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  • 401.
    Avdic, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Örebro University.
    Second order interactive end user development appropriation in the public sector: Application development using spreadsheet programs2018In: Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, ISSN 1546-2234, E-ISSN 1546-5012, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 82-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to respond to the research question: How does appropriation take place in the public sector in the development of end user applications by civil servants? Appropriation is defined as taking advantage of opportunities related to the development and use of applications, when the developer has in-depth knowledge of the problem domain and is also the primary user of the application. Our results showed that public servants who have deep problem domain knowledge can take advantage of end user tools (e.g. spreadsheet programs) in the problem- solving process to solve vaguely defined problems. Appropriation is manifested in the continuous development of various ICT applications. In this paper, we differentiate between first- and second-order appropriation. First-order appropriation takes place when the potential of the development tool is appropriated by the end user. Second-order appropriation takes place when an application is continuously developed and refined in parallel with the end user’s learning process and the development of organizational requirements.

  • 402.
    Avdic, Anders
    Örebro Universitet.
    The qualitative research method approach (qurma): students guide2010Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative methods are commonly used within the area of Electronic Government as well as other fields in social science. Among students carrying out qualitative approaches in their thesis work, qualitative studies are very common but unfortunately there is often a lack of rigor when using qualitative approaches. Method books discussing qualitative studies are frequent, but they often lack some firm advices about how to actually carry out a qualitative study. There are lots of good advices about interviews and observations. Grounded theory is often mentioned although in rather general terms. The interpretive part is not very thoroughly discussed though.

    Below we present an outline that might fill the mentioned gap somewhat.

    Our aim is to give the student a guide in carrying out the qualitative/interpretive approach. By following the ten steps below, students will not only have to prepare the study, they will also find some solid reference support for the necessary steps in the process of research.

  • 403.
    Avdic, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    User spreadsheet systems development2005In: Encyclopedia of information science and technology / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference , 2005, p. 2967-2972Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 404.
    Avdic, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Users as developers: conditions and effects of user systems development2003In: Computing information technology: the human side / [ed] Steven Gordon, Hershey: IRM Press , 2003, p. 161-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 405.
    Avdic, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Artursson Wissa, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Socratic flipped classroom: What types of questions and tasks promote learning?2016In: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on e-Learning ECEL 2016 / [ed] Jarmila Novotna & Antonin Jancarik, Reading UK, 2016, p. 41-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socratic questioning stresses the importance of questioning for learning. Flipped Classroom pedagogy generates a need for effective questions and tasks in order to promote active learning. This paper describes a project aimed at finding out how different kinds of questions and tasks support students’ learning in a flipped classroom context. In this study, during the flipped courses, both the questions and tasks were distributed together with video recordings. Answers and solutions were presented and discussed in seminars, with approximately 10 participating students in each seminar. Information Systems students from three flipped classroom courses at three different levels were interviewed in focus groups about their perceptions of how different kinds of questions and tasks supported their learning process. The selected courses were organized differently, with various kinds of questions and tasks. Course one included open questions that were answered and presented at the seminar. Students also solved a task and presented the solution to the group. Course two included open questions and a task. Answers and solutions were discussed at the seminars where students also reviewed each other’s answers and solutions. Course three included online single- and multiple choice questions with real-time feedback. Answers were discussed at the seminar, with the focus on any misconceptions. In this paper we categorized the questions in accordance with Wilson (2016) as factual, convergent, divergent, evaluative, or a combination of these. In all, we found that any comprehensible question that initiates a dialogue, preferably with a set of Socratic questions, is perceived as promoting learning. This is why seminars that allow such questions and discussion are effective. We found no differences between the different kinds of Socratic questions. They were seen to promote learning so long as they made students reflect and problematize the questions. To conclude, we found that questions and tasks promote learning when they are answered and solved in a process that is characterized by comprehensibility, variation, repetition and activity.

  • 406.
    Avdic, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Eklund, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Örebro universitetsbibliotek.
    Searching reference databases: what students experience and what teachers believe that students experience2010In: Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, ISSN 0961-0006, E-ISSN 1741-6477, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 224-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has made it possible for students to access a vast amount of high quality references when writing papers. Yet research has shown that the use of reference databases is poor and the quality of student papers is consequently often below expectation. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to describe the problems students experience when they search information using a university reference database. Second it aims to compare the perspective of students on the problems with that of their teachers. As basis for the study we have used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. A web-based survey was carried out. A total of 150 students at Örebro University in Sweden participated in the survey. The results have been analysed by comparison of median values. Results show that students experience problems mostly in the category of efforts expectancy. Differences between the two groups are most significant in the category of effort expectancy and students’ patience in searching. Teachers are more pessimistic about students’ capacity in information searching than the students themselves.

  • 407.
    Avdic, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Grönberg, Pontus
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Olsson, Johan
    Örebro unviersitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Guerra Riveros, Francisco
    Örebro unviersitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Development of a Real-time Formative Feedback Student Response System2014In: Journal of Network and Innovative Computing, ISSN 2160-2174, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focusing IT-supported real-time formative feedback in a classroom context. The development of a Student and Teacher Response System (STRS) is described. Since there are a number of obstacles for effective interaction in large classes, IT can be used to support the teachers aim to find out if students understand the lecture and accordingly adjust the content and design of the lecture. The system can be used for formative assessment before, during, and after a lecture. It is also possible for students to initiate interaction during lectures by posing questions anonymously. The main contributions of the paper are a) the description of the interactive real-time system and b) the development process behind it.

  • 408.
    Avdic, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Grönberg, Pontus
    Olsson, Johan
    Guerra Riveros, Francisco
    Student and teacher response system: development of an interactive anonymous real-timeformative feedback system2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 Third World Congress on Information and Communication Technologies (WICT 2013) / [ed] Ngo, L. .T., Abraham, A., Bui, L. T. Corchado, E., Yun-Hoi, C. & Ma, K., 2013, p. 25-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focusing IT-supported real-time formative feedback in a classroom context. The development of a Student and Teacher Response System (STRS) is described. Since there are a number of obstacles for effective interaction in large classes IT can be used to support the teachers aim to find out if students understand the lecture and accordingly adjust the content and design of the lecture. The system can be used for formative assessment before, during, and after a lecture. It is also possible for students to initiate interaction during lectures by posing questions anonymously. The main contributions of the paper are a) the description of the interactive real-time system and b) the development process behind it.

  • 409.
    Avdic, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Lambrinos, Thomas
    Impera Kommunikation; Örebro universitet.
    Modeling and illustrating requirement prioritization in public e-service development from a value-based perspective2015In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem in e-service development is the prioritization of the requirements of different stakeholders. The main stakeholders are governments and their citizens, all of whom have different and sometimes conflicting requirements. In this paper, the prioritization problem is addressed by combining a value-based approach with an illustration technique. This paper examines the following research question: How can multiple stakeholder requirements be illustrated from a value-based perspective in order to be prioritizable? We used an e-service development case taken from a Swedish municipality to elaborate on our approach. Our contributions are: 1) a model of the relevant domains for requirement prioritization for government, citizens, technology, finances and laws and regulations; and 2) a requirement fulfillment analysis tool (RFA) that consists of a requirement-goal-value matrix (RGV), and a calculation and illustration module (CIM). The model reduces cognitive load, helps developers to focus on value fulfillment in e-service development and supports them in the formulation of requirements. It also offers an input to public policy makers, should they aim to target values in the design of e-services.

