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  • 401. Carlsson, Axel C
    et al.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Nystrom, Fredrik H
    Länne, Toste
    Jennersjö, Pär
    Larsson, Anders
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Association of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 with nephropathy, cardiovascular events, and total mortality in type 2 diabetes2016In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 15, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) contribute to experimental diabetic kidney disease, a condition with substantially increased cardiovascular risk when present in patients. Therefore, we aimed to explore the levels of sTNFRs, and their association with prevalent kidney disease, incident cardiovascular disease, and risk of mortality independently of baseline kidney function and microalbuminuria in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. In pre-defined secondary analyses we also investigated whether the sTNFRs predict adverse outcome in the absence of diabetic kidney disease.

    METHODS: The CARDIPP study, a cohort study of 607 diabetes patients [mean age 61 years, 44 % women, 45 cardiovascular events (fatal/non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke) and 44 deaths during follow-up (mean 7.6 years)] was used.

    RESULTS: Higher sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 were associated with higher odds of prevalent kidney disease [odd ratio (OR) per standard deviation (SD) increase 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.32-1.93, p < 0.001 and OR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.21-1.97, p = 0.001, respectively]. In Cox regression models adjusting for age, sex, glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, higher sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 predicted incident cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) per SD increase, 1.66, 95 % CI 1.29-2.174, p < 0.001 and HR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.13-1.91, p = 0.004, respectively]. Results were similar in separate models with adjustments for inflammatory markers, HbA1c, or established cardiovascular risk factors, or when participants with diabetic kidney disease at baseline were excluded (p < 0.01 for all). Both sTNFRs were associated with mortality.

    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS: Higher circulating sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 are associated with diabetic kidney disease, and predicts incident cardiovascular disease and mortality independently of microalbuminuria and kidney function, even in those without kidney disease. Our findings support the clinical utility of sTNFRs as prognostic markers in type 2 diabetes.

  • 402.
    Carlsson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Uppmärksamhetsfokus. En studie som undersöker om fotbollstränare i Dalarna ger verbal feedback som är riktad mot antingen internt eller externt uppmärksamhetsfokus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 403. Carlsson, Eva
    et al.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Multidisciplinary recording and continuity of care for stroke patients with eating difficulties2010In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 298-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eating difficulties after stroke are common and can, in addition to being a risk for serious medical complications, impair functional capability, social life and self-image. Stroke unit care entails systematic multidisciplinary teamwork and continuity of care. The purpose of this study was to describe (i) multidisciplinary stroke care as represented in patient records for patients with eating difficulties, and (ii) the written information that was transferred from hospital to elderly care. Data from 59 patient records were analysed with descriptive statistics and by categorization of phrases. Signs of multidisciplinary collaboration to manage eating problems were scarce in the records. While two notes from physiotherapists were found, nurses contributed with 78% of all notes (n=358). Screening of swallowing and body weight was documented for most patients, whereas data on nutritional status and eating were largely lacking. The majority of notes represented patients' handling of food in the mouth, swallowing and lack of energy. Care plans were unstructured and few contained steps for managing eating. Discharge summaries held poor information on care related to eating difficulties. The language of all professionals was mostly unspecific. However, notes from speech-language therapists were comprehensive and entailed information on follow-up and patient participation.

  • 404. Carlsson, Eva
    et al.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet, Örebro university.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Accuracy and continuity in discharge information for patients wtih eating difficulties after stroke2012In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 21-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. To describe the accuracy and continuity of discharge information for patients with eating difficulties after stroke. Design. Prospective, descriptive. 

    Methods. The study investigated a sample of 15 triads, each including one patient with stroke along with his patient record and discharge summary and two nursing staff in the municipal care to whom the patient was discharged. Data were collected by observations of patients' eating, record audits and interviews with nurses. Data were analysed using content analysis and descriptive statistics. 

    Results. Accuracy of recorded information on patients' eating difficulties and informational continuity were poor, as was accuracy in the transferred information according to nursing staff's perceptions. All patients were at risk of undernutrition and in too poor a state to receive rehabilitation. Nevertheless, patients' eating difficulties were described in a vague and unspecific language in the patient records. Co-ordinated care planning and management continuity related to eating difficulties were largely lacking in the documentation. Despite their important role in caring for patients with eating difficulties, little information on eating difficulties seemed to reach licensed practical nurses in the municipalities. 

    Conclusions. Comprehensiveness in the documentation of eating difficulties and accuracy of transferred information were poor based on record audits and as perceived by the municipal nursing staff. Although all patients were at risk of undernutrition, had multiple eating difficulties and were in too poor a state for rehabilitation, explicit care plans for nutritional problems were lacking. Relevance to clinical practice. Lack of accuracy and continuity in discharge information on eating difficulties may increase risk of undernutrition and related complications for patients in continuous stroke care. Therefore, the discharge process must be based on comprehensive and accurate documentation.

  • 405. Carlsson, Eva
    et al.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Information transfer and continuity of care for stroke patients with eating difficulties from the perspective of nursing staff in Swedish elderly care2012In: AMIA proceedings, Montreal, Kanada, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 406. Carlsson, Eva
    et al.
    Stålnacke, Katri
    Persenius, Mona
    Olai, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hägg, Mary
    Aspects of eating and quality of care among elderly in short-term accommodations - before and after an intervention.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 407.
    Carlsson, Ida
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Harnisch, Madelene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fallförebyggande teamarbete för den äldre personen inom kommunal vård: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older people over the age of 65 are over-represented in fall accidents in Sweden. As a nurse in municipal care, great demands are placed on a functioning fall prevention teamwork, in order to reduce suffering for the patient and for the costs of the health and medical care.  Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how nurses experiences the fall prevention teamwork for the older person in ordinary living in municipal care. Method: Empirical qualitative study with inductive approach. Focus group interviews with nine nurses who worked with the care of the elderly in municipal care in a municipality in central Sweden. Data was analyzed with qualitative content analysis.  Results: A fall prevention teamwork requires leadership with clear roles.  The organization and lack of clear leadership, communication and working under two different laws, SOL and HSL turned out to be an obstacle to fall prevention teamwork. Decisions on working methods, a project for this and someone who would lead this project were needed. Improvements in the structure experienced nurse were needed. Patient's self-determination and autonomy is an obstacle in case-prevention teamwork.  Conclusion: The organization needs to give the nurses the opportunity to develop teamwork with clear roles in fall prevention teamwork. Improved communication and information transfer is needed. Overview of how basic staff and nurses plan their working hours is needed.

