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  • 51.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Navigare2017In: Navigare 75 / [ed] Pagine S.r.L., Rome, Italy: Pagine S.r.L. , 2017, p. 7-7Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [it]

    Per Navigare servono coordinate geografiche, abilità, esperienza e una certa dose di coraggio. Non così differente è il mestiere del poeta; un autore deve infatti essere in grado di affrontare ed evidenziare, attraverso la sua scrittura, la gioia e il dolore del vivere. Arduo dunque è il suo compito. Tra burrasche indomabili e mostri mitologici, come ci insegna la letteratura, ogni navigante vorrebbe scrutare col suo sguardo l’orizzonte per gridare: «Terra!», sia essa il sinonimo geografico di un nuovo luogo da scoprire, sia essa il sinonimo visivo di un insperato quanto voluto ritorno a casa. A ogni autore presente nella collana è stato chiesto di scavalcare le proprie astratte colonne d’Ercole per tracciare un personale diario di bordo poetico, un metodo per definire i pensieri più intimi e i vissuti più reconditi; un modo per esporre il proprio mare dentro, affinché si possa essere degli Ulisse nel e del mondo contemporaneo.

  • 52.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Giannantoni, Corrado
    ENEA (National agency for new technologies, Energy and sustainable economic development)).
    A new approach to future energy strategies based on GDP2000In: 2nd International Workshop "Advances in Energy Studies, Exploring Supplies, Constriants, and Strategies" / [ed] Prof Sergio Ulgiati, SGE Editoriali, Padova, 2000, p. 397-408Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University.
    Growth, migration and unemployment across Swedish municipalities2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their economic growth rates vary, whether their growth tends to converge and the key factors that contribute to the variations. These questions have not yet been fully addressed, but changes in the local tax base are clearly influenced by the average income growth rate, net migration rate, and changes in unemployment rates. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to explore in depth the interactive effects of these factors (and local policy variables) in Swedish municipalities, by estimating a proposed three-equation system. Our main finding is that increases in local public expenditures and income taxes have negative effects on subsequent local income growth. In addition, our results support the conditional convergence hypothesis, i.e. that average income tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

  • 54.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Econometric Estimation of Energy Demand2017In: Energy futures, environment and well-being / [ed] Sergio Ulgiati and Laura Vanoli, 2017, p. 547-556Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a relatively simple procedure to examine the responsiveness of energy demand to measures of economic activity and electricity price. We estimate the demand function for electricity both for households and for industry in 29 countries, mainly European countries, in the last 10 years, using a panel aggregate data.

    Preliminary results suggest, as expected, that price has a negative significant effect on the electricity consumption. This is the case for both households and industry level for the same sample of countries. Our results also suggest that short-run elasticity of electricity consumption with respect to aggregate output seems to have been stable and unit elastic during the last decade. Moreover, price elasticity is more elastic and more stable in the industry sector than households are.

  • 55.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Perman, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Policy instruments to improve energy efficiency in buildings2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The newly adopted energy efficiency directive (2012/27/EU) highlights the importance of energy efficiency in reaching the Union’s 2020 targets. The directive commits member states to defining national energy efficiency targets (art. 3), achieving yearly energy savings of 1.5% of the annual energy sales through the energy efficiency obligation scheme (art. 7), and providing a long-term strategy for the building sector that aims at a 3% refurbishment rate for public buildings (art. 4+5). Buildings currently account for 40% of energy use in most countries, putting them among the largest end-use sectors.

    This report takes a closer look at the best practices for implementing increasing energy efficiency in different regions and countries in Europe. The final aim is to identify some policy tools to be suggested to the region of Dalarna (Dalarna having been chosen as the pilot county in Sweden) as a means of implementing energy efficiency in the building sector. The final objective is to give analysts and decision-makers a better analytical foundation to explore future policy development in the area of buildings to be proposed and tested at the regional level in Dalarna and later at the national level in Sweden.

  • 56. Coad, Alex
    et al.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Res.
    Hoelzl, Werner
    Johansson, Dan
    Nightingale, Paul
    High-growth firms: introduction to the special section2014In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 91-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-growth firms (HGFs) have attracted considerable attention recently, as academics and policymakers have increasingly recognized the highly skewed nature of many metrics of firm performance. A small number of HGFs drives a disproportionately large amount of job creation, while the average firm has a limited impact on the economy. This article explores the reasons for this increased interest, summarizes the existing literature, and highlights the methodological considerations that constrain and bias research. This special section draws attention to the importance of HGFs for future industrial performance, explores their unusual growth trajectories and strategies, and highlights the lack of persistence of high growth. Consequently, while HGFs are important for understanding the economy and developing public policy, they are unlikely to be useful vehicles for public policy given the difficulties involved in predicting which firms will grow, the lack of persistence in high growth levels, and the complex and often indirect relationship between firm capability, high growth, and macro-economic performance.