  • 410.
    Avdic, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Åkerblom, Leif
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Flipped classroom and learning strategies2015In: Proceedings of 14th European Conference on e-Learning / [ed] Jefferies, A., Cubric, M., Barton, K. & Lilley, M., Reading, UK: Academic Conferences Publishing, 2015, p. 41-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to answer the research question "How does the flipped classroom affect students’ learning strategies?" In e-learning research, several studies have focused on how students and teachers perceive the flipped classroom approach. In general, these studies have reported pleasing results. Nonetheless, few, if any, studies have attempted to find out the potential effects of the flipped classroom approach on how students learn.

    This study was based on two cases: 1) a business modelling course and 2) a research methodology course. In both cases, participating students were from information systems courses at Dalarna University in Sweden. Recorded lectures replaced regular lectures. The recorded lectures were followed by seminars that focused on the learning content of each lecture in various ways.

    Three weeks after the final seminar, we arranged for two focus group interviews to take place in each course, with 8 to 10 students participating in each group. We asked open questions on how the students thought they had been affected and more dedicated questions that were generated from a literature study on the effects of flipped classroom courses. These questions dealt with issues about mobility, the potential for repeating lectures, formative feedback, the role of seminars, responsibility, empowerment, lectures before seminars, and any problems encountered.

    Our results show that, in general, students thought differently about learning after the courses in relation to more traditional approaches, especially regarding the need to be more active. Most students enjoyed the mobility aspect and the accessibility of recorded lectures, although a few claimed it demanded a more disciplined attitude. Most students also expressed a feeling of increased activity and responsibility when participating in seminars. Some even felt empowered because they could influence seminar content. The length of and possibility to navigate in recorded lectures was also considered important. The arrangement of the seminar rooms should promote face-to-face discussions. Finally, the types of questions and tasks were found to affect the outcomes of the seminars.

    The overall conclusion with regard to students’ learning strategies is that to be an active, responsible, empowered, and critical student you have to be an informed student with possibilities and mandate to influence how, where and when to learn and be able to receive continuous feedback during the learning process. Flipped classroom can support such learning.

  • 411.
    Avenäs, Johanna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Varför en sydsvensk regionbildning: finns svaret i Ansvarskommitténs utredning?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den sydsvenska regionbildningen är en förening som tillsammans står bakom en avsiktsförklaring för att slå samman Blekinge, Kalmar, Kronoberg och Skåne till en region med eget utvecklingsansvar. Förslag på att Sverige borde införa regioner med eget utvecklingsansvar lade den statliga utredningen, kallad Ansvarskommittén, fram efter att utförligt undersökt hur Sveriges samhällsorganisation kan förbättras. Efter Ansvarskommittén lade fram sitt förslag diskuterades det kring regionbildningar runt om i Sverige, men dessa diskussioner har en efter en lagts ner, förutom den sydsvenska regionbildningen och denna uppsats vill försöka ta reda på varför. Syftet med denna uppsats utgår ifrån att ta reda på om argumentationen för att bilda region som presenteras i Ansvarskommitténs utredning är drivkraften bakom den sydsvenska regionbildningen. För att ha underlag för att besvara detta syfte utgick jag från följande frågeställning Vilka huvudargument lade Ansvarskommittén i sin utredning fram för regionalisering i Sverige?, Vilka likheter och skillnader finns det i huvudargumenten för regionalisering från Ansvarskommittén i förhållande till den sydsvenska regionbildningens sätt att resonera kring en regionalisering? och Mot bakgrund av forskningslitteratur om regionalism, nyregionalism och regionalisering, i vilken utsträckning kan dessa begrepp kopplas samman med Ansvarskommitténs utredning? För att besvara syftet utgick jag från Ansvarskommitténs utredningsdokument och dokument från den sydsvenska regionbildningen. Genom kvalitativ textanalys i form av idéanalys och argumentationsanalys kom jag fram till att det verkar som att den sydsvenska regionbildningen har sin drivkraft i Ansvarskommitténs argumentation.

  • 412.
    Ax, Annika
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    Gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om algebra och problemlösning: En undersökning med utgångspunkt i elevernas kön, slutbetyg i grundskolan och val av gymnasieprogram2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka elevers uppfattningar om algebra och problemlösning samt granska hur dessa uppfattningar påverkas beroende på elevernas val av gymnasieprogram, kön och slutbetyg i grundskolan. Syftet är vidare att ta reda på vilka eventuella hinder och svårigheter eleverna själva uppfattar då de använder algebra för att lösa matematiska problem. Som metod för att söka svar på syfte och frågeställningar har valts att genomföra en enkätundersökning med elever som går första året på gymnasiet och som läser antingen naturvetenskapsprogrammet eller bygg- och anläggningsprogrammet. Enkätundersökningen består av två delar, en del som undersöker elevers uppfattningar om matematik i allmänhet och algebra och problemlösning i synnerhet, samt en del som försöker reda ut vilka svårigheter eleverna uppfattar då de ska lösa matematiska problem med algebra. Svaren sammanställs genom en analys av vilka eventuella skillnader och likheter som finns beroende på elevernas val av gymnasieprogram, kön och betyg i grundskolan. Resultatet visar på att elever på naturvetenskapsprogrammet som hade MVG i betyg i grundskolan har en mer positiv inställning till algebra och problemlösning i jämförelse med elever från bygg- och anläggningsprogrammet som fått G i betyg. Vad gäller elevernas kön finns det inte några indikationer på att denna faktor har någon större påverkan på deras uppfattningar. Resultatet kan vara en indikation på att elevernas uppfattningar främst påverkas av deras förståelse för det algebraiska tankesättet. Det eleverna upplever som svårast när de ska lösa problem med hjälp av algebra är att översätta den skrivna texten till en algebraisk framställning. När eleverna löser matematiska problem indikerar även resultatet att de till stor del styrs av sina förväntningar och förutfattade föreställningar om uppgiften. Resultatet ger en indikation om att eleverna behöver arbeta mer med problemlösning i olika former för att genom det kunna träna upp sin resonemangsförmåga och sin förmåga att behärska alla de tre faserna, översättning, omskrivning och tolkning, i den algebraiska cykeln.

  • 413.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Media and Communication Studies.
    "After the passion is gone: American religious consequences"2007In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 140-141Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 414.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Media and Communication Studies.
    "Mel Gibson's bible: Religion, popular culture, and The Passion of the Christ"2007In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 140-141Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 415.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Religion och meningsskapande genom film2015In: Samtidsreligion: Sociologiska perspektiv / [ed] Mia Lövheim & Magdalena Nordin, Malmö: Gleerups , 2015, 1, p. 152-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 416.
    Axelson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Hansson, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Sedelius, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Stier, Jonas (Editor)
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies.
    Från privatsak till politisk kraft?: Borlänges interreligiösa råd och förväntningar på religion som resurs i lokalsamhället2018Report (Other academic)
  • 417.
    Axelsson, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Lärare samtalar om sin läs- och skrivundervisning: Fokusgruppssamtal som arena för kritisk självprövning?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien Lärare samtalar om sin läs- och skrivundervisning. – Fokusgruppssamtal som arena för

    kritisk självprövning? har tagit avstamp i en kartläggning av svenskämnets läs- och skrivutveckling

    som genomfördes i en mellansvensk kommun, vårterminen 2011.