  • 408.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Elitlängdskidåkningens fysiologiska krav2016In: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 409.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Physiological demands of competitive elite cross-country skiing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Researchers have, for decades, contributed to an increased collective understanding of the physiological demands in cross-country skiing; however, almost all of these studies have used either non-elite subjects and/or performances that emulate cross-country skiing. To establish the physiological demands of cross-country skiing, it is important to relate the investigated physiological variables to the competitive performance of elite skiers. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was, therefore, to investigate the external validity of physiological test variables to determine the physiological demands in competitive elite cross-country skiing.

    Methods The subjects in Study I – IV were elite male (I – III) and female (III – IV) cross-country skiers. In all studies, the relationship between test variables (general and ski-specific) and competitive performances (i.e. the results from competitions or the overall ski-ranking points of the International Ski Federation (FIS) for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races) were analysed. Test variables reflecting the subject’s general strength, upper-body and whole-body oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake and work intensity at the lactate threshold, mean upper-body power, lean mass, and maximal double-poling speed were investigated.

    Results The ability to maintain a high work rate without accumulating lactate is an indicator of distance performance, independent of sex (I, IV). Independent of sex, high oxygen uptake in whole-body and upper-body exercise was important for both sprint (II, IV) and distance (I, IV) performance. The maximal double-poling speed and 60-s double-poling mean power output were indicators of sprint (IV) and distance performance (I), respectively. Lean mass was correlated with distance performance for women (III), whereas correlations were found between lean mass and sprint performance among both male and female skiers (III). Moreover, no correlations between distance performance and test variables were derived from tests of knee-extension peak torque, vertical jumps, or double poling on a ski-ergometer with 20-s and 360-s durations (I), whereas gross efficiency while treadmill roller skiing showed no correlation with either distance or sprint performance in cross-country skiing (IV).

    Conclusion The results in this thesis show that, depending on discipline and sex, maximal and peak oxygen uptake, work intensity at the lactate threshold, lean mass, double-poling mean power output, and double-poling maximal speed are all externally valid physiological test variables for evaluation of performance capability among elite cross-country skiers; however, to optimally indicate performance capability different test-variable expressions should be used; in general, the absolute expression appears to be a better indicator of competitive sprint performance whereas the influence of body mass should be considered when evaluating competitive distance performance capability of elite cross-country skiers.

  • 410.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Assarsson, Hannes
    Dalarna University.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race2016In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5–S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1–S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.

  • 411.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Styrketräning för äldre: mirakelkur för individen, familjen och samhället?2008In: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 14-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 412.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Granath, Johan
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna.
    Westergren, Jens
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Validation of off-season physiological tests with ski ranking in elite male junior cross-country skiing2012In: Book of Abstract: Supplement to Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Volume 44, Number 5, May 2012, 2012, p. 353-353Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 413.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Granath, Johan
    Westergren, Jens
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Validation of off-season physiological tests with ski ranking in elite male junior cross-country skiing2012In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 44, no s2, p. 516-516Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 414.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Malm, Christer
    Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Prediction of race performance of elite cross-country skiers by lean mass2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1040-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between race performance and lean mass (LM) variables, as well as to examine sex differences in body composition in elite-standard cross-country skiers. 

    Methods: Thirty-four elite cross-country skiers (18 men and 16 women) underwent a dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry body composition test to determine LM, fat mass, and bone mineral content. For both sexes, performance data were collected from a sprint prologue and a distance race. 

    Results: The absolute expression of LM variables [whole body (LMWB), upper body (LMUB), and lower body (LMLB)] was significantly correlated with finishing time in the sprint prologue independent of sex. Distance-race performance was significantly related to LMWB, LMUB, and LMLB in women; however, no correlation was found in men. Men had a significantly higher LM and lower fat mass, independent of expression (absolute or relative), for the whole body, arms, trunk, and legs, except for the absolute fat mass in the trunk. 

    Conclusions: The absolute expressions of LMWB, LMUB, and LMLB were significant predictors of sprint-prologue performance in both sexes, as well as of distance-race performance in women only. Compared with women, male skiers have a higher LM in the body segments that are major contributors to propelling forces. These results suggest that muscle mass in the lower and upper body is equally important for race performance; thus, more focus of elite skiers’ training should be directed to increasing whole-body muscle mass to improve their competitive performance capability.

  • 415.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Time trials predict the competitive performance capacity of junior cross-country skiers2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigated whether there is a correlation between time-trial performance and competitive performance capacity of male and female junior cross-country skiers and sought to explain sex-specific competitive performance capacity through multiple-regression modeling.

    Methods: The International Ski Federation's (FIS) junior ranking points for distance (FISdist) and sprint (FISsprint) competitions were used as performance parameters. A total of 38 elite junior (age 18.5 +/- 1.0 y) cross-country skiers (24 men and 14 women) completed 3 time-trial tests: a 3-km level-running time trial (TTRun), a 2-km moderate uphill (1.2 slope) roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique (TTDP), and a 2-km uphill (2.8 slope) roller-skiing time trial using the diagonal-stride technique (TTDiag). The correlations were investigated using Pearson correlation analysis, and regression models were created using multiple-linear-regression analysis. Results: For men, FISsprint and FISdist were correlated with the times for TTRun, TTDP, and TTDiag (all P < .001). For women, FISsprint was correlated with the times for TTRun (P < .05), TTDP (P < .01), and TTDiag (P < .01), whereas FISdist was correlated only with the times for TTDP (P < .01) and TTDiag (P < .05). The models developed for FISdist and FISsprint explained 73.9-82.3% of the variance in the performance capacity of male junior cross-country skiers. No statistically valid regression model was found for the women.

    Conclusions: Running and roller-skiing time trials are useful tests for accurately predicting the performance capacity of junior cross-country skiers.