  • 57. Coad, Alex
    et al.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Res.
    Johansson, Dan
    Wennbergz, Karl
    Whom do high-growth firms hire?2014In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 293-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study employment and new hires among high-growth firms (HGFs) in the Swedish knowledge-intensive sectors 1999-2002. Using matched employer-employee data, we find that HGFs are more likely to employ young people, poorly educated workers, immigrants, and individuals who experienced longer unemployment periods. However, these patterns seem contingent on the stage of the firm's evolution. HGFs that have already realized some rapid growth are more likely to hire individuals from other firms, even though immigrants are still overrepresented among new hires. In the case of both HGF employees and HGF new hires, employment opportunities in HGFs are provided by young and small firms.

  • 58.
    Dahlqvist, Hampus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Laham, Tarek
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Uppskattning av betalningsviljan för Peace & Love 20112016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the willingness to pay among the visitors of peace & love-festival year 2011 is valued. With survey data based on revealed and stated preferences a regression analysis is presented with different independent variables that characterizes a festival visitor. Total budget is the dependent variable in the regression analysis and is, in this thesis, to be regarded as equivalent to visitors’ willingness to pay. The analysis shows that men in general spend 301 SEK more than women, tourists in general spend 1 124 SEK more than non-tourists and that the average visitor has a willingness to pay valued to 4 183 SEK. A consumer surplus has also been valued, which amounted to 743 SEK per visitor and around 37 million SEK in total for all 50,000 visitors. This thesis does not take into account the economic effects the festival holds on the city of Borlänge.

  • 59.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    When is Gibrat's law a law?2012In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 133-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate if the industry context matters for whether Gibrat’s law is rejected or not using a dataset that consists of all limited firms in five-digit NACE-industries in Sweden during 1998–2004. The results reject Gibrat’s law on an aggregate level, since small firms grow faster than large firms. However, Gibrat’s law is confirmed about as often as it is rejected when industry-specific regressions are estimated. It is also found that the industry context—e.g., minimum efficient scale, market concentration rate, and number of young firms in the industry—matters for whether Gibrat’s law is rejected or not.

  • 60.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Elert, Niklas
    Johansson, Dan
    Are High-Growth Firms Overrepresented in High-tech Industries?2016In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lang, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Does Gibrat's Law Hold for Retailing?: Evidence from Sweden2012In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 464-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibrat’s Law predicts that firm growth is a purely random effect and therefore should be independent of firm size. The purpose of this paper is to test Gibrat’s law within the retail industry, using a novel data-set comprising all surviving Swedish limited liability companies active at some point between 1998 and 2004. Very few studies have previously investigated whether Gibrat’s Law seems to hold for retailing, and they are based on highly aggregated data. Our results indicate that Gibrat´s Law can be rejected for a large majority of five-digit retail industries in Sweden, since small retail firms tend to grow faster than large ones.

  • 62.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Start-ups and firm in-migration: evidence from the Swedish wholesale industry2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 471-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a data set covering 13,471 Swedish limited liability firms in the Swedish wholesale industries during 2000–2004 to ascertain the determinants of new start-ups and of in-migration of firms. Access to a large harbor, international airport or large railroad classification yard in the municipality nearly triples the number of start-ups and increases the expected number of in-migrating firms with 53 %. The presence of a university, many educated workers and low local taxes are also associated with more start-ups and firm in-migration.

  • 63.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Fabian, Wallen
    Svenska citroner: Åtta fräscha idéer som lämnade en sur eftersmak2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Fölster, Stefan
    Experiment med välfärden2013In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 2, p. 16-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Grek, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Betydelsen av internt genererat kapital för en långsiktigt hållbar företagstillväxt2017In: Perspektiv på kapitalförsörjning – en antologi om företagens finansiering och statens roll / [ed] Jörgen Lithander, Stockholm: Tillväxtanalys , 2017, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett företags expansion kan finansieras med internt genererat kapital eller med hjälp av extern finansiering. Vi undersöker här hur omsättningstillväxten och överlevnadssannolikheten påverkas av företagets internt uppbyggda kapital. Undersökningen baseras på data över alla Sveriges aktiebolag under perioden 1997–2010.

    Våra resultat indikerar att den initiala tillgången på internt uppbyggt kapital generellt sett inte är förknippad med en högre omsättningstillväxt eller ökade möjligheter att överleva på marknaden. Vi finner däremot att de företag som bygger upp interna medel innan de växer är mer sannolika att uppnå en långsiktigt hållbar tillväxt än de företag som växer innan de byggt upp ett internt kapital.