    Syftet med studien är att belysa och kritiskt granska hur lärare talar om sin undervisning när det

    gäller arbetet med elevers läs- och skrivutveckling med särskilt fokus på elever som kan vara i

    behov av särskilt stöd i sin läs- och skrivutveckling.

    För att lärare skulle ges möjlighet att samtala om sin undervisning valdes fokusgruppssamtal för

    insamlande av empirin. Studien är av kvalitativ art och har en hermeneutisk forskningsansats som

    utgångspunkt, med ett konstruktionistiskt kunskapsteoretiskt perspektiv.

    Det lärarna i samtalen gav uttryck för att de gör i arbetet med att utveckla elevers läs- och skrivutveckling,

    och som jag betraktar som strategier, har jag valt att beskriva utifrån följande kategorier:

    1. Förebyggande arbete

    2. Lärarkompetensens betydelse i arbetet med elevers läs- och skrivutveckling

    3. Läs- och skrivundervisning och uppföljning av elevers läs- och skrivutveckling

    4. Kompensera i undervisningen

    Resultatet av studien visar att lärarna i fokusgruppssamtalen till största delen samtalade om vad som

    var viktigt i arbetet med att utveckla elevers läs- och skrivutveckling. Lärarna lyckades i mycket

    liten utsträckning verbalisera hur en undervisning, som tar hänsyn till allt det som lärarna i samtalen

    uttryckte som viktiga aspekter i läs- och skrivundervisningen verkligen gestaltade sig i vardagsarbetet

    med eleverna.

    När det gäller arbetet med att utveckla elevers läsförståelse och att kompensera i läs- och skrivundervisningen

    för att alla elever ska få det stöd de behöver för att utvecklas så långt som möjligt i

    sin läs- och skrivutveckling gavs några få konkreta exempel från lärares undervisning på hur

    läsundervisningen kunde gestaltas i praktiken. Det överraskade mig att inte fler lärare verbaliserade

    och gav exempel från sin undervisning på hur de konkret arbetar i sin vardag med att utveckla

    elevers läs- och skrivutveckling, med särskilt fokus på elever som kan vara i behov av särskilt stöd i

    sin läs- och skrivutveckling.

    3

  • 418.
    Axelsson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Salminen, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    CSR inom inköp - att välja leverantör: En kvalitativ studie om faktorer som påverkar tillverkande företags val av leverantörer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our world faces a number of challenges today, such as climate changes and the lack of human

    rights. As a result of this, the trust towards companies and the engagement of Corporate

    Social Responsibility, CSR, have become an increasingly central department for most companies.

    This is a way for companies to contribute to a better world. By developing business

    solutions in such a way, that the needs of the current world population, are met without compromising

    the conditions for meeting future generations needs. Studies point out that manufacturing

    companies are a key source of the depletion of the world's resources.

    The purpose of this study is to identify which factors affect the choice of the companies suppliers,

    when choosing to work with CSR. The interviews were conducted with four manufacturing

    companies within the Dalarna region.

    The results revealed that CSR is primarily linked to corporate applications of certifications. It

    was found that companies are affected by internal and external factors when choosing a supplier.

    We have identified the company's

    "financial prerequisites" and "image" as two key

    factors that affect the company's choice of supplier when choosing to work with CSR.

  • 419. Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Avdic, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    IT management during acquisition of ERP-systems: experiences from goal dialogues at two companies2001In: , 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 420.
    Axelsson, Sandra
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sysselsättningseffekter i svenska aktiebolag av införandet av RUT-avdraget: En Difference-in-Differenceanalys2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been done with the purpose to evaluate the employment effects in Swedish limited liability companies from the introduction of the RUT deduction. The RUT deduction was introduced in 2007 and means that individuals can make a tax deduction for various kinds of household work. The data used in this study is annual report data for all Swedish limited liability companies during the years 2000 – 2010, aggregated to the three-digit SNI-code level for all Swedish municipalities. Based on this data the employment effects of the RUT deduction were analyzed using a Difference-in-Difference model. The result shows that the RUT deduction has led to 6930 new jobs created in Swedish limited liability companies in the RUT sector. This means that the RUT deduction has had a positive effect on employment.

  • 421.
    Axelsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Engman, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Aktivering av sponsorskap – ur ett föreningsperspektiv: Går föreningar i herrarnas fotbollsallsvenska utöver sponsoravtalen?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The sports in Sweden and the associations in the league Allsvenskan annually generates millions and millions in sponsorship revenues, in some cases the association capitalize even more than its sponsors. Previous research on sponsorship activation through the perspective of associations is very limited and almost absent. This study is therefore based on previous research from the sponsors perspective and is applied on the perspective of the associations.

    Based on this we have shaped the purpose of the study, which was to get an insight into whether associations in Allsvenskan goes beyond the agreement with activities that can benefit the sponsorship and if so, why. The study has been conducted with a qualitative approach and we have done telephone interviews with respondents from associations in Allsvenskan.

    The result of the study showed that there are indications that associations in Allsvenskan choose to go beyond the agreements and activate the sponsorship. But, the extent of the association´s activation is smaller compared to what extent research suggest that the sponsor should activate. The main reason why the associations choose to activate and go beyond the agreement was to create good and long relationships with their sponsors. In addition to this, we could assume an underlying reason in terms of strengthening the association's own organization and therefore offering a more attractive product on the market.

  • 422.
    Axenstedt, Simon
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Fredriksson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Resource Management.
    Chefers upplevelse av framgång i sitt ledarskap: - Vad chefer på en statlig myndighet upplever som faktorer för att utöva ett framgångsrikt ledarskap.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The field of leadership is a previously well-explored area, but relatively little research in the subject has concerned Swedish organizations and even less government institutions and authorities.

    In the following study, what managers at a government authority are perceived as factors to exercise successful leadership in their organization are investigated. The study is based on empirical evidence from qualitative interviews with five managers at the State Administration of Transport, Trafikverket. Through this study, a new interview method has also been developed, interactive themed interview. Where the respondent is a part in creating and designing the interview guide.

    In the results of this study, it is found that the investigated managers themselves felt that successful leadership in their organization is based on four factors. These are referred to as relationships, decision making, development and

    authenticity.

    The conclusions that this study can contribute beyond what factors the managers themselves consider generating a successful leadership are also how the managers act to exert what they experience successful leadership, but also what roles a successful leadership includes. That the role of the manager, the role of leader and the role as himself, affects the aforementioned factors, relationships, decision and development, and that the interaction between these roles and factors in various ways affects the managers' degree of perceived success in their leadership. The study also shows that Trafikverket's new leadership philosophy is in line with what managers perceive as contributing factors for the pursuit of successful leadership. And that this new philosophy can help managers to exert more what they themselves experience as a successful leadership.

  • 423.
    Ayertey, Bliss
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Asrat, Getnet Mengesha
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Legitimation Strategies in the reporting of Negative CSR Aspects2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The survival of organizations is dependent upon their legitimacy since legitimacy provides them with access to valuable resources. Organizations do not possess legitimacy, but rather it is ascribed to them by the society they are in when their actions meet societal expectations. Fulfillment of these societal expectations requires the moral and practical obligations of organizations which we call Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). To show their CSR performance, organizations have increasingly adopted the practice of CSR reporting. In CSR reporting, organizations are expected by their stakeholders to disclose both positive and negative aspects. Although disclosing negative aspects can pose a threat to organization’s legitimacy, a third party reporting them may cause more severe damages to the legitimacy of the organization. Therefore, organizations are motivated to legitimize their negative aspects by using legitimation strategies.