  • 416.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tiivel, Toomas
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Validation of physiological tests in relation to competitive performances in elite male distance cross-country skiing2012In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1496-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish which physiological test parameters reflects the distance performances in the Swedish National Championships in cross-country skiing (SNC) and the International Ski Federation's ranking points for distance performances (FISdist). The present study also aimed to create multiple regression models to describe skiing performance for the SNC distance races and International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking. Twelve male, Swedish, national elite, cross-country skiers (maximal oxygen consumption [(V) over dotO(2)max] = 5.34 +/- 0.34 L.min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. Their results in the 2008 SNC (15 km race [SNC15] and 30 km race [SNC30]) and FISdist points were used as performance data. On the week preceding the Championship, subjects completed a test battery consisting of 7 physiological tests: isokinetic knee extension peak torque (PT), vertical jumps (VJ), lactate threshold (LT), (V) over dotO(2)max, and 3 double poling tests of different durations (DP20, DP60, and DP360). Correlations were established using Pearson's correlation analysis, and models to describe skiing performance were created using standard multiple linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between the performance parameters and test parameters derived from LT, (V) over dotO(2)max, and DP60 tests. No correlations with any performance parameter were found for PT, VJ, DP20, and DP360 tests. For FISdist and SNC15, the models explain 81% and 78% of the variance in performance, respectively. No statistically valid regression model was found for SNC30. The results of this study imply that the physiological demands in male elite distance cross-country skiing performances are different in different events. To adequately evaluate a skier's performance ability in distance cross-country skiing, it is necessary to use test parameters and regression models that reflect the specific performance.

  • 417.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Winternet, Boden, Sweden .
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub‑techniques predicts sprint performance in elite male cross‑country skiers2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 12, p. 2587-2595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between sprint-prologue performance (using the classical technique) and the oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold ( V˙O2obla), maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O 2max), and mean oxygen uptake during double poling ( V˙O 2dp).

    Methods. Eight elite male cross-country skiers [age 24.8 ± 4.8 years, (mean ± SD)] completed two treadmill roller-skiing tests using the diagonal-stride technique and a 60 s double-poling test on a ski-ergometer to determine their V˙O2obla, V˙O 2max, and V˙O 2dp. Performance data were generated from a 1.25 km sprint prologue. Power-function modelling was used to predict the skiers’ race speeds based on the oxygen-uptake variables and body mass.

    Results. There were correlations between the race speed and the absolute expression of the V˙O2obla (r = 0.79, P = 0.021), V˙O 2max (r = 0.86, P = 0.0069), and V˙O 2dp (r = 0.94, P = 0.00062). The following power-function models were established for race-speed prediction: 1.09 · V˙O 2obla0.21, 1.05 · V˙O 2max0.21, and 1.19 · V˙O 2dp0.20; these models explained 60 % (P = 0.024), 73 % (P = 0.0073), and 87 % (P = 0.00073), respectively, of the variance in the race speed. However, body mass did not contribute to any of the models (P = 0.97, 0.88, and 0.21, respectively).

    Conclusions. Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub-techniques is an indicator of elite male sprint-prologue performance. The absolute expression of the investigated oxygen-uptake variables should be used when evaluating elite male sprint-prologue performances; if skiers oxygen uptake differs by 1 %, their performances will likely differ by 0.2 % in favour of the skier with higher oxygen uptake.

  • 418.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Olsson, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Peak hand-grip force predicts competitive performance in elite female cross-country skiers2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 419.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet; Dala Sports Academy.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet; Dala Sports Academy.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Dala Sports Academy.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing2016In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 2138-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and VO2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and VO2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the VO2max expressed absolutely (P = 0.0040), Vmax (P = 0.012), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (P = 0.048), VO2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (P = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.046), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (mL·min·kg) (P = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by VO2max and VO2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  • 420.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The acute effects of a short technique-intense training period on side-foot kick performance among elite female soccer players2019In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previously, it was shown that elite soccer teams were 24% more likely to win matches if their passing effectiveness were increased by 1%. However, research interventions aiming to improve passing performance are scarce. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of a short technique-intense training period on side-foot kick performance among elite female soccer players.

    METHODS: Four side-foot kick tests were completed before and after a training period: kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS), passing the ball on the move using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS), and repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB). The players were assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions with five side-foot kick exercises. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired-samples t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively.

    RESULTS: The intervention group improved the performance in the RBRS and RRB tests (both P < 0.05), but no differences were found for the SBRS and SBMS tests (both P > 0.05). No improvements were found for the control group independent of test condition (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for the RBRS and RRB tests (both P < 0.05), whereas no differences were found for the SBRS and SBMS tests (both P > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball was improved in elite female soccer players by a short technique-intense training period.

  • 421.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The effect of training on side foot-kick performance among swedish first league women´s soccer players2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE EFFECT OF TRAINING ON SIDE FOOT-KICK PERFORMANCE AMONG SWEDISH FIRST LEAGUE WOMEN’S SOCCER PLAYERS

    Carlsson, M.1, Isberg, J.1, Nilsson, J.1, Carlsson, T.1 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden)

    Introduction

    A high completion rate for passes is important for success in soccer, because longer passing sequences are related to more scored goals (Hughes & Franks, 2005). In a recent study, it was found that female players had a lower pass-completion rate than male players at the highest competitive standard of European soccer, which suggests that elite female players in general do not have the same technical characteristics as elite male players (Paul S. Bradley et al., 2014). The purpose of the study was investigate the effect of a 2-week training intervention on side foot-kick performance among Swedish first league women’s soccer players.

     Methods

    To investigate the effect of training on side foot-kick performance, a pre-post-intervention study was implemented where four side foot-kick tests were performed before and after a 2-week training period. The side foot-kick accuracy were investigated when kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant ball speed (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS) as well as subsequent to a 5-m run with the ball from different approach angles (0°, 30°, and 60°) to a predetermined position, where passing of the ball on the move was executed using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS). The fourth test comprised repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB).

    Based on the results from the pre-tests, the players were assigned to either the intervention group (INT) or the control group (CON). The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions. In each session, two rounds of five exercises focusing on improvement of side foot-kick accuracy were executed. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired samples Student’s t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively.

    Results

    Prior to the training intervention, there were no significant differences between the groups for any of the investigated test variables. The INT group improved RBRS (P = 0.036) and RRB (P = 0.010) during the training intervention, whereas no significant within-group changes were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05). No within-group differences were found for any of the test variables in the CON group (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for RBRS (P = 0.040) and RRB (P = 0.005), whereas no differences were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball could be improved in elite women players by a 2-week training period focusing on improving   side foot-kick performance.