    Resultaten indikerar också att företag som har varit med om uppköp eller sammanslagningar har både högre tillväxt och bättre chanser att överleva på marknaden.

    Vi kan samtidigt konstatera att de skattade sambanden ofta är svaga trots det omfattande datamaterialet. Det tyder på att företagstillväxt i huvudsak är slumpmässig eller kan förklaras av variabler som är svåra att mäta och inkludera i kvantitativ analys. Detta bekräftas också av tidigare studier.

    Våra resultat implicerar att framtida studier bör fokusera mer på hur företagen växer än på vad som kan förklara hur mycket de växer vid en viss tidpunkt.

  • 66.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Grek, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hur kapitalstrukturen påverkar den långsiktigt hållbara företagstillväxten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det antas ofta att det finns ett ”kapitalförsörjningsgap” i ekonomin på grund av asymmetrisk information, vilket leder till att efterfrågan på externt kapital är större än utbudet. De politiska beslutsfattarna vill därför ofta öka tillgången på externt riskkapital genom olika selektiva statliga stödinsatser för att få fler växande företag.

    Klassiska teorier om företagstillväxt implicerar dock att det snarare är uppbyggnaden av företagets interna resurser som är av betydelse för att förklara företagens tillväxt och möjligheter att överleva på marknaden. Många företagare vill dessutom behålla kontrollen över sitt företag och kan därmed välja att inte växa med externt kapital, trots att de har tillväxtambitioner. Om detta stämmer är politiska beslut som ökar tillgången till internt kapital av större betydelse för företagens utveckling än politiska beslut som avser att öka tillgången på externt kapital.

    I denna rapport vill vi studera hur betydelsefullt det internt uppbyggda kapitalet har varit för tillväxt och överlevnad hos aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010. Våra resultat indikerar att:

    • Tillgången till internt kapital kan inte förklara den observerade företagstillväxten bland aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010.

    • Det interna kapitalet är inte relaterat till överlevnadssannolikheten för aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010.

    • Företag som växer efter att de har byggt upp internt kapital har större möjligheter att i framtiden kombinera hög tillväxt med hög lönsamhet jämfört med de företag som växer innan de har byggt upp internt kapital.

    Resultaten är delvis motstridiga. De företag som bygger upp ett internt kapital och sedan väljer att expandera har en högre sannolikhet att nå en långsiktigt hållbar position för tillväxt än de företag som växer innan de har byggt upp internt kapital. Detta talar för att uppbyggnaden av internt kapital är av betydelse. Våra regressionsresultat indikerar dock att det inte finns något starkt positivt samband mellan internt uppbyggt kapital och företagens framtida omsättningstillväxt eller möjligheter att överlevna på marknaden.

    Det finns ett antal möjliga förklaringar till våra resultat. Den första förklaringen är helt enkelt att det interna kapitalet inte är av betydelse för företagens framtida tillväxt och överlevnad. Den troliga förklaringen till detta är att vid jämvikt kommer företagarna att värdesätta en expansion med internt eller externt kapital på liknande sätt. Detta implicerar att det snarare är den totala mängden riskkapital som påverkar företagens tillväxt och överlevnad, och inte huruvida kapitalet genereras internt eller externt.

    En annan tolkning är att företagarna fortfarande föredrar att växa med internt uppbyggt kapital eftersom resultaten visar effekten på företagstillväxten och överlevnadssannolikheten, givet den initiala uppbyggnaden av internt kapital i företagen. Den initiala nivån av internt kapital har således ingen effekt på företagsutvecklingen, men en ökning av det interna kapitalet i förhållande till tillgången på externt kapital kan fortfarande leda till att fler företag vill expandera sin verksamhet.

    Många företagare i Sverige väljer också att inte växa trots att de har relativt god lönsamhetsutveckling. Detta kan betyda att vi inte observerar några samband mellan det internt uppbyggda kapitalet och företagens utveckling eftersom många företagare inte vill växa under de rådande institutionella förutsättningarna. Det finns med andra ord utelämnande variabler, till exempel olika tillväxtbarriärer (regelkrångel, strikt anställningsskydd, matchningsproblem, etc.), som kan förklara varför det interna kapitalet inte har någon observerad betydelse för tillväxten och företagens överlevnad i vår studie.

