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  • 351.
    Wiksell, Peter
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ryberg, Alexander
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Utveckling av webbaserad kompetenshanterings-prototyp som grund för bemanning av projekt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, more organizations are dependent on the competence of their employees. Previous studies have shown that one can use IT systems to support competence management. There are several problems with the systems. One of them is to update the competence, if it isn’t updated the competence becomes less and less useful to the organization. Another problem with implementing a competence management system is to design a competency framework. The purpose of this study is to highlight the problems associated with the development of competence management systems. The research strategy used is Design and Creation and the development model used is prototyping. The prototype was evaluated by demonstrations for end users. The essay knowledge contribution is to show how a system for competence management can be built to address the problems above.

  • 352. Yan, Su-Rong
    et al.
    Zheng, Xiao-Lin
    Wang, Yan
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Zhang, Wen-Yu
    A graph-based comprehensive reputation model: exploiting the social context of opinions to enhance trust in social commerce2015In: Information Sciences, ISSN 0020-0255, E-ISSN 1872-6291, Vol. 318, p. 51-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social commerce is a promising new paradigm of e-commerce. Given the open and dynamic nature of social media infrastructure, the governance structures of social commerce are usually realized through reputation mechanisms. However, the existing approaches to the prediction of trust in future interactions are based on personal observations and/or publicly shared information in social commerce application. As a result, the indications are unreliable and biased because of limited first-hand information and stake-holder manipulation for personal strategic interests. Methods that extract trust values from social links among users can improve the performance of reputation mechanisms. Nonetheless, these links may not always be available and are typically sparse in social commerce, especially for new users. Thus, this study proposes a new graph-based comprehensive reputation model to build trust by fully exploiting the social context of opinions based on the activities and relationship networks of opinion contributors. The proposed model incorporates the behavioral activities and social relationship reputations of users to combat the scarcity of first-hand information and identifies a set of critical trust factors to mitigate the subjectivity of opinions and the dynamics of behaviors. Furthermore, we enhance the model by developing a novel deception filtering approach to discard "bad-mouthing" opinions and by exploiting a personalized direct distrust (risk) metric to identify malicious providers. Experimental results show that the proposed reputation model can outperform other trust and reputation models in most cases. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 353.
    Yella, Siril
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Assessing the quality and reliability of visual estimates in determining plant cover on railway embankments2016In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2016: 17th International Conference, Shanghai, China, November 8-10, 2016, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Wojciech Cellary, Mohamed F. Mokbel, Jianmin Wang, Hua Wang, Rui Zhou, Yanchun Zhang, 2016, Vol. 10042, p. 404-410Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated the quality and reliability of manual assessments on railway embankments within the domain of railway maintenance. Manually inspecting vegetation on railway embankments is slow and time consuming. Maintenance personnel also require extensive knowledge of the plant species, ecology and bio-diversity to be able to recommend appropriate maintenance action. The overall objective of the study is to investigate the reliable nature of manual inspection routines in favour an automatic approach. Visual estimates of plant cover reported by domain experts’ have been studied on two separate railway sections in Sweden. The first study investigated visual estimates using aerial foliar cover (AFC) and sub-plot frequency (SF) methods to assess the plant cover on a railway section in Oxberg, Alvdalsbanan, Sweden. The second study investigated visual estimates using aerial canopy cover method on a railway section outside Vetlanda, Sweden. Visual estimates of the domain experts were recorded and analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) tests on the mean estimates were investigated to see whether if there were disagreements between the raters’. ICC(2, 1) was used to study the differences between the estimates. Results achieved in this work indicate statistically significant differences in the mean estimates of cover (p < 0.05) reported by the domain experts on both the occasions.

