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  • 51.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Concentration and Dispersion of Immigrants in Sweden, 1973-19921998In: The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, ISSN 0008-3658, E-ISSN 1541-0064, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Hur förändras bosättningsmönstret när invandrarna blir fler?1995In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, no 5, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet; HUI Research .
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research .
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Osynliga jobbskapare: En tillväxtpotential för svensk detaljhandel?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den stora merparten av alla detaljhandelsföretag karakteriseras av ingen eller en marginell tillväxt av antalet anställda. Dessa företag betraktas ofta som en homogen grupp bestående av företag med inga tillväxtambitioner och som näringspolitiken inte bör inriktas gentemot. I denna rapport visar vi dock att de företag som inte växer i själva verket är mycket heterogena. Mer än tio procent av alla detaljhandelsföretag som inte växer under en treårsperiod kännetecknas av en relativt hög lönsamhet. Dessa företag kallar vi för de sovande gasellerna eftersom tidigare studier har visat att hög lönsamhet är en viktig faktor för en långsiktigt hållbar framtida tillväxt av antalet anställda. Andelen sovande gaseller inom detaljhandeln är cirka 1,5 till 2,35 procentenheter fler än i ekonomin som helhet. Hälften av dessa detaljhandelsföretag kommer inte heller att öka antalet anställda i kommande perioder, trots att de fortsätter att ha en hög lönsamhet eller en lönsamhet i paritet med det genomsnittliga företaget. Detta visar att det finns en dold tillväxtpotential inom detaljhandeln i Sverige som inte har realiserat. Resultaten från studien visar också att de sovande gasellerna inom detaljhandeln inte är slumpmässigt dragna ur företagspopulationen, utan att det framförallt är små företag som väljer att inte expandera verksamheten mellan två treårsperioder. De sovande gasellerna är inte heller slumpmässigt fördelade geografiskt i Sverige. De kommuner som har en hög andel sovande gaseller inom detaljhandeln under en tidsperiod tenderar att även ha det i kommande tidsperioder, vilket indikerar att det finns geografiska förklaringar till varför vissa företag inte växer trots att de har en god lönsamhet. Avsaknaden av tillväxt hos dessa företag kan antingen förklaras av att de inte har några tillväxtambitioner, oavsett villkoren för företagande; alternativt att de vill växa, men inte under rådande förutsättningar. Om den senare förklaringen är giltig kan reformer som minskar tillväxtbarriärer för detaljhandelsföretagen generera många nya arbetstillfällen.

  • 54.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Turism och mobila informationssystem2009In: Astrid Lindgrens landskap : hur landskapets kulturarv förändras, förstås, förvaltas och förmedlas / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus, Vimmerby, 2009, Vol. 69, p. 113-126Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Örebro universitet.
    Wage determinants in the Swedish tourism sector2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 18-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant number of the jobs that are found in the tourism sector are relatively low-paying positions. The share of part-time employment is also large. This study focuses on individuals who have remained in the sector for many years and are making a career in tourism. The analysis is based on a balanced panel consisting of individuals who, between 2002 and 2011, lived and worked full time in the tourism industry in central Sweden. Data were analyzed using three different models; a cross-sectional OLS model was utilized for the analysis of the data from 2011 and both a pooled OLS model as well as a fixed-effect model were used in the analysis of data between 2002 and 2011. The fixed-effect model is important because it captures differences in ability among the individuals included in the study. The results show a lower income for individuals in the tourism sector compared to the rest of the economy. However, the results of the panel data estimations indicate that the effect of education is stronger for individuals in the tourism sector and that wage levels in this sector is more equal between the men and women, compared to the rest of the economy. 

  • 56.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Wage determinants in the Swedish tourism sector 2002-20112015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mobil digital turistinformation: Geografisk interpretation av rummet i tiden2005In: Inaugural Nordic Geographers Meeting – Power over time-space, Lund, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Potential research areas for big data in tourism2016In: Proceedings of the IFITTtalk@Östersund Workshop on Big Data & Business Intelligence in the Travel & Tourism Domain / [ed] Fuchs, M., Lexhagen, M. & Höpken, W., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Firm entry in the Swedish wholesale trade sector: dDoes market definition matter?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 703-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm entry into local markets has often been studied using administrative areas such as municipalities as the assumed relevant markets. However, administrative areas and the actual relevant markets based on local demand for firms’ products often do not coincide, which could bias the results of studies treating administrative areas as the relevant markets. Based on a behavioral assumption regarding how retailers act when purchasing products from wholesale trade firms, we create alternative markets using Voronoi diagrams. We then compare the empirical results of investigating the determinants of firm entry using municipalities as the relevant markets with the results obtained using Voronoi markets. The results indicate that, in both cases, the same variables are statistically significant in affecting entry, though the estimated effects differ in size.