    Slutligen kan en möjlig förklaring vara att företagens tillväxt och överlevnad i mycket hög utsträckning är slumpmässig. Detta innebär att det blir svårt att förklara vad det är som påverkar företagens utveckling, vilket också implicerar att selektiva stödåtgärder för att få fler växande företag är dömda att misslyckas.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan vi konstatera att våra resultat inte ger något stöd för hypotesen att företag med tillgång till internt kapital växer snabbare och har en högre överlevnadssannolikhet än de företag som har tillgång till mindre internt uppbyggt kapital. Resultaten bygger på de rådande institutionella förutsättningarna i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010 och är avgränsade till att studera effekten av det initialt uppbyggda kapitalet i bolagen. Vi undersöker inte företagarnas preferenser, det vill säga om de föredrar mer internt kapital framför externt kapital när de ska expandera verksamheten, eller om en ökning av det internt uppbyggda kapitalet har en större tillväxteffekt än mer externt kapital.

  • 67.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    Are high-growth firms one-hit wonders?: Evidence from Sweden2015In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 361-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most firms do not grow, and a small number of high-growth firms seem to create most new jobs. These firms have therefore received increasing attention among policymakers. The question is whether high-growth tends to persist? We investigate this question using firm-level data from Sweden during 1997–2008. We find that high-growth firms had declining growth rates in the previous 3-year period, and their probability of repeating high growth rates was very low. Thus, these are essentially “one-hit wonders,” and it is doubtful whether policymakers can improve economic outcomes by targeting them.

  • 68.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    Johansson, Dan
    Using the Eurostat-OECD definition of high-growth firms: a cautionary note2015In: Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, ISSN 2045-2101, E-ISSN 2045-211X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 50-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    High-growth firms: Not so vital after all?2016In: International Review of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, Vol. 14, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    HUI Research.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    High-growth firms: Not so vital after all?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-growth firms have received considerable interest recently since they create most of the new jobs in the economy. The purpose of our paper is to investigate the characteristics of high-growth firms prior to their growth period, and whether these characteristics differ across industries. Using data on a large sample of limited liability firms in Sweden for the period 2007-2010, we find that high-growth firms do not have the characteristics that we typically associate with successful firms. On the contrary, our results indicate that high-growth firms have low profits and a weak financial position. This might explain why studies have found that high-growth firms are seldom capable of sustaining their high growth rates in subsequent periods, and thus question policies that are targeted towards these companies.

  • 71.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Department of Trade, Industry and Business, HUI Research.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Department of Trade, Industry and Business, HUI Research.
    What determines the use of capital budgeting methods?: Evidence from Swedish listed companies2014In: Journal of Finance and Economics, ISSN 2328-7284, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to extend and contribute to prior research on the association between company characteristics and choice of capital budgeting methods (CBMs). Design/methodology/approach: A multivariate regression analysis on questionnaire data from 2005 and 2008 is used to study which factors determine the choice of CBMs in Swedish listed companies. Findings: Our results supported hypotheses that Swedish listed companies have become more sophisticated over the years (or at least less unsophisticated) which indicates a closing of the theory-practice gap; that companies with greater leverage used payback more often; and that companies with stricter debt targets and less management ownership employed accounting rate of return more frequent. Moreover, larger companies used CBMs more often. Originality/value: The paper contributes to prior research within this field by being the first Swedish study to examine the association between use of CBMs and as many as twelve independent variables, including changes over time, by using multivariate regression analysis. The results are compared to a US and a continental European study.

  • 72.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Landström, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Why do politicians implement central bank independence reforms?2013In: Atlantic Economic Journal, ISSN 0197-4254, E-ISSN 1573-9678, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 427-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate why politicians around the world have chosen to give up power to independent central banks, thereby reducing their ability to fine-tune the economy. A new data-set covering 132 countries, of which 86 countries had implemented such reforms, was collected. Politicians in non-OECD countries were more likely to delegate power to independent central banks if their country has been characterized by a high variability in historical inflation and if they faced a high probability of being replaced. No such effects were found for OECD countries.

  • 73.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Johansson, Dan
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm; Örebro Universitet.
    Economic Contribution of High-growth Firms: Do Policy Implications Depend on the Choice of Growth Indicator?2014In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 337-365Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Johansson, Dan
    Seerar Westerberg, Hans
    Which firms provide jobs for unemployed non-Western immigrants?2018In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the refugee immigration crisis is one of the major socio-economic challenges in Europe, we still lack knowledge on what characterizes firms that provide jobs for unemployed immigrants. We provide an answer by investigating firms that recruit unemployed non-Western immigrants using matched employer-employee data from Statistics Sweden. We find large industry differences; firms active in the service sectors, such as the hospitality, transport, and healthcare industries, are much more likely to hire unemployed non-Western immigrants than firms in high-tech and manufacturing industries. In addition, after controlling for educational attainment and industry of occupation, firms with at least one non-Western immigrant manager hire more than four times as many unemployed non-Western immigrants than firms without any non-Western immigrant managers. Public policies that target industries might thus also influence job opportunities for immigrants and, thereby, the possibility of their integration into society.