  • 354.
    Yella, Siril
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Nyberg, Roger G
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Gupta, Narendra K.
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Reliability of manual assessments in determining the types of vegetation on railway tracks2015In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Wang, J., Cellary, W., Wang, D., Wang, H., Chen, S.-C., Li, T., Zhang, Y., Springer, 2015, Vol. 9149, p. 391-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current day vegetation assessments within railway maintenance are (to a large extent) carried out manually. This study has investigated the reliability of such manual assessments by taking three non-domain experts into account. Thirty-five track images under different conditions were acquired for the purpose. For each image, the raters’ were asked to estimate the cover of woody plants, herbs and grass separately (in %) using methods such as aerial canopy cover, aerial foliar cover and sub-plot frequency. Visual estimates of raters’ were recorded and analysis-of-variance tests on the mean cover estimates were investigated to see whether if there were disagreements between the raters’.  In tra-correl ation coefficient was used to study the differences between the estimates. Results achieved in this work revealed that seven out of the nine analysis-of-variance tests conducted in this study have demonstrated significant difference in the mean estimates of cover (p < 0.05).

  • 355. Yu, Z.
    et al.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Zheng, X.
    Chen, D.
    Combining trust propagation and topic-level user interest expansion in recommender systems2016In: International Journal of Web Services Research, ISSN 1545-7362, E-ISSN 1546-5004, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of E-commerce and Internet, items are becoming more and more, which brings a so called information overload problem that it is hard for users to find the items they would be interested in. Recommender systems emerge to response to this problem through discovering user interest based on their rating information automatically. But the rating information is usually sparse compared to all the possible ratings between users and items. Therefore, it is hard to find out user interest, which is the most important part in recommender systems. In this paper, we propose a recommendation method TT-Rec that employs trust propagation and topic-level user interest expansion to predict user interest. TT-Rec uses a reputation-based method to weight users' influence on other users when propagating trust. TT-Rec also considers discovering user interest by expanding user interest in topic level. In the evaluation, we use three metrics MAE, Coverage and F1 to evaluate TT-Rec through comparative experiments. The experiment results show that TT-Rec recommendation method has a good performance. 

  • 356.
    Yu, Zukun
    et al.
    Zhejiang University.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Zheng, Xiaolin
    Zhejiang University.
    Chen, Deren
    Zhejiang University.
    A Recommender System Model Combining Trust with Topic Maps2013In: World Wide Web: Internet and Web Information Systems: APWeb 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recommender Systems (RS) aim to suggest users with items that they might like based on users' opinion on items. In practice, information about the users' opinion on items is usually sparse compared to the vast information about users and items. Therefore it is hard to analyze and justify users' favorites, particularly those of cold start users. In this paper, we propose a trust model based on the user trust network, which is composed of the trust relationships among users. We also introduce the widely used conceptual model Topic Map, with which we try to classify items into topics for Recommender analysis. We novelly combine trust relations among users with Topic Maps to resolve the sparsity problem and cold start problem. The evaluation shows our model and method can achieve a good recommendation effect.

  • 357. Zhang, S.
    et al.
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Ding, M.
    Hu, P.
    A multi-semantic classification model of reviews based on directed weighted graph2016In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2016: 17th International Conference, Shanghai, China, November 8-10, 2016, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Wojciech Cellary, Mohamed F. Mokbel, Jianmin Wang, Hua Wang, Rui Zhou, Yanchun Zhang, 2016, Vol. 10042, p. 424-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic and sentimental analysis plays an important role in natural language processing, especially in textual analysis, and has a wide range of applications in web information processing and management. This paper intends to present a sentimental analysis framework based on the directed weighted graph method, which is used for semantic classification of the textual comments, i.e. user reviews, collected from the e-commerce websites. The directed weighted graph defines a formal semantics lexical as a semantic body, denoted to be a node in the graph. The directed links in the graph, representing the relationships between the nodes, are used to connect nodes to each other with their weights. Then a directed weighted graph is constructed with semantic nodes and their interrelationships relations. The experimental results show that the method proposed in the paper can classify the semantics into different classification based on the computation of the path lengths with a threshold. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  • 358.
    Zhang, Sheng
    et al.
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China.;Dalarna Univ, Business Intelligence & Informat, Borlange, Sweden..
    Liu, Xiaodong
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Bao, Xiaoling
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Multilayer and multi-agent data fusion in WSN2015In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2014 Workshops: 15th International Workshops IWCSN 2014, Org2 2014, PCS 2014, and QUAT 2014, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 12-14, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Boualem Benatallah, Azer Bestavros, Barbara Catania, Armin Haller, Yannis Manolopoulos, Athena Vakali, Yanchun Zhang, 2015, Vol. 9051, p. 211-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wireless sensor networks, the hardware limitations of sensor nodes cause high transmission failure rate. We usually increase the density of nodes to improve the quality of information transmission. However, it is difficult for the limited energy supply, storage, and communication bandwidth to transfer large amount of redundant sensory data. So we use data fusion technology to remove the redundant data as much as possible before the data transmission. Data fusion becomes a research hotspot in recent years. In this paper we propose a multilayer and multi-agent data fusion mode, and analyze the proposed mode performance in three aspects: hops, energy consumption and network delay. The simulation experiments show that, if reasonably suitable parameters, such as the network scale, the number and size of agents, the data processing cost, are selected, the mobile agent mode is much better than the client/server mode.

