas in an application will take more or less time to conduct tests on.

    During the study we also analyzed how big of an impact the Single Responsibility Principle (SRP) had on the complexity. This was part of the study so that we could see the difference of separated views versus non-separated views.

    The study shows us that the complexity in small applications is very similar, no matter which design pattern you're using. However, it also shows that there are certain parts of the applications that are diverse in their complexity and that code complexity on method-level can give directions to test cases.

  • 345.
    Prahl, Jens
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Polaritetsvändning?: En hypotetisk framtida behandling av objektiv tinnitus.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is centered around the hypothetical idea that objective tinnitus can be canceled out

    with the properties of sound. This idea springs from the waveform of the sinustones. With a

    microphone in the earcanal recording the objective tinnitus and with a loudspeaker in the

    earcanal playing the reversedpolarity tinnitus. Due to that objective tinnitus is a rare form of

    tinnitus this essay does not include an experiment with this idea. The essay is centered around

    an interview with a technical audiolog with 37 years of experience in tinnitus and other

    hearing related difficulties. The essay also includes three of the most common theories of

    what tinnius is and why it manifest itself. A breef summary of different treatments of tinnitus

    is also covered.

  • 346.
    Praméus, Klas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    Tondövhet i allmänhet: En studie om hur personer som via test anses som tondöva upplever och uppskattar musik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning syftar till att bidra till en ökad förståelse kring hur personer som upplevs vara tondöva uppfattar och upplever musik. Webbenkät med tillhörande test och semistrukturerad forskningsintervju har använts som metod. Den inledande webbenkäten innehöll två olika tester utvecklade av radiologen Jake Mandell på Harvard Medical School i Boston. Den ena testen undersöker testpersonens förmåga att uppfatta olikheter i tonskillnader. Den andra kallas för "Tone Deafness test" och spelar upp två melodier som antingen är identiska eller innehåller vissa tonskillnader, därefter ska testpersonen avgöra om det var samma melodi som spelades eller inte. Efter bedömning av insamlat resultat kallades tre personer till intervju. Analysen av resultatet visade att den sociokulturella uppväxten skiljer sig hos respondenterna, vilket har påverkat deras relation till musik. Svaren från intervjuerna visar också att även om respondenterna inte lyssnar helt till musiken så kopplar de till den emotionellt. Ofta relateras musiken till minnen där de för första gången hörde låten eller när någon person de står nära spelat upp den. En av respondenterna svarade att, trots faktumet att hon inte förstår musik, så kan klassisk orkestral musik ge upphov till tårar.

  • 347.
    Predoianu, Christian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utvärdering av tillgängligheten i samarbetsprojektet RIGES: Utvärdering av Örnsköldsviks kommuns eTjänst för bygglov2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A digitized community development automatically leads to the development of adaptation to as many categories of users as possible. Accessibility and guidelines for these therefore play an important role in the development of different eServices.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate how accessibility is available to the end user group in the eService for the construction permit at municipality of Örnsköldsvik which the cooperation project RIGES has developed, if the eService for the construction permit complies with the accessibility criteria WCAG 2.0, level AA and possibly level AAA and what needs to be done to achieve accessibility.

    The data collection has been done to then be analyzed by a user test where five users could navigate around the eService of the construction permit. The user test has been complemented with an online accessibility test (PTS web tool) as well as description and navigation of the eService of the construction permit using screenshots. An Interview with Örnsköldsviks representative for RIGES has also been made. The combination of these methods has been linked to the theoretical part, which has resulted in a broad understanding of how accessibility for the eService looks like.

    The survey of the eService for the construction permit showed that the test subjects’ experience of the eService was positive. This was due to the fact that most test subjects did not experience any major problems during use. The investigation also showed that the result of the accessibility test was represented as a high percentage score. However, there are examples indicating that the eService does not comply with all criteria for accessibility at the recommended minimum level AA. Following the proposed improvements, the eService for the construction permit has great potential for achieving a very high level of accessibility, as the eService adheres to accessibility criteria to a large extent even at the higher AAA level.

  • 348.
    Prochazka, Jiri
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Zerin, Sonia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Modeling Hospital Readmissions in Dalarna County, Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unplanned hospital readmissions increase health and medical care costs and indicate lower the lower quality of the healthcare services. Hence, predicting patients at risk to be readmitted is of interest. Using administrative data of patients being treated in the medical centers and hospitals in the Dalarna County, Sweden, during 2008 – 2016 two risk prediction models of hospital readmission are built. The first model relies on the logistic regression (LR) approach, predicts correctly 2,648 out of 3,392 observed readmission in the test dataset, reaching a c-statistics of 0.69. The second model is built using random forests (RF) algorithm; correctly predicts 2,183 readmission (out of 3,366) and 13,198 non-readmission events (out of 18,982). The discriminating ability of the best performing RF model (c-statistic 0.60) is comparable to that of the logistic model. Although the discriminating ability of both LR and RF risk prediction models is relatively modest, still these models are capable to identify patients running high risk of hospital readmission. These patients can then be targeted with specific interventions, in order to prevent the readmission, improve patients’ quality of life and reduce health and medical care costs.

  • 349.
    Qvarnström, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Harry Potter och Hemligheterna bakom adaptionen: En semiotisk analys om hur Harry Potter som karaktär översatts från bok till film i ”Hemligheternas Kammare”2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur Harry Potter som karaktär

    framställs i boken Harry Potter och Hemligheternas Kammare i jämförelse med

    filmadaptionen med samma namn. Genom en semiotisk analys på två nivåer

    granskas karaktären för att se på vilka sätt karaktären Harry Potters personliga

    egenskaper och tankar har översatts och ändrats i förflyttningen från bok till film. I

    slutdiskussionen visas att Harry Potter har förändrats något i adaptionen, men hans

    personlighet framställs i slutändan mycket som densamma. Att karaktären innehar

    samma personlighet och påvisar samma egenskaper är viktigt för att adaptionen

    ska fungera och gör att själva berättelsen i adaptionen inte måste vara fullt trogen

    till originalet för att ge samma bild.

  • 350.
    Radhi, Yasser
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Att adaptera svartsjuka: En komparativ analys av hur subtext påverkats i adaptionen av romanen Dream Story till filmen Eyes Wide Shut 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Subtext är en sanning gömd under ytan, som avslöjar en handling eller ords sanna mening. Hur kan en adaptionsprocess påverka subtexten då en bok tolkas om till film? Syftet med denna uppsats är att applicera en komparativ adaptionsanalys för att svara på frågan kring hur subtexten i en bok påverkas av att adapteras till film. Två kapitel och dess respektive filmscener analyseras därmed för att därefter peka ut dess subtext, detta från boken Dream Story och dess filmatisering Eyes Wide Shut. Skillnaderna i hur subtexten förmedlats pekas sedan ut i resultatet, där slutsatser kring adaptionsprocessen av subtext görs. Subtexten analyseras med hjälp av Linda Segers bok Writing Subtext: What Lies Beneath, vilket understöds med Thomas Denks teorier kring komparativa analyser i Komparativ metod – förståelse genom jämförelse. Resultatet har då pekat på att subtexten påverkats av att gå från en litterär till visuell tolkning, där mediespecifika detaljer påverkat berättandet. Dock har samma subtext i stor grad framförts i filmen, det har endast handlat om mediespecifika tolkningar.

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