    Using the typology of Coombs and Holladay (1996), in combination with the legitimation strategies by Hahn and Lülfs (2014) as our frameworks, and the non-financial reports of the top ten German chemical companies as our illustrative cases, we investigate and interpret the choice of legitimation strategies used by organizations to report different types of negative aspects in CSR reports. Our findings show that there is a clear pattern in the use of corrective action as a legitimation strategy for all types of negative aspects. Furthermore, we identified instances, where a new type of legitimation strategy, which we called shifting blame legitimation strategy was used. We interpreted our findings using analytical reasoning and theoretical framework such as the concept of symbolic and substantive approach to interpret our findings. Based on the findings, we concluded that the dominant pattern identified falls under the substantive approach, theoretically known for helping companies retain their legitimacy.

  • 424.
    Ayoub, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Shawali, Shada
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Heder: En gråzon mellan makt, kön och kultur: En kvantitativ studie om socialarbetares upplevda kunskap och förståelse för hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish community and social services face major challenges regarding the management of honor-related violence and oppression. Lack of knowledge and an ambiguous understanding of violence affect the work of social services and may complicate the situation of vulnerable individuals. The main purpose of this study was to investigate social workers, within the section of children and family in a Swedish municipality, perceived knowledge and confidence in honor-related cases and the need for support in their work. The social workers’ views on honor-related violence and oppression were also investigated. The survey was based on a quantitative approach and questionnaires were used for data collection. The main results demonstrate that the social workers to some extent perceive themselves as having expertise in the field of honor. Nevertheless, they feel insecure in the work with honor-related cases. Furthermore, it appears that social workers are in need of specific support from the organization such as education and case supervision. Regarding the view of honor violence, a majority indicated that a gender perspective and a cultural perspective were important to understand the problem.

  • 425.
    Ayoub, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Udo, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Randell, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Promoting social engagement for young adults living in social isolation: Social workers and health care professionals' perceptions of success factors2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today the global number of young adults not in employment, education or training seem to increase. A large proportion of the group are unemployed and disengaged and have not been in contact with any authority. Thus, they are invisible to many community services and official agencies. The situation standing outside the society may have negative long-term health effects and statistics shows that more than a third of the target group after ten years still not work or study. Socially withdrawn youth is a complex phenomenon and very few young adults seek help, often due to their lack of motivation. For this reason, unemployed and inactive young people are often described as being a difficult group to support and engage. Further, there is currently limited evidence on the effects of interventions directed to socially withdrawn youth not in employment or education and the use of evidence-based practice has to be improved.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate social workers and health care professionals’ experiences of working with young adults living in social isolation, and to identify which interventions the professionals find most successful in supporting the young adults’ engagement in society.

    Methods: In this study a qualitative method was used. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted that included thirteen employees from social services and outpatient psychiatric clinics in a Swedish county. Data were analyzed using thematic network analysis.

    Results: Analysis resulted in two general thematic networks: ”barriers of the transition into adulthood” and ”to manage complex needs”. Participants tended to associate the issues of young adults with difficulties related to transition into adulthood. Mental health problems, low self-esteem, school related problems and limited social networks also came out in the interviews as factors that characterized unemployed and disengaged socially withdrawn youths. Participants described that successful work to re-engage these young adults included an empowerment-oriented perspective with a focus on the individual strengths, integrated and coordinated interventions and a flexible working approach.

    Conclusion: Today the societal changes and the process of individualization place greater demands on individual resources and capabilities which might increase the risk of social exclusion. Participants indicated that the complex problems of socially isolated young adults and experiences of long-term disengagement may contribute to stable and persistent withdrawal from society. Early identification and support for youths at risk of social withdrawal, a holistic approach, multifaceted interventions and tailored and flexible activities is deemed crucial to help reintegrate these young people. Further investigation is required to examine the effects of interventions targeting socially withdrawn and inactive young adults.

     

  • 426.
    Aytar, Osman
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Mella, Orlando
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bortom skolframgång: En analys av PISA 2006 ur ett intersektionellt perspektiv2012In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 45-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beyond school performance An analysis of PISA 2006 from an intersectional perspective

    One of the central questions in recent discussions about Swedish schools is which factors that influence school performance. Socio-economic background, gender, ethnicity, country of birth are some aspects that are mentioned in many international and national studies. Sweden is one of the participants in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the results of PISA since 2000 show deteriorated results for Sweden in reading performance, mathematics and science among 15-year-old students. In order to set school performance in a broader context we analyzed data for the Swedish part of PISA 2006, in which 57 countries participated (of which 30 OECD-countries), with multivariate methods from an intersectional perspective. Our analysis of PISA 2006 shows a complexity of different social, economic and cultural factors behind students’ school performance. This intersectional result is also strengthened by the results from PISA 2009, not analysed here. Further, our results show that students’ school performance vary with immigration status but that this variation increases by the factor of social inequality in the Swedish society.

  • 427.
    Azizi, Herash
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Momand, Wiqar
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Att få ut de nya svenskarna i arbete: - En kvalitativ studie om etableringshandläggarnas arbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment reform came into force 2010 and the employment service was given the main responsibility for the establishment of the newly arrived. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how the officers at the labor market work on establishing new arrivals with residence permit. The problem statements was labor market officers work with establishment based on their professional role and legislation, the service officers practical work, establishment in general and getting new jobs for the newly arrived in the labor market. The study used a qualitative method and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five employment service officers. The theoretical framework consisted of empowerment. The results of the study show that the establishment reform has had both positive and negative impacts. Many newly arriveds have established themselves in society and entered the labor market. The results show further that there are still aspects to change in order to improve the establishment. The study shows that the establishment reform has had a positive impact on new arrivals in the labor market. The employment officers want to work with an individualized and empowerment-oriented approach, but the heavy workload is hindering their work.

  • 428.
    Baboš, Pavol
    et al.
    Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Klimplová, Lenka
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Systematically uncoordinated? The Czech Republic and Slovakia in the view of varieties of capitalism2013In: Contemporary European Studies, ISSN 1802-4289, no 1, p. 71-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict or coordination are the most frequently used words describing the industrial relations in developed economies. What is the relationship between the biggest industrial actors in the former Czechoslovakia and is there any coordination? This paper tries to answer this question focusing on the coordination in the main economic spheres in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The research is based on the analysis of statistical data and a survey in which a group of experts completed a questionnaire stemming from the Varieties of Capitalism approach. Almost 30 experts representing employers, trade unions and the state from both countries provided insight into the amount of coordination that exists among the main economic actors. Our findings not only undermine the recent classifications of the Central Europe in the Varieties of Capitalism literature, but also show a slightly different institutional setting of the industrial relations in these two post-communist countries. The main results of our research shows that there is an emerging pattern of ‘systematic un-coordination’ among the key spheres of the national economy as defined by Varieties of Capitalism. The authors conclude this article with a discussion regarding the results and limitations of their research.