  • 359.
    Zhang, Sheng
    et al.
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Xin
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Yao, Minghui
    Nanchang Hangkong Univ, Sch Informat Engn, Nanchang, Peoples R China..
    Song, William Wei
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna Univ, Business Intelligence & Informat, Borlange, Sweden..
    Community-based message transmission with energy efficient in opportunistic networks2016In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2016: 17th International Conference, Shanghai, China, November 8-10, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, 2016, Vol. 10042, p. 411-423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Opportunistic Networks is a wireless self-organized network, in which there is no need to build a fixed connectivity between source node and destination node, and the communication depends on the opportunity of node meeting. There are some classical message transmission algorithms, such as PRoPHET, MaxProp, and so on. In the Opportunity Networks with community characteristic, the different message transmission strategies can be sued in inter-community and intra-community. It improves the message successful delivery ratio significantly. The classical algorithms are CMTS and CMOT. We propose an energy efficient message forwarding algorithm (EEMF) for community-based Opportunistic Networks in this paper. When a message is transmitted, we consider not only the community characteristic, but also the residual energy of each node. The simulation results show that the EEMF algorithm can improve the message successful delivery ratio and reduce the network overhead obviously, in comparison with classical routing algorithms, such as PRoPHET, MaxProp, CMTS and CMOT. Meanwhile the EEMF algorithm can reduce the node's energy consumption and prolong the lifetime of network.

  • 360.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Dan, Zhiguang
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Network density and the p-median solution2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-medianmodel is commonly used to find optimal locations of facilities for geographically distributed demands. So far, there are few studies that have considered the importance of the road network in the model. However, Han, Håkansson, and Rebreyend (2013) examined the solutions of the p-median model with densities of the road network varying from 500 to 70,000 nodes. They found as the density went beyond some 10,000 nodes, solutions have no further improvements but gradually worsen. The aim of this study is to check their findings by using an alternative heuristic being vertex substitution, as a complement to their using simulated annealing. We reject the findings in Han et al (2013). The solutions do not further improve as the nodes exceed 10,000, but neither do the solutions deteriorate.

  • 361.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Reliability of GPS based traffic data: an experimental evaluation2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS tracking of mobile objects provides spatial and temporal data for a broad range of applications including traffic management and control, transportation routing and planning. Previous transport research has focused on GPS tracking data as an appealing alternative to travel diaries. Moreover, the GPS based data are gradually becoming a cornerstone for real-time traffic management. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS devices are however susceptible to measurement errors – a neglected issue in transport research. By conducting a randomized experiment, we assess the reliability of GPS based traffic data on geographical position, velocity, and altitude for three types of vehicles; bike, car, and bus. We find the geographical positioning reliable, but with an error greater than postulated by the manufacturer and a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Velocity is slightly underestimated, whereas altitude measurements are unreliable.