  • 75.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Jonas, Nordström
    Thunström, Linda
    Habit Persistence in Food Consumption2011In: Oxford Handbook on the Economics of Food Consumption and Policy / [ed] Lusk, J.L., Roosen, J., and Shogren J, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 770-790Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Landström, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Are central bank independence reforms necessary for achieving low and stable inflation?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on the occurence of central bank independence (CBI) reforms in 131 countries during 1980-2005, we test whether they were important in reducing inflation and maintaining price stability. CBI reforms are found to have reduced inflation on average 3.31% when countries with historically high inflation rates are included. But countries with lower inflation have reduced it without institutional reforms granting central banks more independence, undermining the theoretical time-inconsistency case for CBI. There is furthermore no evidence that CBI reforms have helped reduce inflation variability.

  • 77.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lang, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries2013In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 1193-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the determinants of firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries during 2000–2004, we analyse a sample of 400 limited liability companies using quantile regression techniques. Firm growth was mainly found to depend upon time-invariant firm-specific effects, supporting Penrose's [1959. The theory of the growth of the firm (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press] suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on are important determinants of firm growth.

  • 78.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Bergman, Mats
    Stöd till service i glesbygd2015Report (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    What Happens When IKEA Comes to Town?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from 2000-2011, the effects of a new IKEA store on retail revenues, employment, and inflow of purchasing power in the entry municipalities, as well as in neighboring municipalities were investigated. A propensity score matching method was used to find non IKEA entry municipalities that were as similar as possible to the entry municipalities based on the situation before entry. Our results indicate that IKEA-entry increased entry-municipality durable-goods revenues by about 20% and employment by about 17%. Only small and, in most cases, statistically insignificant effects were found in neighboring municipalities.

  • 80.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    What happens when IKEA comes to town?2017In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 313-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a new IKEA store on retail revenues, employment and inflow of purchasing power in the entry municipalities as well as in neighbouring municipalities were investigated using data from 2000–11. A propensity score-matching method was used to find non-IKEA entry municipalities that were as similar as possible to the entry municipalities based on the situation before entry. The results indicate that IKEA entry increased entry municipality durable goods revenues by about 20% and employment by about 17%. Only small and, in most cases, statistically insignificant effects were found in neighbouring municipalities.

  • 81.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    When IKEA enters: Do local retailers win or lose?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IKEA is one of the world’s largest retailers, but little is known about how IKEA impact incumbent retailers when deciding to enter a local market. Previous studies on the effects of big-box entry on surrounding retailers have also generated inconclusive results, and mainly been focused towards entry of Wal-Mart in the United States. We contribute to this literature by investigating the effects of IKEA entry on revenues and employment for incumbent retail firms in three Swedish municipalities during 2000-2010. Our results indicate that a new IKEA store increases average revenues for incumbent retailers within the entry municipality by 11%, but also that the effect is highly heterogeneous within the municipality. Retailers that were located up to 1 km from IKEA experienced a 26% increase in revenues when IKEA entered the municipality. However, the positive spillover effect of a new IKEA store on retail revenues diminished with the distance to IKEA, and turned insignificant for retailers in the city centers and those that were located 5-10 km from IKEA. The effects on employment were much less pronounced, and in most cases statistically insignificant.

  • 82.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nordström, Jonas
    Thunström, Linda
    Habit formation in food consumption2012In: The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Food Consumption and Policy, Oxford Handbooks Online , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the empirical literature on habit formation in food consumption in order to analyze the hypothesis that food consumption is habit forming. It reviews the main econometric models used to study habits in food consumption and describes the most commonly used demand models and departs from the static version of the models. It describes how these models can be extended to dynamic versions incorporating habit formation. The focus is on the functional form of the models rather than estimation. The empirical studies reviewed in this article generally find habit formation in food consumption, implying that dynamics is an important factor in food demand analysis. Finally, it summarizes the results and discusses fruitful areas for future research. © Oxford University Press 2011. All rights reserved.

  • 83.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Orth, Matilda
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Opening local retail food stores: a real-options approach2010In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 373-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A real-options approach was used, incorporating uncertainty and irreversibility of investments, to study the number of stores entering the Swedish retail food market during the period 1994-2002. It was found that uncertainty affected the entry-decision. Entry was less frequent in highly concentrated local retail food-markets characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, whereas higher profit opportunities seem to have increased the probability of entry.