  • 429.
    Backhans, Mona
    et al.
    Folkhälsoinstitutet.
    Leifman, Håkan
    SoRAD.
    Vem blir nykterist?: Om nykteristen som avvikare2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 58-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Who becomes an abstainer? On the abstainer as deviant

    The principal aim of the study is to find out what the characteristics are of those consumers that later choose to abstain from alcohol. Both cross-sectional and panel data from the level-of-living surveys (LNU) conducted 1968, 1974, 1981 and 1991 are analysed. The results show that those becoming abstainers during the study period have a higher proportion of smokers than the long-term abstainers and, compared to the long-term abstainers and the drinkers, poorer mental health, a higher prevalence of use of minor tranquillizers and a sparser social network. In the beginning of the study period (1968-74) an association was also found between cardiovascular disease and later abstinence. Whereas (physical) health selection has become less obvious over time, the importance of negative psychosocial selection increases, especially for women. The findings underline the importance of distinguishing the new, selected abstainers - former drinkers - from long-term abstainers. This holds true especially in studies of the relationship between alcohol consumption on the one hand and mortality or morbidity on the other hand. It is likely that a majority of the long-term abstainers, of which some are lifetime abstainers, are part of a social context in which abstinence is not seen as deviant, whereas a large proportion of the new abstainers have a problematic life situation. The abstainers’ deviant position says something about the Swedish drinking culture in the last decades of the twentieth century. The fact that the psychosocial selection is so pronounced, and increases over time, reflects a social climate where an ever-decreasing number sees abstinence as an attractive choice.

  • 430.
    Backlund, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    IKT en naturlig del i klassrummet?: En studie om användning av IKT i matematik- och naturvetenskapsundervisningen hos lärare i årskurs F-92015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever idag växer upp i ett samhälle med digitala miljöer som en självklar del av sin vardag, de är

    väl förtrogna i användningen av den digitala tekniken. För att möta dessa elever i skolan utmanas

    undervisningen i klassrummet. Alltmer teknik integreras även i skolan och det medför att skolans

    organisation och villkor förändras, det ställer nya krav på skolan och lärare. Det finns många

    studier som funnit tydliga tecken på att IKT i lärandet ökar elevernas motivation och

    engagemang. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilken inställning och motivation lärare i

    åk F-9 har till användning av den tekniska utrustning de har tillgång till, och hur IKT kan få en

    naturlig plats i klassrummet genom undervisning i naturvetenskapliga ämnen samt matematik.

    Rapporter visar att svenska elevers kunskaper i matematik och naturvetenskap har försämrats.

    Tror lärarna att de kan motivera eleverna bättre genom användning av IKT? Nio pedagoger

    deltog i studien där enkät och intervju använts som metod. Resultatet av studien stämmer

    överens med tidigare forskning som visar att lärare sällan eller aldrig använder IKT i sin

    undervisning i matematik eller naturvetenskap. Däremot är de flesta positiva till användning av

    IKT. För att motivera lärare att öka användandet i undervisningen krävs, enligt studiens resultat,

    att lärare får bättre tillgång till utrustning, mer tid för planering och fortsatt kompetensutveckling.

  • 431.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Content knowledge or pedagogical pedagogic content knowledge?: Exploring learning outcomes for Australian trainee teachers in physical education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of physical education teacher education (PETE), content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) are constructions of different forms of teacher knowledge that have been used to address knowledge of a subject and knowledge of teaching a subject to young people (Herold & Waring 2009, Siedentop 2009, Tinning 2010). This paper addresses how these two forms of teacher knowledge are valued through a study of learning outcomes (LOs) in syllabus documents at a sample of PETE universities in New South Wales, Australia. The US educationalist Lee Shulman (1987) originally defined CK as “the accumulation of literature and studies in content areas, and the historical and philosophical scholarship on the nature of knowledge in those fields of study” (p. 8-9). In the PETE context, CK is constructed by various sub-disciplines (Tinning 2010). According to Siedentop (2009), one of the most fundamental as well as the most marginalized of these sub-disciplines, is PE teacher students’ knowledge of movement. In this study, specific interest is devoted to how CK and PCK are expressed in documents regulating sport and movement courses within PETE. Regarding PCK, Shulman (1987) suggests it to be “that special amalgam of content and pedagogy that is uniquely the province of teachers, their own special form of professional understanding” (p. 8. Globally, there seems to be an agreement for the importance of future PE teachers to experience movement and sport practices during their education. However, there also seems to be different ideas about whether CK or PCK should by prioritized in the teaching and assessment of movement and sport practices during PETE (Backman & Pearson 2016, Capel, et al 2011, Herold & Waring 2009, Johnson 2013, Tinning 2010). The study of how LOs are expressed in an educational context can inform us not only of what forms of knowledge are most valued. It might also say something about PE teacher educators’ abilities to formulate his/her expectations of the student’s performance. For this instance, the discussion of learning objectives as formulated in university courses has lately been intensified. In Europe, this discussion has been strongly related to the intentions in the Bologna-declaration (Adam 2008, Brooks et al 2014, Hussey & Smith 2008). Some of the issues raised in the literature have concerned ways of formulating verbs in learning outcomes, student activity built into learning outcomes, and level of difficulty in learning outcomes (Adam 2008, Biggs & Tang 2007). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyse LOs formulated in syllabus document for sport courses at a sample of Australian PETE institutions. Further, the aim is to discuss these LOs through a framework regarding teacher knowledge originating from Lee Shulman (1987). Although PETE, like university programs in other subjects, are historical and cultural constructions, research from European countries such as UK, France, Sweden (Backman &Pearson 2016, Capel, et al 2011, Loquet & Ranganathan 2010) display similarities with the Australian PETE context. One characteristic feature of PETE in all these countries is the relative emphasis on constructivist epistemology and critical pedagogy, although this feature appears to be somewhat stronger in Australia compared to Europe and US. In times where the content in PETE is crowded and the time for teaching is short, a study of what forms of PE teacher knowledge are valued in some Australian PETE institutions, a context where the production of PETE research has been significant during the last decades (see e.g. Forrest 2015, Garrett & Wrench 2012, MacDonald et al 2002, Tinning 2010), can therefore serve as a valuable contrast for the discussion of knowledge forms in European PETE contexts.    

    Methods/methodology (up to 400 words) 

    By the end of 2014, there were 24 universities across Australia offering PETE, eight in New South Wales (NSW). These eight universities in NSW makes the total sample (N=8) in the study reported in this paper. To the collection of the empirical material in form of written documents, five PETE-universities (n=5) of the total sample have contributed. Each university was asked to contribute with two unit outlines for courses in sport and movement for PETE students. A unit outline is a written document intended to give the student more specific information compared to what a curriculum document for a course will provide (e.g. regarding examination, schedule, expectations, etc). Further, a unit is generally only a part of a whole course. The collected unit outlines contained a the total number of 73 LOs. The sample of unit outlines can be described as a strategic and purposeful sample (Patton, 2002). The empirical collection from the participating universities was carried out during November and December 2014. After information about the study through e-mail and phone, a total number of 10 unit outlines were sent to the author by e-mail. In the analysis Alvesson and Sköldberg (1994) description of analytical induction or abduction has served as an inspiration. This means trying to let, on one hand, the empirical material inform the choice of theoretical perspective while on the other hand, acknowledging that some specific theoretical perspectives, in this case Shulman’s (1987) forms of teacher knowledge, have been viewed as more relevant than others before conducting the study. The primary analysis has been divided into two steps. In the first step, when reading through the collected and transcribed material questions such as: ‘What movement and sport practices do students meet during PETE in NSW?’ and ‘How are movement and sport practices expressed through the LOs in the unit outlines?’ has been asked. Asking these questions to the material has involved a process of clustering described by Patton (2002) as convergence which has been followed up by a process of divergence, that is, an exclusion of formulations and quotes that do not fit into the identified pattern. In the second stage of the analysis, the choice of Shulman’s (1987) concepts for forms of teacher knowledge was confirmed and strengthened as we discovered that the different views of assessment of movement and sport practices were clearly related to our chosen definitions of CK and PCK.