  • 362.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a city there are hotspots that attract the citizens and most of the transportation in the city arises when citizens move between their residence and the hotspots. However, the evaluation between energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has been found to be rather weak. In this paper, we propose an ex-ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility due to different residential plans implemented at various urban areas. The method is illustrated by a Swedish midsize city which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. On average, the CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA) to the suburban polycentric area (SPA) to the edge urbanization area (EUA), EUA is almost 3 times more than CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same sequence, the overall increase is more than 4 times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses.

  • 363.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Does road network density matter in optimally locating facilities?2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal location on the transport infrastructure is the preferable requirement for many decision making processes. Most studies have focused on evaluating performances of optimally locate p facilities by minimizing their distances to a geographically distributed demand (n) when p and n vary. The optimal locations are also sensitive to geographical context such as road network, especially when they are asymmetrically distributed in the plane. The influence of alternating road network density is however not a very well-studied problem especially when it is applied in a real world context. This paper aims to investigate how the density level of the road network affects finding optimal location by solving the specific case of p-median location problem. A denser network is found needed when a higher number of facilities are to locate. The best solution will not always be obtained in the most detailed network but in a middle density level. The solutions do not further improve or improve insignificantly as the density exceeds 12,000 nodes, some solutions even deteriorate. The hierarchy of the different densities of network can be used according to location and transportation purposes and increase the efficiency of heuristic methods. The method in this study can be applied to other location-allocation problem in transportation analysis where the road network density can be differentiated. 

  • 364.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    How does the complexity of a road network affect optimal facility locations?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The road network is a necessary component in transportation. It facilitiesspatial movements of people and goods, and it also influences the optimal locations of facilities that usually serve as destinations of the movements. To fulfill the transportation needs and to adapt to the facility development, the road network is often organized hierarchically and asymmetrically with various road levels and spatial structures. The complexity of the road network increases along with the increase of road levels and spatial structures. However, location models locate facilities on a given road network, usually the most complex one, and the influence from the complexity of road network in finding optimal locations is not well-studied. This paper aims to investigate how the complexity of a road network affects the optimal facility locations by applying the widely-applied p-median model. The main result indicates that an increase in road network complexity, up to a certain level, can obviously improve the solution, and the complexity beyond that level does not always lead to better solutions. Furthermore, the result is not sensitive to the choice of algorithms. In a specific case study, a detailed sensitivity analysis of algorithm and facility number further provides insight into computation complexity and location problems from intra-urban to inter-urban.

  • 365. Ågerfalck, P
    et al.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Usability in Social Action: Reinterpreting Effectiveness, Efficiency and Satisfaction2003In: ECIS 2003 The 11th European Conference on Information Systems, Naples, Italy, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 366. Ågerfalk, P.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Socio-instrumental usability: IT is all about social action2006In: JIT. Journal of information technology (Print), ISSN 0268-3962, E-ISSN 1466-4437, Vol. 21(1), no MarchArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 367. Ågerfalk, Pär J
    et al.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Action-Oriented Conceptual Modelling2004In: European Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0960-085X, E-ISSN 1476-9344, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 80-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 368. Ågerfalk, Pär J
    et al.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Pragmatization of Conceptual Modelling2002In: Proceedings of the Xth European Conference of Information Systems, Gdansk Polen, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 369.
    Åkerblom, Leif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Tourist Information Systems based on Trail Network Information2003In: ENTER2003, Helsinki, Finland, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 370.
    Åkerlund, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Användbarhetstester i ERP-system: för ökad användbarhet efter konfigurering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Business system or ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is moving toward developing into so -called global systems. The systems’ functionality should be adapted to the businesses’ and users’ needs. Thus the notion of usability becomes essential.

    Usability of ERP systems is a limited research area. At the same time, it is widely known that ERP-systems’ user interface is a complex issue, which affects usability in a negative way for the users. To investigate the usefulness of usability testing methods can be applied. This was also something that was implemented in the current study when SSAB EMEA wanted to test the user interface usability of the new ERP system that is planned to be implemented soon.