  • 84.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Praski-Stahlgren, Ulrika
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Do high taxes lock-in capital gains?: Evidence from a dual income tax system2010In: Public Choice, ISSN 0048-5829, E-ISSN 1573-7101, Vol. 145, no 1-2, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study whether investors' willingness to realize capital gains falls when the marginal tax rate on capital gains is raised. We use a rich register-based panel data set covering almost 8% of the Swedish population. The results indicate that a 10% increase in capital gains tax rate reduces the number of realizations of capital gains with 8.7% and the realized amount, given the decision to realize, with 1.9%. In addition, we find that wealthy individuals seem to respond more to changes in capital gains tax rates than less-wealthy.

  • 85.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Regeringsgatan 60, SE -103 29 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Regeringsgatan 60, SE -103 29 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does Shelf-Labeling of Organic Foods Increase Sales?: Results from a Natural Experiment2014In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 804-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can a simple point-of-purchase (POP) shelf-label increase sales of organic foods? We use a random-effects׳, random-coefficients׳ model, including a time adjustment variable, to test data from a natural experiment in a hypermarket in Gävle, Sweden. Our model incorporates both product specific heterogeneity in the effects of labeling and consumer adjustment to the labels over time. We find that the introduction of POP displays leads to an increase in sales of organic coffee and olive oil, but a reduction in sales of organic flour. All targeted products became less price-sensitive. The results reveal that product specific differences have to be accounted for, and in some cases consumers adjusted to labeling over time.

  • 86. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Leder högre skatter på kapitalvinster till inlåsningseffekter?2010In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 18-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Höga skatter på kapitalvinster kan leda till att investerare blir mindre benägna att realisera sina kapitalvinster. Tidigare studier har använt sig av data från USA och finner att det existerar en inlåsningseffekt, men storleken på effekten varierar mellan studierna. I en ny studie drar Daunfeldt m fl (2010) slutsatsen att högre skatter på kapitalvinster också är förknippade med en inlåsningseffekt i Sverige. Resultaten från studien indikerar att en höjning av kapitalvinstskatten med 10 procent i genomsnitt leder till att antalet realiseringar minskar med nästan 9 procent. Inlåsningseffekten tenderar dessutom att vara större för investerare med beskattningsbar förmögenhet, vilket indikerar att dessa individer i högre utsträckning använder sig av skatteplanering för att undkomma beskattningen av kapitalvinster.

  • 87.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Högskolan i Gävle; HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Swedish Retail Inst HUI, SE-10329 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rämme, Ulf
    HUI.
    Congestion charges and retail revenues: results from the Stockholm road pricing trial2009In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 306-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the impact of the Stockholm road pricing trial on retail revenues. The analysis is performed using revenue data from 14 shopping malls, 9 within the tool area and 5 outside the tool area. The data also include revenue data from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets in Stockholm. The results show that the Stockholm road pricing trial did not negatively affect retail revenue, neither in shopping malls nor in the sample of retail stores.

  • 88.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rämme, Ulf
    Congestion charges in Stockholm: how have they affected retail revenues?2013In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Did the introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm city reduce retail revenues? Data from 20 shopping malls - 8 within the toll area, and 12 outside the tool area - and from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets was analyzed using an intervention-control approach. Favorable outcomes, such as reduced traffic, less emissions of carbon-dioxide, and perceived improvements in air quality and accessibility, do not seem to have been offset by reduced revenues for retailers located within the toll area.

  • 89.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    What determines entry? Evidence from Sweden2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 55-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I examined what conditions affected the entry of Swedish limited liability firms 2000–2008, while making a distinction between regular entrants and those that survive for at least 2 years. I used a dataset that makes it possible to trace entry geographically as well as in what industry it occurs down to the 5-digit NACE level. Results suggest that the conditions influencing regular entry were similar to those influencing surviving entry. Political variables, e.g., municipal tax rate and the ideology of local rule, were of limited importance. Meanwhile, municipalities with industries with high minimum efficient scale of production or high market concentration rates were considerably less likely to see new firm formation. Substantially, more entry occurred in municipalities with high-income and a well-educated population. The importance of the level of education appears stronger for surviving entrants than for regular entrants, pointing to the importance of human capital.

  • 90.
    Elmashouky, Noha
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Environmental Kuznets Curve in Sweden: The relationship between Carbon Dioxide emissions and economic growth in Sweden through 170 years.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, global warming becomes a scientifically proven problem. Where, the global warming contributes to increase the Earth’s average temperature, because of the release of the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) into the atmosphere, in particular the gas Carbon Dioxide (CO2). This empirical paper focuses on the investigation of the relationship between per capita Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Sweden. The study tests whether an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) relationship holds for Sweden, covering a time series over the period 1840-2010. The study employs the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) as an econometrics method to test three different models of the EKC. Our findings suggest that there is an existence of the common inverted U-shaped of EKC in Sweden and the estimated turning point (TP) is about 16 500 US$ per capita GDP.