    Expected outcomes/results (up to 300 words) 

    The preliminary analysis of the LOs shows that the knowledge in sport and movement courses at the investigated PETE institutions is sometimes formulated as CK and sometimes as PCK (Shulman 1987). Within these two main categories there were also sub-categories related to abilities expressed through different verbs. With regards to PCK one such main sub-category addressed the students’ ability to “plan, arrange, carry out and assess different forms of teaching situations”. Further, another ability expressed within the PCK category was the ability to “observe, analyse and critically reflect over educational practices”. These two PCK sub-categories clearly reflect research emphasizing critical pedagogy in Australian PETE (Garrett & Wrench 2012, MacDonald et al 2002, Tinning 2010). Further, two other forms of sub-categories, expressed both as CK and as PCK, was firstly, the ability to “perform movements” and secondly, the ability to “demonstrate an understanding” of different forms of movement and sport practices. Findings will be discussed in relation to research criticizing the decrease of sport performances in PETE (Herold & Waring 2009, Siedentop 2009) as well as work emphasizing the importance to teach and assess movement practices to PETE students in contextualized situations (Backman & Pearson 2016). The concept of “understanding” was found to be very commonly used in LOs both when expressed as CK and as PCK. Generally, students were encouraged to “demonstrate an understanding” of different forms of knowledge. In literature of how to formulate knowledge in higher education, the concept of understanding has been discussed, sometimes criticized as lacking precision (Adam 2008, Biggs & Tang 2007), sometimes claimed to be under-contextualised (Hussey & Smith 2008). Part of the discussion will focus on various meanings of understanding in sport courses at some Australian PETE-institutions and how these meanings can differ depending on whether CK or PCK is addressed.

    Intent of publication:  

    References (400 words)

    Adam, S. (2008). Learning Outcomes Current Developments in Europe: Update on the Issues and Applications of Learning Outcomes Associated with the Bologna Process. Retrieved 12 May 2015, from http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/BolognaSeminars/documents/Edinburgh/Edinburgh_Feb08_Adams.pdf

    Alvesson, M. & Sköldberg, K. (1994). Tolkning och Reflektion. Vetenskapsfilosofi och Kvalitativ Metod. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

    Backman, E. & Pearson, P. (2016) ‘We should assess the students in more authentic situations’: Swedish PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers. European Physical Education Review, 22, 47–64.

    Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2007). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Third edition. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

    Brooks, S., Dobbins, K., Scott, J. J., Rawlinson, M., & Norman, R. I. (2014). Learning about Learning Outcomes: The Student Perspective. Teaching in Higher Education, 19, 721-733.

    Capel, S., Hayes, S., Katene, W. and Velija, P. (2011). The interaction of factors which influence secondary student physical education teachers’ knowledge and development as teachers. European Physical Education Review, 17, 183–201.

    Forrest, G. (2015). Systematic assessment of game-centred approach practices – the game-centred approach Assessment Scaffold. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 20, 144-158.

    Garrett, R. & Wrench, A. (2012). ‘Society has taught us to judge’: cultures of the body in teacher education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 40, 111–126.

    Herold, F. & Waring, M. (2009). Pre-service physical education teachers’ perceptions of subject knowledge: Augmenting learning to teach. European Physical Education Review, 15, 337–364.

    Hussey, T., & Smith, P. (2008). Learning Outcomes: A Conceptual Analysis. Teaching in Higher Education, 13 (1), 107-115.

    Johnson, T.G. (2013). The value of performance in Physical Education teacher education. Quest, 65, 485-497.

    Loquet, M. & Ranganathan, M. (2010). Content knowledge in teaching, an investigation into an adequate ‘milieu’ for teaching dance: The case of Indian dance in France. European Physical Education Review, 16, 65–79.

    MacDonald, D., Hunter, L., Carlson, T. & Penney, D. (2002). Teacher Knowledge and the Disjunction between School Curricula and Teacher Education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 30, 259-275.

    Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. London: Sage Publications.

    Shulman, L.S. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-21.

    Siedentop, D. (2009). Content Knowledge for Physical Education. In R. Bailey & D. Kirk (Eds.), The Routledge Physical Education Reader (pp. 243-253). Abingdon: Routledge

  • 432.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Development of outdoor education in Sweden2018In: The Changing World of Outdoor Learning. European reflections. / [ed] Becker, Peter; Humberstone, Barbara; Loynes, Chris & Schirp, Jochem, London: Routledge , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    The full text will be freely available from 2019-12-14 00:00
  • 433.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Development(s) of outdoor education in Sweden2018In: The changing world of outdoor learning in Europe / [ed] Peter Becker, Barbara Humberstone, Chris Loynes, Jochem Schirp, London: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 165-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 434.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    En teorispäckad sociologisk analys av fritid och sport – ett ambitiöst projekt: recension av boken Leisure, Sports & Society av Karl Spracklen2014In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 14 novemberArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I september 2014 bytte Leeds Metropolitan University, trots studentprotester, namn till Leeds Beckett University; universitetets första colleges låg i Beckett Park, vilken i sin tur fått namn efter bankiren och konservative parlamentsledamoten Ernest Beckett, 2nd Baron Grimthorpe (1856–1917), vars alma mater faktiskt var Trinity College, Cambridge. Leeds-studenternas motstånd hade sin grund i att namnändringen beräknades kosta en kvarts miljon pund, alltmedan inte minst universitetets idrottsanläggningar tillåtits förfalla. Vi vet inte hur universitetets personal ställde sig till namnförändringen, och särskilt nyfikna är vi ju på vad professorn i Leisure Studies (fritidsforskning, fritidsvetenskap) vid Leeds Beckett University, Karl Spracklen, tyckte om förändringen. Detta är dock blott "idle curiosity"; Spracklen är aktuell av ett helt annat, och viktigare, skäl, nämligen för sin bok Leisure, Sports & Society (Palgrave Macmillan). Spracklen, som är sociolog och vars forskningsintresse också inkluderar "metal music" (som sekreterare för International Society for Metal Music Studies och redaktör för Metal Music Studies) och "whiskey tourism" (som drivande i British Sociological Associations Alcohol Study Group) är en centralfigur inom det brittiska fritidsforskningsetablissemanget – han har bland annat varit ordförande i viktiga LSA, Leisure Studies Association från 2009 till 2013. Han har därtill en lång rad publikationer bakom sig, böcker, antologibidrag och vetenskapliga artiklar inom idrotts- och fritidsforskning i vid mening. Den nya boken ges här en grundlig recension av Erik Backman, som ju vet ett och annat om fritidsforskning, Spracklen bottnar teoretiskt i Habermas, i sig ovanligt bland brittiska forskare, men också i Marx, Weber och Bourdieu, bland andra, i sin utforskning av sambandet mellan fritid, fysisk aktivitet och sport ur ett tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv som innefattar idrottsvetenskap, sociologi, cultural studies, historia, filosofi och psykologi. Och vår recensent är imponerad över bredden, djupet och ambitionsnivån – även om det kan bli lite tjatigt från och till.