    The study's research questions were: How experienced ERP system users its usefulness? and, How can usability tests be helpful in the configuration of the user interface of an ERP system?. The purpose of this study was to create a deeper understanding of how usability testing can be helpful before configuring the user interface of an ERP system, so that users perceive it useful. A case study was conducted through group interviews and usability tests, where ten users participated.

    The results were analyzed and presented using five usability criteria for ERP systems. Firstly, Navigation shows that users felt the system navigator with folder structure as difficult while shortcuts in the form of icons and links were seen as something positive. Learnability shows that users experienced in the previous system IFS7 found it easy to learn the new system IFS8. Users who lacked previous experience, however, experienced problems and frustration when the system required no obvious commands to perform tasks. Following guidance, also these users experienced that the system was easy to learn. Presentation shows that all the users were positive about the possibility of adapting the user interface along their own work role and how their selves operate. The system's adaptation to the users and the business, Customization, shows that the users were positive towards the system shortcuts in the form of icons and links to activities. Additionally, the users were positive about the prefilled data which were based on the logged in user. Finally, the Task support shows that users requested help functions that already existed in the system, but that was not noticed by the users.

    The implications of the study come to create a deeper understanding of usability in IFS8. This helps to SSAB EMEA, can configure the user interface for enhanced usability. In addition, the study indicates that users are in need of an organized training in the system before it is deployed, in order to enable them to conduct their activities in a satisfactory manner.

  • 371.
    Öhrn, Albin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Från ord till (e-)handling: - Integration av e-handelssystem i SiteVision2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The client, Senselogic, had noticed an increased demand for an e-commerce system integrated into its product, SiteVision, something that did not previously exist. Senselogic wanted to integrate a third-party system to manage e-commerce. The problem was that there were very many e-commerce solutions to choose from. In order to select the best system it was necessary to evaluate the e-commerce systems and compare them to each other. To identify the elements that has to be included in an e-commerce system a study of literature was conducted. From the parts identified in the study of literature, a number of criteria were presented. Those criteria were then supplemented with additional criteria that Senselogic required of an e-commerce system before integrating it with SiteVision. Before the evaluation a number of test cases were created to test whether the ecommerce systems fulfilled to the criteria developed. These test cases were then used in the evaluation of the e-commerce systems while a test score was filled in. Then the evaluations of the different systems were compiled and compared in order to see which system best fulfilled the criteria. There was one system that scored higher than the others in the evaluation created. That was the system chosen to integrate with SiteVision.

  • 372.
    Östberg, Pär
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Användbarhetstest i samband med utveckling av webbplats2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år lägger företag ner hundratusentals kronor för egna webbplatser. När programmerare och ledning är nöjda med utseende och funktionalitet sätts webbplatsen i bruk. Det är ofta först nu som företaget får in respons på om webbplatsen från användarna. I vissa fall blir detta en katastrof eftersom fel produkt erbjuds till användaren eller att användaren inte förstår hur han ska använda produkten. För att förhindra detta problem på bästa möjliga sätt används användbarhetstest för att utreda vad användaren av det blivande systemet vill ha innan systemet distribueras. Målet med examensarbetet är att konstruera en webbplats avsedd för den kommande utbildningen Creative business management. Syftet är därefter att visa hur användbarhetstest på bästa möjliga sätt bör användas i samband med utvecklingsarbetet av webbplatser. Utvecklingsarbetet sker med hjälp av en anpassad version av Siegels utvecklingsmodell. För att utföra användbarhetstest används sedan Molich modell för användbarhetstest. Arbetet visar vidare att användbarhetstest bör användas kontinuerligt under hela utvecklingsarbetet för att inte riskera att arbetet glider iväg åt fel riktning. Det krävs endast fem testdeltagare för att finna 80 % av de möjliga användbarhetsproblemen på en webbplats. Det optimala är att använda fem testdeltagare i flera etapper i samband med olika versioner och uppgraderingar av webbplatsen för att kvalitetssäkra arbetet.

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