  • 91. Ewertsson, Lena
    et al.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Informationssamhällets institutioner: Att forma ramarna för affärsverkesamhet och konkurrens inom elektronisk kommunikation2004Book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Gailis, Janis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A Consumer Surplus Estimate of Peace & Love festival in Borlänge: A Travel Cost Approach2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis uses zonal travel cost method (ZTCM) to estimate consumer surplus of Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden. The study defines counties as zones of origin of the visitors. Visiting rates from each zone are estimated based on survey data. The study is novel due to the fact that mostly TCM has been applied in the environmental and recreational sector, not for short term events, like P&L festival. The analysis shows that travel cost has a significantly negative effect on visiting rate as expected. Even though income has previously shown to be significant in similar studies, it turns out to be insignificant in this study. A point estimate for the total consumer surplus of P&L festival is 35.6 million Swedish kronor. However, this point estimate is associated with high uncertainty since a 95 % confidence interval for it is (17.9, 53.2). It is also important to note that the estimated value only represents one part of the total economic value, the other values of the festival's totaleconomic value have not been estimated in this thesis.

  • 93.
    Ghisellini, Patrizia
    et al.
    Alama Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Ulgiati, Sergio
    Parthenope University of Naples, Bejiing Normal University.
    A review on circular economy: the expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 114, p. 11-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years Circular Economy (CE) is receiving increasing attention worldwide as a way to overcome the current production and consumption model based on continuous growth and increasing resource throughput. By promoting the adoption of closing-the-loop production patterns within an economic system CE aims to increase the efficiency of resource use, with special focus on urban and industrial waste, to achieve a better balance and harmony between economy, environment and society. This study provides an extensive review of the literature of last two decades, with the purpose of grasping the main CE features and perspectives: origins, basic principles, advantages and disadvantages, modelling and implementation of CE at the different levels (micro, meso and macro) worldwide.

    Results evidence that CE origins are mainly rooted in ecological and environmental economics and industrial ecology. In China CE is promoted as a top-down national political objective while in other areas and countries as European Union, Japan and USA it is a tool to design bottom-up environmental and waste management policies. The ultimate goal of promoting CE is the decoupling of environmental pressure from economic growth. The implementation of CE worldwide still seems in the early stages, mainly focused on recycle rather than reuse. Important results have been achieved in some activity sectors (e.g. in waste management, where large waste recycling rates are achieved in selected developed countries). CE implies the adoption of cleaner production patterns at company level, an increase of producers and consumers responsibility and awareness, the use of renewable technologies and materials (wherever possible) as well as the adoption of suitable, clear and stable policies and tools. The lesson learned from successful experiences is that the transition towards CE comes from the involvement of all actors of the society and their capacity to link and create suitable collaboration and exchange patterns. Success stories also point out the need for an economic return on investment, in order to provide suitable motivation to companies and investors. In summary, the CE transition has just started. Moreover, the interdisciplinary framework underpinning CE offers good prospects for gradual improvement of the present production and consumption models, no longer adequate because of their environmental load and social inequity, a clear indicator of resource use inefficiency

  • 94.
    Gkoutsampasoulis, Nikolaos
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Euroland - The effect of Euro on international trade: Are there winners and losers in this ''Euro-game''?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether European Monetary Union (EMU) countries share fairly the effect of their membership in Eurozone (EZ) or whether are winners and losers in this ''Euro-game''. By using panel data of 27 European Union (EU) Member States for the period 2001-2012 in the context of a gravity model, we focus on estimating the Euro’s effect on bilateral trade and we detect whether this effect differs across the Member States of EZ. Two estimation methods are applied: Pooled OLS estimator and Fixed Effects estimator. The empirical results come to the conclusion that the individual country effects differ and are statistically significant, indicating that EMU’s effect on trade differs across the Member States of EZ. The overall effect of the Euro is statistically insignificant, regardless the estimation method, demonstrating that the common European currency may have no effect on bilateral trade.

  • 95. Granlund, David
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Consumer information and pharmaceutical prices: theory and evidence2011In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 230-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of a reform that increased consumer information on brand name and generic pharmaceutical prices is analysed both theoretically and empirically. The theoretical results show that an increase in information likely reduces the price of brand name pharmaceuticals, while the results regarding generics are less clear. In the empirical part of the article, the introduction of the substitution reform in the Swedish pharmaceuticals market in October 2002 is used as a natural experiment regarding the effects of increased consumer information. The results clearly show that the reform has lowered the price of both brand name and generic pharmaceuticals.