  • 435.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv: a contribution to equity and democracy in Swedish PE? : An analysis of codes in Swedish PE curricula2011In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 269-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, expanding research investigating school subject Physical Education (PE), indicates a promotion of inequalities regarding which children benefit from PE teaching. Outdoor education and its Scandinavian equivalent friluftsliv, is a part of the PE curriculum in many countries and these practices have been claimed to have the potential to contribute to more equity in PE teaching. Through an investigation of how stipulations regarding friluftsliv in the national Swedish PE curriculum are transformed and interpreted into 31 local PE syllabus documents, this paper investigates the possibilities for friluftsliv to fulfil this potential. In an analysis inspired by educational sociologist Basil Bernstein, I claim that Swedish PE teachers’ marginalised interpretation of friluftsliv indicates its weak classification when a part of PE. When friluftsliv is addressed in PE, the strong dominance of a performance code transforms it into mere sport activities. The results of this study highlight questions regarding PE teachers’ interpretation of learning aims and their work with text documents. It also discusses alternatives to implementing friluftsliv through PE and the role of teachers in curriculum reforms. 

  • 436.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Friluftsliv i fjällen: Fjällsäkerhetsrådets läromedel för åk 7-92017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 437.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv, idrott och skola i förändring2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld / [ed] Sandell, Arnegård, Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 65-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 438.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Friluftsliv in Swedish Physical Education – a Struggle of Values: Educational and Sociological Perspectives2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine some of the educational and sociological conditions underlying the production of teaching in friluftsliv within the Physical Education (PE) subject in Swedish compulsory school. Despite the value awarded to the Scandinavian outdoor practice friluftsliv, in both the national PE curriculum document and in Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in Sweden, it does not seem to be thoroughly implemented in compulsory school teaching. Through analyses of interviews with PE teachers and PE teacher educators, as well as of curriculum documents, using the perspectives of Basil Bernstein and Pierre Bourdieu, I explore conditions underlying the expressions of friluftsliv teaching in Swedish PE.

    The pedagogic discourse for friluftsliv in Swedish PE is described as a teaching that should take place in a natural setting remote from civilisation, involve risks, and require time, technical equipment, financial resources, and cooperation. This discourse for friluftsliv is shown to be similar to the values emphasised in friluftsliv education in PETE. Although proven to be difficult to implement in school, this discourse appear to form the conception of friluftsliv teaching for PE teachers in Sweden. Under the influence of the performance code, friluftsliv is transformed into outdoor activities with which the PE teachers are familiar, or is totally left out of PE teaching.

    A turn towards options that are seen as unthinkable in relation to the current pedagogic discourse may benefit the achievement of the aims set out in the national PE curriculum. Values such as environmental awareness, sustainable development and cultural perspectives on the landscape could strengthen the classification of friluftsliv and PE in compulsory school. Further, an increase of socially critical and constructivist perspectives during PETE could make unthinkable options in friluftsliv thinkable and contribute to a break with the reproduction of teaching practices in PE.

  • 439.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    “Instantaneous or continuous examination”– exploring dilemmas about when to examine movement in Swedish PETE.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been claimed that issues of assessment in school and education is of particular interest in contemporary society with many conflicting demands, theories and practices (McDowell 2010). In the field of Physical Education (PE), assessment issues, grading and examination practices has received attention on the school level during the last decade (MacPhail & Halbert 2010, Penney 2009, Lopez-Pastor et.al 2013, Redelius & Hay 2009). However, on the level of PE teacher education (PETE), the knowledge base of these issues is not as significant. Based on the relative reduction of movement practices in PETE following the academisation of teacher education in general (Kirk 2010), there are reasons to investigate the what- and the how-question regarding examination in movement practices in PETE.

     

    The aim with this paper is to analyse and discuss what is assigned value in the formulation of tasks for examination of movement in subject courses on seven Swedish PETE departments. Inspired by Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic capital (Bourdieu & Wacquant 1992) and its use in PE research (Backman 2008, Brown 2005, Redelius et.al. 2009), a preliminary analysis of formulations in curricula documents has showed that the examination of movement practices is a silent, constant and ongoing process, rather than out-spoken and performed at specific occasions during a course. The analysis has also shown that the ability to perform movements is, within examination tasks, formulated separate from the ability to teach, rather than integrated with one another. Illuminating these issues, not only on the level of school PE but also on the PETE level, might develop and strengthen assessment practices not only in PE but also in PETE.

  • 440.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Recension av Andkjær, Søren, Bentsen, Peter & Ejbye-Ernst, Niels (2009) ”Friluftsliv: Natur, samfund og pædagogik”: Ambitiöst om friluftsliv i Danmark – kanske alltför ambitiöst...2011In: www.idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, no 12 oktArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Friluftsliv uppvisar ett uppsving som för många säkert är oväntat men som nog till stor del är i samklang med den skandinaviska tidsandan. Visserligen är det ett i huvudsak urbant fenomen, de senaste årens fokus på fysisk aktivitet, konditionsträning och fitness, aktiviteter som dessutom ofta äger rum inomhus i speciella kommersiellt drivna träningshallar – där är luften inte fri! – men trenden tar sig också uttryck i löpning eller joggning i urbana parkområden eller i lagom tuktad natur i anslutning till städer. Man kan tänka att steget inte skulle vara långt till verkliga naturupplevelser, och, som sagt, det finns ett uppsving. Det nymornade intresset för autentiska naturupplevelser kan säkert också bottna i en civilisationskritisk trend i det tidiga tredje millenniet, vars beståndsdelar spretar på ett sätt som gör det omöjligt att närmare skärskåda företeelsen i detta sammanhang. Istället konstaterar vi att forskningen varit kvick att fånga upp friluftsintresset, vilket inte minst märks i recensionsfloran på den här webbplatsen, som denna gång utvidgas med en recension av Friluftsliv: Natur, samfund og pædagogik av Peter Bentsen, Søren Andkjær och Niels Ejbye-Ernst (Munksgaard Danmark). Erik Backman, som disputerat i ämnet, har läst och recenserar, och han bjuder redaktörerna på många tips till förbättringar inför nästa upplaga av boken.