  • 60.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Statens Nya Geografi2006Book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Education and careers in the Swedish tourism sector: How important is education for building a successful career?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62. Braunerhielm, Lotta
    et al.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Berättelsedestinationer: Från Astrid Lindgrens ideallandskap till vandringar i deckarförfattarnas fotspår2009In: Astrid Lindgrens landskap : hur landskapets kulturarv förändras, förstås, förvaltas och förmedlas / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus, Vimmerby, 2009, Vol. 69, p. 101-112Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Böhn, Solveig
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Destination Development: The case of the Cross Border Area of Latvia, Estonia and Russia2004In: Atlas Annual Conference, Naples, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Does Euclidean distance work well when the p-median model is applied in rural areas?2012In: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 201, no 1, p. 83-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P centers to serve a geographically distributed population. A cornerstone of such a model is the measure of distance between a service center and demand points, i.e. the location of the population (customers, pupils, patients, and so on). Evidence supports the current practice of using Euclidean distance. However, we find that the location of multiple hospitals in a rural region of Sweden with anon-symmetrically distributed population is quite sensitive to distance measure, and somewhat sensitive to spatial aggregation of demand points.

  • 65.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Methodological issues in applying Location Models to Rural areas2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Location Models are usedfor planning the location of multiple service centers in order to serve a geographicallydistributed population. A cornerstone of such models is the measure of distancebetween the service center and a set of demand points, viz, the location of thepopulation (customers, pupils, patients and so on). Theoretical as well asempirical evidence support the current practice of using the Euclidian distancein metropolitan areas. In this paper, we argue and provide empirical evidencethat such a measure is misleading once the Location Models are applied to ruralareas with heterogeneous transport networks. This paper stems from the problemof finding an optimal allocation of a pre-specified number of hospitals in alarge Swedish region with a low population density. We conclude that the Euclidianand the network distances based on a homogenous network (equal travel costs inthe whole network) give approximately the same optimums. However networkdistances calculated from a heterogeneous network (different travel costs indifferent parts of the network) give widely different optimums when the numberof hospitals increases.  In terms ofaccessibility we find that the recent closure of hospitals and the in-optimallocation of the remaining ones has increased the average travel distance by 75%for the population. Finally, aggregation the population misplaces the hospitalsby on average 10 km.

  • 66.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Var ska sjukhusen ligga?2013In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, no 3, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel visar på en metod för att undersöka hur optimal befolkningens fysiska tillgänglighet till sjukvården är. Detta är relevant med tanke på den svenska storregionala omdaningen som säkerligen kommer provocera fram omprövningar av sjukhusens framtida placering.

    Med Dalarna som exempel fann vi att en ökning från dagens två till tre optimalt lokaliserade sjukhus skulle minska befolkningens genomsnittliga reseavstånd med 25 %.

    På basis av transportsektorns standardkalkyler för samhällsekonomisk effekter vid resande, samt av kostnader för drift av sjukvård sluter vi dessutom oss till att en komplettering av nuvarande två sjukhus i Dalarna med ett tredje vore samhällsekonomiskt effektivt.

  • 67.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 68.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 69.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Measuring transport related CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2015In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 40, p. 28-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in transport related carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their transport CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 70.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    An empirical test of the gravity p-median model2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to it and the attractiveness of it. However regarding the location of the facility, the presumption is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility.This paradox was recently solved by the introduction of the gravity p-median model. The model is yet to be implemented and tested empirically. We implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating locksmiths, vehicle inspections, and retail stores ofv ehicle spare-parts, and we compared the solutions with those of the p-median model. We found the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  • 71.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Distance measure and the p-median problem in rural areas2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population patronize the nearest facility and that the distance between the resident and the facility may be measured by the Euclidean distance. Carling, Han, and Håkansson (2012) compared two network distances with the Euclidean in a rural region witha sparse, heterogeneous network and a non-symmetric distribution of thepopulation. For a coarse network and P small, they found, in contrast to the literature, the Euclidean distance to be problematic. In this paper we extend their work by use of a refined network and study systematically the case when P is of varying size (2-100 facilities). We find that the network distance give as gooda solution as the travel-time network. The Euclidean distance gives solutions some 2-7 per cent worse than the network distances, and the solutions deteriorate with increasing P. Our conclusions extend to intra-urban location problems.

  • 72.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2013In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 226, no 3, p. 658-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, the three arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 73.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Short Communication: A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended the gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, Drezner and Drezner’s arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 74.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 75.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 16p. 382-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 76.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Optimal retail location and CO2 emissions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2 emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2 emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2 emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25percent. 