  • 96. Granlund, David
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Does Increased Price Competition Reduce Entry of New Pharmaceutical Products?2011In: Advances in Management and Applied Economics, ISSN 1792-7552, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2002 a substitution reform was introduced in the Swedish Pharmaceuticals market. In this paper, the effects of increased price competition due to the reform on the entry of new pharmaceutical products was studied. The results show that the reform did affect the entry behavior of generic manufacturers as they became more prone to enter new package sizes into the market after the reform, but also that there is considerable heterogeneity in entry behavior between different ATC-code groups for both brand name and generic products.

  • 97.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The prescribing physician's influence on consumer choice between medically equivalent pharmaceuticals2012In: Review of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0889-938X, E-ISSN 1573-7160, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 207-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study of the prescribing physician's influence on consumers' choice between medically equivalent pharmaceuticals. The study was performed using a dataset of 666,000 observations in which consumers were asked whether they were prepared to pay the price difference in order to obtain the prescribed pharmaceutical instead of the cheapest available substitute. The main results support the hypothesis that prescribing physicians have an impact on consumers' choice between medically equivalent pharmaceutical products.

  • 98. Gåverud, Henrik
    et al.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Ökad efterfrågeflexibilitet nödvändig för en fullständigt avreglerad elproduktionsmarknad2010In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 5-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska elmarknaden omreglerades 1996. Produktion av och handel med el konkurrensutsattes medan elnätsverksamhet, som är ett naturligt monopol, förblev reglerat. Staten är dock än idag en aktör på elproduktionsmarknaden eftersom den systemansvariga myndigheten är ålagd att upphandla en s k effektreserv. Effektreserven förbättrar den kortsiktiga försörjningstrygghetsnivån avseende eleffekt, men riskerar samtidigt att störa marknadens funktion, både på kort och lång sikt. En avveckling av statliga interventioner riskerar dock att skapa större problem än den löser. Fram till dess att mer efterfrågeflexibilitet är aktiverad på elmarknaden kommer en fullständigt avreglerad elproduktionsmarknad att generera en samhällsekonomiskt ineffektivt låg nivå på försörjningstryggheten avseende eleffekt.

  • 99.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Sweden.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Sweden.
    Comparison and one-stop shopping after big-box retail entry: a spatial difference-in-difference analysis2018In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 40, p. 175-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically measures the potential spillover effects of big-box retail entry on the productivity of incumbent retailers in the entry regions, and investigates whether the effects differ depending on 1) if the entry is in a rural or urban area, and 2) if the incumbent retailers are within retail industries selling substitute or complement goods to those found in IKEA. To identify the IKEA-entry effect, a difference-in-difference model is suitable, but traditionally such estimators neglect the possibility that firms’ sales are determined by a process with spatially interactive responses. If ignored, these responses may cause biased estimates of the IKEA entry effect due to spatial heterogeneity of the treatment effect. One objective of this paper is thus to propose a spatial difference-in-difference estimator accounting for possible spatial spillover effects of IKEA entry. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of a suitable weight matrix accounting for the spatial links between firms, where we allow for local spatial interactions such that the outcome of observed units depends both on their own treatment as well as on the treatment of their neighbors. Our results show that for complementary goods retailers (or one-stop shopping retailers) in Haparanda and Kalmar, productivity increased by 35% and 18%, respectively, due to IKEA entry. No statistically significant effects were found for the entries in Karlstad and Gothenburg, indicating that it is mainly incumbents in smaller entry regions that benefit from IKEA entry. Also, for incumbent retailers selling substitute (or comparison shopping) goods no significant effects were found in any of the entry regions, indicating that it is mainly retailers selling complementary goods that benefit from IKEA entry. Finally, our results also show that ignoring the possibility of spatially correlated treatment effects in the regression models reduces the estimated impact of the IKEA entries in Haparanda and Kalmar on productivity in one-stop shopping retail firms with 3% and 0.1% points, respectively. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 100.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Stern Review and its critics: economics at work in an interdisciplinary setting2011In: Journal of economic methodology, ISSN 1350-178X, E-ISSN 1018-5070, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stern Review, Stern (2007), received a lot of attention upon its release. It also resulted in an intense and interesting debate within climate change economics. One of the central issues has been the question of the appropriate discount rate to use and more generally the proper role of ethics in an economic analysis of this kind. Some have argued against incorporating ethical considerations at all, while others argue that Stern did not involve ethics enough. There are also those who question whether Stern provided an economic analysis at all. This paper analyzes Stern (2007) and the surrounding debate from a methodological point of view. Basically three conclusions are reached. First, Stern involves a number of different kinds of interdisciplinarity based on the Mäki (2007) characterization of interdisciplinarity. Second, the interaction of economics and ethics is unavoidable within climate change research. Third, Stern uses a modified version of the standard economic approach to climate change and the deviations are well motivated (i.e. it is still a valuable economic analysis).

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