    References

    Bradley PS, Carling C, Diaz AG, Hood P, Barnes C, Ade J, Boddy M, Krustrup P, Mohr M (2013) Hum Mov Sci, 32, 808-821.

    Hughes M, Franks I (2005) J Sports Sci, 23, 509-514.

  • 422.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hellström, John
    Svenska Golfförbundet.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 2, p. 186-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4 °C, 18 °C, 32 °C, and 46 °C) for 24 h prior to the test and each temperature group consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine the club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the groups were investigated using a one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated that ball-speed and carry-distance differences occurred within the four groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The post hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures of 18 °C and 32 °C had greater ball speeds and carry distances than balls at 4 °C and 46 °C (all p < 0.05). The intervals for the between-group differences were 0.6–0.7 m s−1 and 2.9–3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively. Hence, the results showed that ball temperature influences both the ball speed and the carry distance. Based on the findings in this study, standardization of ball temperature should be factored into governing body regulation tests for golf equipment.

  • 423.
    Carlsson, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Sofri, Fatima
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Behandlingsmetoder och amningsförekomst vid bröstböld2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Amningens fördelar för mor, barn och samhälle är välkända. En komplikation vid amning är bröstböld. Medvetenhet om fördelar och nackdelar med olika behandlingsmetoder vid bröstböld och deras inverkan på fortsatt amning är viktig.

    Syftet: Att studera behandlingsmetoder och amningsförekomst vid bröstböld.

    Metod: Retrospektiv design från en journalgranskning genomförd på Södersjukhuset mellan januari 2006 och september 2008. Statistiska analyser genomfördes med Chi-två test, Independent samples T-test samt Fishers exakta test.

    Resultat: Totalt 139 kvinnor med bröstböld behandlades med nålpunktions-, pigtail- eller dränagebehandling, eller en kombination av dessa. Sextiotre procent pigtailbehandlades enbart och dessa behövde i mindre omfattning sjukhusinläggning jämfört med ej enbart pigtailbehandlade, samt resulterade i större andel av ett till tre sjukhusbesök. Enbart dränagebehandling och flera metoder resulterade i större andel sjukhusinläggningar än ej enbart dränagebehandling och en metod. Amningsförekomsten sjönk från 96 procent före behandling till 69 procent en månad efteråt.

    Konklusion: Enbart pigtailbehandling var den vanligaste metoden och resulterade i färre sjukhusinläggningar och sjukhusbesök. Förekomsten av amning hade sjunkit efter behandling av bröstböld

  • 424.
    Carlsson, Pamela
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Spante, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    PRIM-VIPS i omvårdnadsjournalen: Antal använda sökord före och efter dokumentationscirkel2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie; en en-grupps före- och eftertest, var att beskriva förekomstfrekvens av alla PRIM-VIPS sökord i omvårdnadsjournalen på en vårdcentral före och efter en studiecirkel där distriktssköterskor (n = 19) och undersköterskor (n = 7) deltog. Två tidsperioder om vardera tre veckor valdes, en före studiecirkelns start och den andra när studiecirkeln var avslutad. Tidsperioderna var representativa ur både patient- och personalhänseende. Det totala antalet patientkontakter i respektive period bedömdes vara jämförbara. Samtliga distriktssköterskor och undersköterskor inbjöds till studiecirkeln, inbjudan sändes också till vårdcentralsledningen för kännedom. Studiecirkeln innefattade fyra träffar om två timmar vardera då alla sökord gicks igenom och diskuterades. Vid varje cirkelträff gavs hemuppgift som gicks igenom vid kommande studietillfälle. Dokumentationsmallar för de vanligaste typerna av kontakter gicks igenom, diskuterades och reviderades. Statistik från respektive period togs fram av en systemadministratör. Denna statistik har analyserats. Resultatet visade en ökning med 32% av förekomsten av sökord från period ett till period två. Man ser inte bara en ökning av förekomst av sökord utan man ser också vilka vårdfunktioner som är mest frekventa. Resultatet visar även en kraftig ökning när det gäller förekomstfrekvensen av sökordet medverkan, som bland annat beskriver patientens delaktighet i vården.

  • 425.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Betydelse av syreupptag och kroppsmassa för prestation i längdskidåkning2016In: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 25-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 426.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet.
    The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Performance in cross-country skiing is influenced by the skier’s ability to continuously produce propelling forces and force magnitude in relation to the net external forces. A surrogate indicator of the “power supply” in cross-country skiing would be a physiological variable that reflects an important performance-related capability, whereas the body mass itself is an indicator of the “power demand” experienced by the skier. To adequately evaluate an elite skier’s performance capability, it is essential to establish the optimal ratio between the physiological variable and body mass. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the importance of body-mass exponent optimization for the evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing.

    Methods In total, 83 elite cross-country skiers (56 men and 27 women) volunteered to participate in the four studies. The physiological variables of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to a blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙l-1 (V̇O2obla) were determined while treadmill roller skiing using the diagonal-stride technique; mean oxygen uptake (V̇O2dp) and upper-body power output () were determined during double-poling tests using a ski-ergometer. Competitive performance data for elite male skiers were collected from two 15-km classical-technique skiing competitions and a 1.25-km sprint prologue; additionally, a 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique was used as an indicator of upper-body performance capability among elite male and female junior skiers. Power-function modelling was used to explain the race and time-trial speeds based on the physiological variables and body mass.

    Results The optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratios to explain 15-km race speed were V̇O2max divided by body mass raised to the 0.48 and 0.53 power, and these models explained 68% and 69% of the variance in mean skiing speed, respectively; moreover, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the body-mass exponents did not include either 0 or 1. For the modelling of race speed in the sprint prologue, body mass failed to contribute to the models based on V̇O2max, V̇O2obla, and V̇O2dp. The upper-body power output-to-body mass ratio that optimally explained time-trial speed was m-0.57 and the model explained 63% of the variance in speed.

    Conclusions The results in this thesis suggest that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass should be used as an indicator of performance in 15-km classical-technique races among elite male skiers rather than the absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression. To optimally explain an elite male skier’s performance capability in sprint prologues, power-function models based on oxygen-uptake variables expressed absolutely are recommended. Moreover, to evaluate elite junior skiers’ performance capabilities in 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trials, it is recommended that divided by the square root of body mass should be used rather than absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression of power output.