  • 441.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Recension av Sandell, Klas & Sörlin, Sverker (2008) (red) ”Friluftshistoria: Från «härdande friluftslif» till ekoturism och miljöpedagogik”: Genomarbetad antologi2011In: www.idrottsforum.org, ISSN 1652–7224, no 26 janArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med att idrott och sport kommit att ta allt större utrymme på olika plan i samhällslivet så har friluftsliv, med dess tydliga samhörighet till många av idrottslivets kärnvärden, också fått förnyad aktualitet. Forumet har varit lite sen att uppmärksamma denna förändring, även om det inte är det enda skälet till att vi först nu recenserar en av nyckelböckerna i området (det handlat också om att friluftsforskarna i Norden står varandra ganska nära). Men som är det är med selektiv perception, när vi väl hade noterat en eller två nya böcker om friluftsliv så hittade vi bara fler och fler, avhandlingar och antologier. Snart kommer en ny temasida om friluftsliv i forumets mer om-sektion. Boken som nu blivit föremål för kritisk granskning är Klas Sandells och Sverker Sörlins antologi Friluftshistoria: Från «härdande friluftslif» till ekoturism och miljöpedagogik (Carlssons) i dess andra upplaga från 2008 – den första kom 2000. Den recenseras av en relativt nybakad doktor i friluftsliv, Erik Backman, vars avhandling recenseras i dessa spalter under våren. Som sagt, detta är en grundsten i den svenska friluftsforskningen, men vår recensent dristar sig att föra fram flera förslag till förbättringar inför kommande nya utgåvor.

  • 442.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    ”Tell us what to do and how to assess!”: Swedish PE teachers’ experiences of the implementation of Support For Assessment in outdoor education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many European countries, Outdoor Education (OE, or its Scandinavian equivalent as friluftsliv) is in the formal school setting positioned within the subject Health and Physical Education (HPE). In the curriculum for compulsory school, implemented in 2011, OE is organized as one of three areas of knowledge along with Health and Lifestyle, and Movement. In order to meet the increasing call for a more equal assessment and grading in Swedish Schools, the Swedish National Agency of Education (SNAE) completed the curriculum in HPE with a material (text and film) named Support For Assessment (SFA) in 2012. As responsible for the construction of OE in SFA the author followed up the implementation of the SFA with several presentations and workshops for teachers in HPE during 2013 and 2014. The purpose of this presentation is to describe how OE was constructed in the SFA in Swedish HPE for compulsory school and further to analyse and discuss reactions from Swedish HPE teachers expressed in evaluations after the mentioned presentations and workshops. The results suggest that while a part of the HPE teachers found the SFA useful and effective, another part called for more concrete advices on what to assess in OE and how to assess it. Drawing on Basil Bernstein’s theories of how pedagogical messages are communicated and evaluated in school systems, the results will be discussed in relation to the classification of OE within Swedish HPE.

  • 443.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Undervisning och bedömning i friluftsliv2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 444.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Undervisning och bedömning i ämnet friluftsliv i ämnet idrott och hälsa2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 445.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Vad ska en idrottslärare kunna?2013In: I takt med tiden?: perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien / [ed] Erik Backman, Lena Larsson, Studentlitteratur , 2013, p. 143-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 446.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What can socially critical perspectives offer to PESP and PETE? Examples from a sport-university in Stockholm, Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This seminar takes its departure in PETE-programmes and PESP-research at The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden. After a brief description of the activity at this university with regards to history, culture, structure, content and extent, the main focus of the seminar will be devoted to a discussion of the challenges following partly from acting within a multidisciplinary academic (sport) context and partly from insights after comparing Swedish PETE-programmes and PESP-research to its similarities in other countries. Issues with regards to equity, equality and power, and the educational impact of these perspectives, will be acknowledged during this seminar. 

  • 447.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What controls teaching of friluftsliv? Analysing a pedagogic discourse in Swedish PE2011In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that outdoor teaching practices within a physical education (PE) context are controlled by several factors with the potential to weaken or strengthen PE teachers' communication of pedagogic messages. Drawing on 12 qualitative interviews with PE teachers in compulsory schools in Sweden, the findings in this study suggest that factors claimed to control teachers' pedagogic communication of friluftsliv (the Scandinavian equivalent to outdoor education) are based on the construction of a dominating pedagogic discourse for outdoor teaching in Swedish schools. Inspired by Basil Bernstein's theoretical concepts of the pedagogic device, the analysis of this discourse indicates that Swedish PE teachers and PE teacher education appear to reproduce friluftsliv as a teaching practice carried out in a remote wilderness setting involving specific equipment, financial resources and a certain amount of risk. In relation to these results, alternative ways to think of outdoor teaching in relation to the achievement of the national aims in Swedish PE are discussed.

  • 448.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    What is valued when moving in (Swedish) PETE? PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been claimed that issues of assessment in school and higher education is of particularinterest in contemporary society with many conflicting demands, theories andpractices. In the field of Physical Education (PE), assessment issues, gradingand examination practices has received attention on the school level during thelast decade. However, on the level of PE teacher education (PETE), theknowledge base of these issues is not as significant. Based on the relativereduction of movement practices in PETE following the academisation of teachereducation in general, there are reasons to investigate the what- and thehow-questions regarding examination in movement practices in PETE. In thisstudy, expressions of examination regarding movements in PETE departments in Swedenand in Australia have been investigated and compared. Building on analysis ofsyllabi documents from PETE departments in Sweden and Australia, and oninterviews with PE teacher educators from these departments, the specific aimof the study is to analyse and discuss what is assigned value in theexamination of movements on a sample of PETE departments in Sweden andAustralia. Inspired by the sociological and educational theories of PierreBourdieu and Basil Bernstein, and particularly the concepts of social field andsymbolic capital (Bourdieu) as well as classification, performance code andcompetence code (Bernstein), the preliminary analysis  of the investigated syllabi documents hasshowed that there is a tension regarding whenthe examination of movements is taking place. There are expressions of instantaneousexamination, i.e. examinations that take place at one or a few occasions withspecific and outspoken tasks, as well as of continuous examination, i.e.examination as a silent, constant and ongoing process often combined withdemands of participation. The preliminary analysis of the interviews with thePE teacher educators has revealed a tension between viewing the importance ofmovement as subject matter knowledge, i.e. as an ability to perform movements,or as didactic knowledge, i.e. as a means for the ability to teach. Thesetensions will be further analysed with regards to similarities and differencesbetween PETE departments in Sweden and Australia. Illuminating these issues mightdevelop and strengthen examination practices not only in PETE but also in PE.

  • 449.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, JohanGymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.Sandell, KlasKarlstad Universitet.
    Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vandra, klättra eller paddla i naturpräglade landskap blir tävlingar i multisport. Samtidigt blir sådant som kiting och brädsporter upplevelseorienterade och tävlingskritiska.

    Aktiviteter friställs också alltmer från landskapet genom äventyrsbad och klätterväggar, skidåkning inomhus och forspaddlingsbanor med vattenpumpar.

    Håller friluftslivet och naturen – som i skidåkning på natursnö, skogsvandringar och paddling på forsens och havets villkor – att helt tappa sin betydelse?

    Eller är det i stället en nytändning för friluftslivets lekfullhet och en väg till nya naturmöten som vi ser i trendiga aktiviteter och uppbyggda miljöer?

    Boken vänder sig till blivande och verksamma idrottslärare, entreprenörer och ledare i idrott, friluftsliv, fritid och turism. Den kan dessutom med fördel rekommenderas som inspirerande läsning för den breda allmänheten med intresse för friluftslivets varierande möjligheter.

     

  • 450.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Arnegård, Johan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH.
    Sandell, Klas
    Karlstads universitet.
    Slutsatser och framåtblick2011In: Friluftssport och äventyrsidrott - utmaningar för lärare, ledare och miljö i en föränderlig värld. / [ed] Sandell, Arnegård, Backman, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 203-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
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