  • 427.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Felleki, Majbritt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Heil, Daniel
    Montana State University.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Scaling maximal oxygen uptake to predict performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers2013In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 31, no 16, p. 1753-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) establish the optimal body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) to indicate performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers; and 2) evaluate the influence of course inclination on the body-mass exponent. Twelve elite-standard men skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine O2max and performance data came from the 2008 Swedish National Championship 15-km classic-technique race. Log-transformation of power-function models was used to predict skiing speeds. The optimal models were found to be: Race speed = 7.86 · O2max · m −0.48 and Section speed = 5.96 · O2max · m −(0.38 + 0.03 · α) · e−0.003 · Δ (where m is body mass, α is the section's inclination and Δ is the altitude difference of the previous section), that explained 68% and 84% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. A body-mass exponent of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.77) best described O2max as an indicator of performance in elite-standard men skiers. The confidence interval did not support the use of either “1” (simple ratio-standard scaled) or “0” (absolute expression) as body-mass exponents for expressing O2max as an indicator of performance. Moreover, results suggest that course inclination increases the body-mass exponent for O2max.

  • 428.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Scaling of upper-body power output to predict time-trial roller skiing performance2013In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 582-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the most appropriate allometric model to predict mean skiing speed during a double-poling roller skiing time-trial using scaling of upper-body power output. Forty-five Swedish junior cross-country skiers (27 men and 18 women) of national and international standard were examined. The skiers, who had a body mass (m) of 69.3 ± 8.0 kg (mean ± s), completed a 120-s double-poling test on a ski ergometer to determine their mean upper-body power output (W). Performance data were subsequently obtained from a 2-km time-trial, using the double-poling technique, to establish mean roller skiing speed. A proportional allometric model was used to predict skiing speed. The optimal model was found to be: Skiing speed = 1.057 · W 0.556 · m −0.315, which explained 58.8% of the variance in mean skiing speed (P < 0.001). The 95% confidence intervals for the scaling factors ranged from 0.391 to 0.721 for W and from −0.626 to −0.004 for m. The results in this study suggest that allometric scaling of upper-body power output is preferable for the prediction of performance of junior cross-country skiers rather than absolute expression or simple ratio-standard scaling of upper-body power output.

  • 429.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Lillehammer University College.
    Rønnestad, Bent R
    Lillehammer University College.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Optimal V. O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers2015In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 6, p. 353-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (V. O2max) as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for V. O2max among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their V. O2max. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classicaltechnique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for V . O2max to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be race speed = 8.83⋅(V . O2max m-0.53) 0.66 and lap speed = 5.89⋅(V . O2max m-(0.49+0.018lap)) 0.43e0.010age, which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that V. O2max divided by the square root of body mass (mL⋅min−1 ⋅kg−0.5) should be used when elite male skiers’ performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for V . O2max was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

  • 430.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Scaling oxygen consumption to body mass in real elite cross-country skiing performances2009In: Book of Abstracts: Sport sciences: Nature, Nurture and Culture / [ed] Loland, S., et al., 2009, p. 351-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Which are the main physiological differences between a successful and less successful cross-country skier? To our knowledgeno previous studies have examined a real elite cross-country ski competition. Main purpose of this study was therefore to validatecommonly used test parameters to skiing time and to International Ski Federation (FIS) overall seasonal ranking points and to createmultiple regression models to predict skiing performances.Methods: Twelve highly motivated male Swedish national elite cross-country skiers completed a test battery consisting of: isokinetic kneeextensor peak torque tests at three different velocities; three different vertical jumps tests; two-part treadmill roller skiing test determininglactate markers, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion; 60 and 360 s double poling tests determining meanupper-body power (DP60Pmean) (DP360Pmean) and mean oxygen consumption (DP60VO2mean) (DP360VO2mean).Performance data were collected from the Swedish National Championship (SNC) in cross-country skiing (13-17 March 2008): 15-km withindividual start in classical technique (SNC15); 30-km double pursuit with mass-start (SNC30); sprint prolog in free-style technique(SNCsprint). In addition to ski races, overall seasonal ski ranking points were collected from FIS 3rd Cross-Country Points List 2007/2008published before SNC for distance (FISdist) and sprint (FISsprint) races.Correlations between test parameters and performance data were established using Pearson´s correlation analysis. Prediction modelswere created using standard multiple linear regression analysis.Results: Time to exhaustion during the incremental treadmill roller ski test is best correlated with both SNC15 (r = -0.86, p < 0.001) andSNC30 (r = -0.81, p < 0.01). For SNC15 significant correlations were shown with VO2max both absolute and relative to body weight, lactatemarkers, DP60Pmean and DP60VO2mean. Corresponding correlations for SNC30 were: lactate markers, DP60VO2mean and percentagedecrease in mean knee extension peak torque when comparing highest and lowest velocities. Highest correlation coefficient forSNCsprint was found for DP60Pmean (r = -0.93, p < 0.05). Significant correlations for SNCsprint was also detected for DP360Pmean aswell as DP360VO2mean and jump height in squat jump.Prediction models explain 68, 91, 68, 77 and 82% of the variance in performance for SNC15, SNC30, SNCsprint, FISdist and FISsprint,respectively.Discussion: Correlations found in this study have validated several commonly used physiological tests with real elite cross-country skiingperformances. Frequently investigated test parameters like VO2max and anaerobic thresholds are of great importance for success incross-country skiing. Many recent research studies have focused on upper-body capacity and we could confirm that high mean powerproduction in double poling is necessary to be successful as elite skier in both sprint and distance races.

  • 431.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Rønnestad, Bent
    Lillehammer University College.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The importance of scaling VO2MAX to predict cross-country skiing performance2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A high maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is of importance for success in elite male competitive distance cross-country skiing (Carlsson et al. 2012). However, it is still debatable how VO2max should be expressed to best indicate skiing performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the optimal body mass exponent for VO2max to indicate performance in elite-standard male cross-country skiers. Methods Twenty-four elite-standard male cross-country skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller skiing test in diagonal stride technique determining VO2max. Performance data was compiled from a 15-km classic technique race. To predict performance a log-transformation of power-function model: Race speed = β0 • VO2max^β1 • m^β2 was used, where β0 to β2 are constants, and m is body mass. Statistical analyses used R version 2.13.2 (R Development Core Team, New Zeeland) and alpha was 0.05. Results Participants’ VO2max was 5.39 ± 0.57 l/min (mean ± s) and m was 75.5 ± 6.3 kg. Mean race speed was 5.83 ± 0.41 m/s. The model that best predicted performance was: Race speed = 8.829 • VO2max^0.663 • m^-0.355 = 8.829 • (VO2max • m^–0.535 )^0.663, that explains 69.2% of the variance in race speed for the 15-km classic technique race (P < 0.001). For the VO2max-to-mass ratio within the model, the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the body-mass exponent ranged from -0.947 to -0.122. Discussion The optimal body mass exponent for VO2max to indicate performance in elite-standard male cross-country skiers was -0.535. Moreover, the CI for the body-mass exponent does not support the use of simple ratio-standard scaling and absolute expression of VO2max as indicators of 15 km classic ski racing performance in elite-standard men skiers. 

  • 432.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The influence of task conditions on side foot-kick accuracy among swedish first league women’s soccer players2018In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 433.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Hellström, John
    Svenska golfförbundet, Stockholm.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE EFFECT OF BALL TEMPERATURE ON BALL SPEED AND CARRY DISTANCE IN GOLF DRIVES

    Carlsson, T.1, Nilsson, J.1,2, Hellström, J.3, Tinmark, F.2, Carlsson, M.1. 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden), 2: The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Stockholm, Sweden), 3: The Swedish Golf Federation (Stockholm, Sweden). 

    Introduction

    Previously it was reported that golf-ball temperature has influence on the golf balls’ coefficient of restitution, impact duration, and maximal deformation (Allen et al., 2012). They concluded that their research was the first step in a process for determining the effect of temperature on a golf drive. However, how large influence the golf-ball temperature has on golf drives remains to be investigated. The purpose was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. 

    Methods

    The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4°C, 18°C, 32°C, and 46°C) for twenty-four hours prior to the test, and each of the four different ball-temperature groups consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the four ball-temperature groups were investigate using a one-way analysis of variance. 

    Results

    The results indicate that there are ball-speed and carry-distance differences within the four ball-temperature groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The post-hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C had both greater ball speeds and carry distances compared to the balls in the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C (all P < 0.05); the intervals for the between-group differences were 2.0 to 2.4 km/h and 2.9 to 3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The novel results of the current study show that the ball’s temperature has a significant effect on the ball speed after club-head impact and carry distance for drives performed by an elite golfer. The ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C gave significantly increased ball speeds and carry distances compared to the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C. This knowledge could be used to maximise the carry distance and/or to minimise the carry-distance variability related to ball temperature.

    REFERENCES:

    Allen T, Bowley A, Wood P, Henrikson E, Morales E, James D. (2012) Procedia Eng, 34, 634-639.

  • 434.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers2016In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.002maxand 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher V̇O2max or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables to monitor skiers’ performance-related training adaptations linked to changes in aerobic power and anaerobic capacity.

  • 435.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling capacity of elite junior cross-country skiers2017In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, no 8, p. 1523-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To compare the effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling gross efficiency (GE), maximal speed (Vmax), peak oxygen uptake (V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak) for elite male and female junior cross-country skiers.

    Methods

    Thirty-three elite junior cross-country skiers completed a 6-week training-intervention period with two additional 40-min training sessions per week. The participants were matched in pairs and within each pair randomly assigned to either a strength-training group (STR) or a ski-ergometer-training group (ERG). Before and after the intervention, the participants completed three treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, Vmax, and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak. Mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate differences between and within groups. Paired samples t tests were used as post hoc tests to investigate within-group differences.

    Results

    Both groups improved their Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.01). For the gender-specific sub-groups, it was found that the female skiers in both groups improved both Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.05), whereas the only within-group differences found for the men were improvements of Vmax in the STR group. No between-group differences were found for any of the investigated variables.

    Conclusions

    Physiological and performance-related variables of importance for skiers were improved for both training regimes. The results demonstrate that the female skiers’ physiological adaptations to training, in general, were greater than those of the men. The magnitude of the physiological adaptations was similar for both training regimes.

  • 436. Carol, Tishelman
    et al.
    Lövgren, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eva, Broberger
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Mirjam, Sprangers
    Are the most distressing concerns among patients with lung cancer adequately assessed?: A mixed-methods study2010In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 0732-183X, E-ISSN 1527-7755, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 1942-1949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Standardized questionnaires for patient-reported outcomes are generally composed of specified predetermined items, although other areas may also cause patients distress. We therefore studied reports of what was most distressing for 343 patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC) at six time points during the first year postdiagnosis and how these concerns were assessed by three quality-of-life and symptom questionnaires.

    Patients and Methods. Qualitative analysis of patients' responses to the question “What do you find most distressing at present?” generated 20 categories, with 17 under the dimensions of “bodily distress,” “life situation with LC,” and “iatrogenic distress.” Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted.

    Results. The majority of statements reported as most distressing related to somatic and psychosocial problems, with 26% of patients reporting an overarching form of distress instead of specific problems at some time point. Twenty-seven percent reported some facet of their contact with the health care system as causing them most distress. While 55% to 59% of concerns reported as most distressing were clearly assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 and Lung Cancer Module instruments, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the modified Distress Screening Tool, iatrogenic distress is not specifically targeted by any of the three instruments examined.

    Conclusion. Using this approach, several distressing issues were found to be commonly reported by this patient group but were not assessed by standardized questionnaires. This highlights the need to carefully consider choice of instrument in relation to study objectives and characteristics of the sample investigated and to consider complementary means of assessment in clinical practice.

  • 437. Carrero, Juan Jesús
    et al.
    Grams, Morgan E
    Sang, Yingying
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Gasparini, Alessandro
    Matsushita, Kunihiro
    Qureshi, Abdul R
    Evans, Marie
    Barany, Peter
    Coresh, Josef
    Albuminuria changes are associated with subsequent risk of end-stage renal disease and mortality2017In: Kidney International, ISSN 0085-2538, E-ISSN 1523-1755, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 244-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current guidelines for chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommend using albuminuria as well as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to stage CKD. However, CKD progression is solely defined by change in eGFR with little regard to the risk implications of change in albuminuria. This is an observational study from the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements (SCREAM) project, a health care utilization cohort from Stockholm, Sweden, with laboratory measures from 2006-2011 and follow-up through December 2012. Included were 31,732 individuals with two or more ambulatory urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) tests. We assessed the association between change in ACR during a baseline period of 1, 2, or 3 years and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. Using a 2-year baseline period, there were 378 ESRD events and 1712 deaths during a median of 3 years of follow-up. Compared to stable ACR, a 4-fold increase in ACR was associated with a 3.08-times (95% confidence interval 2.59 to 3.67) higher risk of ESRD while a 4-fold decrease in ACR was associated with a 0.34-times (0.26 to 0.45) lower risk of ESRD. Similar associations were found in people with and without diabetes mellitus, with and without hypertension, and also when adjusted for the change in eGFR during the same period. The association between change in ACR and mortality was weaker: ACR increase was associated with mortality, but the relationship was largely flat for ACR decline. Results were consistent for 1-, 2-, and 3-year ACR changes. Thus, changes in albuminuria are strongly and consistently associated with the risk of ESRD and death.

  • 438.
    Carstensen, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Rosberg, Birgitta
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala University.
    Before evening falls: Perspectives of a good old age and healthy ageing among oldest-old Swedish men2019In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 82, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The late life experiences of men in the oldest-old age group have been under-researched, and their perspectives on ageing successfully neglected. This study explored the perspectives of oldest-old Swedish men on what a ‘good old age’ and ageing successfully meant to them. A purposive sample of 17 men, aged 85-90 years, was drawn from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. An interview guide explored participants’ perspectives on their ageing experiences and how they viewed ageing successfully. Participants were interviewed twice, with 1–2 weeks between interviews, and both interviews were recorded and transcribed. Content analysis identified four themes: i) Adaptation, concerning the ability to adapt to growing old with increasing limitations; ii) Sustaining Independence, related to financial resources and good health as the foundation for independence; iii) Belongingness, representing close relationships, established friendships, and the significance of the spouse; and iv) Perspectives of Time, also a common thread in all themes, in which past life experiences create an existential link between the past, the present and the future, establishing continuity of the self and enhancing life satisfaction. The participants presented themselves as active agents involved in maintaining meaning and achieving life satisfaction; a process related to the ability to manage changes in life. Our findings have resonance with models of healthy or successful ageing, but also diverge in important ways, since such models do not consider the significance of an individual’s life history for their present well-being, and primarily conceptualise health as an outcome, rather than as a resource.

  • 439.
    Cato, Cristin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ödman, Stefan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av förebyggandeomvårdnadsåtgärder mot trycksår och undernäring: - En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    There is an established correlation between malnutrition and

    development of pressure ulcers. The incidence of malnutrition among patients has

    increased in recent years despite that risk assessment instruments exist in the

    organisations. Pressure ulcers remain one of the most common adverse event with a

    negative impact on the patients

    ’ quality of life and lack of patient-safety.

    Aim:

    The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ work on preventive measures

    against pressure ulcers and malnutrition.

    Method:

    The study was conducted as a literature review including 19 articles,

    published between 2008-2018, with quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods

    approaches. Searches were made in the PubMed and CINAHL databases. The

    articles were quality-reviewed, analyzed and compiled into a result.

    Results:

    : Nurses appear to have positive attitudes to preventive measures towards

    pressure ulcers and malnutrition while the level of knowledge was generally low.

    Nurses valued their own clinical judgement high and felt that lack of time, high

    workload and severely ill patients constituted obstacles to adequate application of

    preventive measures. Organisational shortcomings emerged for the adequate use

    and implementation of risk assessment instruments. Lack of guidelines and work

    routines for preventive work could result in a deficient patient safety.

    Conclusion:

    The results show that the majority of nurses value nutrition in the

    preventive work but the level of knowledge and the application of measures were

    generally low. Introduction of guidelines could lead to increased knowledge and

    implementation of pressure ulcers and nutritional treatment in clinical work.

  • 440. Cederblad, M.
    et al.
    Neveus, T.
    Ahman, A.
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sarkadi, A.
    "Nobody asked us if we needed help": Swedish parents experiences of enuresis2014In: Journal of Pediatric Urology, ISSN 1477-5131, E-ISSN 1873-4898, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 74-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the everyday dilemmas of parents living with a child with nocturnal enuresis and to describe their support needs in relation to healthcare professionals.

    Subjects and methods: The study was conducted in 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden. Parents of 13 children with enuresis, 10 mothers and three fathers, participated in qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews, which were analysed using systematic text condensation.

    Results: The analysis of the material resulted in six themes: enuresis is socially stigmatising and handicapping; all practices and home remedies are tested; it creates frustration in the family; protecting the child from gossip or teasing; support from healthcare providers would have helped; it's something we just have to live with. Two patterns of coping were identified: the Unworried wet-bed-fixers and the Anxious night-launderers.

    Conclusion: Having a child with enuresis can be stressful for parents, although they tried hard not to blame their child. Because parents can feel reluctant to bring up enuresis themselves, they want child health nurses to routinely raise the issue of bedwetting at the yearly check-up. Parents' information needs included causes of and available treatment options for enuresis as well as access to aids and other support for affected families. .

  • 441. Cederholm, Tommy
    et al.
    Kirn, Dylan R.
    Koochek, Afsaneh
    Reid, Kieran F.
    von Berens, Åsa
    Travison, Thomas G.
    Folta, Sara
    Sacheck, Jennifer
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala University.
    Fielding, Roger A.
    Effect of nutritional supplementation and structured physical activity on physical function in mobility-limited older adults: results from the VIVE2 study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 442.
    Cedervall, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Biomed Ctr, Sci Life Lab, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, Box 582, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dragomir, Anca
    Uppsala Univ, Rudbeck Lab, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Saupe, Falk
    Uppsala Univ, Biomed Ctr, Sci Life Lab, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, Box 582, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Zhang, Yanyu
    Uppsala Univ, Biomed Ctr, Sci Life Lab, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, Box 582, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska institutet.
    Larsson, Erik
    Uppsala Univ, Rudbeck Lab, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dimberg, Anna
    Uppsala Univ, Rudbeck Lab, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala Univ, Biomed Ctr, Sci Life Lab, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, Box 582, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pharmacological targeting of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 prevents cancer-associated kidney injury in mice2017In: Oncoimmunology, ISSN 2162-4011, E-ISSN 2162-402X, Vol. 6, no 8, article id e1320009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renal insufficiency is a frequent cancer-associated problem affecting more than half of all cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. To minimize nephrotoxic effects the dosage of anticancer drugs are reduced in these patients, leading to sub-optimal treatment efficacy. Despite the severity of this cancer-associated pathology, the molecular mechanisms, as well as therapeutic options, are still largely lacking. We here show that formation of intravascular tumor-induced neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a cause of kidney injury in tumor-bearing mice. Analysis of clinical biomarkers for kidney function revealed impaired creatinine clearance and elevated total protein levels in urine from tumor-bearing mice. Electron microscopy analysis of the kidneys from mice with cancer showed reversible pathological signs such as mesangial hypercellularity, while permanent damage such as fibrosis or necrosis was not observed. Removal of NETs by treatment with DNase I, or pharmacological inhibition of the enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), was sufficient to restore renal function in mice with cancer. Tumor-induced systemic inflammation and impaired perfusion of peripheral vessels could be reverted by the PAD4 inhibitor. In conclusion, the current study identifies NETosis as a previously unknown cause of cancer-associated renal dysfunction and describes a novel promising approach to prevent renal failure in individuals with cancer.

  • 443. Cedervall, Y
    et al.
    Giedraitis, V
    Berglund, L
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kilander, L
    Rosendahl, E
    Ingelsson, M
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Timed Up-and-Go dual-task performance – a marker for dementia?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 444. Cedervall, Y
    et al.
    Giedraitis, V
    Berglund, L
    McKee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kilander, L
    Rosendahl, E
    Ingelsson, M
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Timed Up-and-Go dual-task performance – a marker for dementia?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 445.
    Cedervall, Ylva
    et al.
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik, Uppsala universitet.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control, Uppsala University.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    A longitudinal study of gait function and characteristics of gait disturbances in individuals with Alzheimer's disease2014In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 1022-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking in daily life places high demands on the interplay between cognitive and motor functions. A well-functioning dual-tasking ability is thus essential for walking safely. The aims were to study longitudinal changes in gait function during single- and dual-tasking over a period of two years among people with initially mild AD (n = 21). Data were collected on three occasions, twelve months apart. An optical motion capture system was used for three-dimensional gait analysis. Gait parameters were examined at comfortable gait speed during single-tasking, dual-tasking naming names, and naming animals. The dual-task cost for gait speed was pronounced at baseline (names 26%, animals 35%), and remained so during the study period. A significant (p < 0.05) longitudinal decline in gait speed and step length during single- and dual-tasking was observed, whereas double support time, step width and step height showed inconsistent results. Systematic visual examination of the motion capture files revealed that dual-tasking frequently resulted in gait disturbances. Three main characteristics of such disturbances were identified: Temporal disturbance, Spatial disturbance and Instability in single stance. These aberrant gait performances may affect gait stability and increase the risk of falling. Furthermore, the observed gait disturbances can contribute to understanding and explaining previous reported gait variability among individuals with AD. However, the role that dual-task testing and aberrant dual-task gait performance play in the identification of individuals with early signs of cognitive impairment and in predicting fall risk in AD remains to be studied.

  • 446.
    Cedervall, Ylva
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University .
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University .
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University .
    Longitudinal study of gait function in people with Alzheimer disease2013In: CONGRESS PROGRAMME: 22ND Annual Meeting of ESMAC 5-7 September 2013, Glasgow, Scotland, 2013, p. 243-243Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 447.
    Cedervall, Ylva
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Kilander, Lena
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Declining physical capacity but maintained aerobic activity in early Alzheimer's disease2012In: American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementia, ISSN 1533-3175, E-ISSN 1938-2731, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 180-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The longitudinal influences on physical capacity and habitual aerobic activity level in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are unclear. Therefore, changes in physical capacity and aerobic activity level were evaluated. Twenty-five individuals with AD were assessed annually for 2 years, by 10-m walk test, 6-minute walk test, and timed up-and-go (TUG) single/dual tasks. Habitual aerobic activity was assessed by diary registrations. The AD group showed a lower physical capacity than controls at baseline but comparable levels of aerobic activity. During the follow-up period, physical capacity declined in the AD group, but the aerobic activity levels changed only marginally. Our results show that in the early stages of AD, people are capable of maintaining health-promoting aerobic activity levels, despite a decline in their physical capacity. Additionally, it appears that cognitive dysfunction contributes to an impaired physical capacity. The TUG tasks might, therefore, be useful for detecting early signs of cognitive impairment.

  • 448.
    Cedervall, Ylva 
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Kilander, Lena
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Declining physical capacity, but maintained health promoting aerobic activity in early Alzheimer's disease2012In: ISPGR / GAIT & MENTAL FUNCTION 1st JointWorld Congress: Symposia, Oral and Posters Sessions : Authors, Titles, Affiliations & Abstracts, 2012, p. 460-461Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 449.
    Cedervall, Ylva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Geriatrik.
    Torres, Sandra
    Uppsala universitet.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Maintaining well-being and selfhood through physical activity: experiences of people with mild Alzheimer's disease2015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 679-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To contribute to furthering the understanding of how people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) reason about physical activity as part of everyday life, with a specific focus on the meanings attached to such activity. 

    Method: In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 individuals with mild AD. Qualitative content analysis was used to interpret the data. 

    Results: The analysis revealed three sub-themes reflecting interrelated perspectives on how people with mild AD reason about physical activity: (1) striving to be physically active, mirrors the concrete approaches used for handling the consequences of having AD in relation to being active; (2) perceptions of physical activity, reflect how their thoughts and beliefs regarding written and tacit norms encouraged them to remain physically active, and (3) physical activity as a means to well-being, alludes to feelings and emotions related to the performance of physical activity. Interpretation of the underlying patterns in these sub-themes revealed one overarching theme: Physical activity as a means to selfhood maintenance, which suggests that physical activity can help to shift the focus from the dementia diagnosis (i.e. ill health) to a more healthy and able self. 

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that physical activity, apart from maintaining body functions, can be a way to sustain well-being and selfhood in mild AD. This aspect of physical activity is important to consider in research, policy and practice when addressing the needs of people with dementia.

  • 450.
    Cedervall, Ylva
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Geriatrics, Uppsala University.
    Decline in physical performance during a period of one year at erarly stage of Alzehemier´s desease2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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