  • 77.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Optimal retail location and CO2-emissions2013In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 1357-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2-emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2-emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2-emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25 per cent.

  • 78.
    Cohen, Scott A
    et al.
    School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law , University of Surrey, UK.
    Duncan, Tara
    Department of Tourism , University of Otago , Dunedin , New Zealand.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lifestyle Mobilities: The Crossroads of Travel, Leisure and Migration2015In: Mobilities, ISSN 1745-0101, E-ISSN 1745-011X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the mobilities paradigm intersects with physically moving as an ongoing lifestyle choice. We conceptualise a lens of ‘lifestyle mobilities’ that challenges discrete notions of and allows for a wider grasp of the increasing fluidity between travel, leisure and migration. We demonstrate how contemporary lifestyle-led mobility patterns contribute to and illustrate a breakdown in conventional binary divides between work and leisure, and a destabilisation of concepts of ‘home’ and ‘away’. We unpack issues of identity construction, belonging and place attachment associated with sustained corporeal mobility, and conclude by suggesting avenues for the further study of lifestyle mobilities.

  • 79. Cohen, Scott
    et al.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Duncan, Tara
    Conceptualising Lifestyle Mobilities2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being corporeally mobile as a lifestyle is now influenced by and through transnational ties, technologies of transport, knowledge and information, and changing socio-cultural outlooks that often characterise the (re)formation of the everyday. As such, moving as and for lifestyle has become increasingly complex. We offer the term 'lifestyle mobilities' as a conceptual lens to challenge current thinking on the intersections between tourism and migration. Contemporary research on lifestyle migration largely addresses permanent and seasonal lifestyle relocation, which fails to grasp temporal complexities and ambiguities that are found in various experiences of lifestyle mobilities. Using the mobilities paradigm, we conceptually explore some of the ways in which lifestyle mobilities are subsuming binaries of work/leisure, home/away and here/there. We discuss how experiences of corporeal movement as lifestyle produce, and are produced by, multiple identities and cultural hybridities that are affecting how some individuals may (dis)connect with place.

  • 80. Cohen, Scott
    et al.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Duncan, Tara
    Lifestyle Mobilities: A conceptual focus2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that mobilities is a key concept of contemporary society and the predominant way in which one engages with the world. At the same time, there has been a (re)focus on ideas of lifestyle within the social sciences. Consequently, there is a need to challenge current thinking about the corporeal organisation of movement to take into account the ambiguities and tensions that abound in the literature on both lifestyle and mobilities. This session seeks papers that highlight socio-cultural phenomena pertaining to lifestyle and mobility and invites papers that challenge existing thinking in these areas, including: - Negotiations of lifestyle and movement - Mobile methodologies - Affective possibilities and lifestyle - Mobility, lifestyle and tourism, recreation and/or leisure - Hybrid possibilities – migration/transnationalism/mobility - Cosmopolitanism, fluid identities and identity confusions - Moorings, movement and performance - Mobilities as the corporeal everyday - Lifestyle mobility and relationships to place

  • 81.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    High-growth firms: Not so vital after all?2016In: International Review of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, Vol. 14, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    HUI Research.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    High-growth firms: Not so vital after all?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-growth firms have received considerable interest recently since they create most of the new jobs in the economy. The purpose of our paper is to investigate the characteristics of high-growth firms prior to their growth period, and whether these characteristics differ across industries. Using data on a large sample of limited liability firms in Sweden for the period 2007-2010, we find that high-growth firms do not have the characteristics that we typically associate with successful firms. On the contrary, our results indicate that high-growth firms have low profits and a weak financial position. This might explain why studies have found that high-growth firms are seldom capable of sustaining their high growth rates in subsequent periods, and thus question policies that are targeted towards these companies.

  • 83.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lang, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries2013In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 1193-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the determinants of firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries during 2000–2004, we analyse a sample of 400 limited liability companies using quantile regression techniques. Firm growth was mainly found to depend upon time-invariant firm-specific effects, supporting Penrose's [1959. The theory of the growth of the firm (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press] suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on are important determinants of firm growth.

  • 84.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Bergman, Mats
    Stöd till service i glesbygd2015Report (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    What Happens When IKEA Comes to Town?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from 2000-2011, the effects of a new IKEA store on retail revenues, employment, and inflow of purchasing power in the entry municipalities, as well as in neighboring municipalities were investigated. A propensity score matching method was used to find non IKEA entry municipalities that were as similar as possible to the entry municipalities based on the situation before entry. Our results indicate that IKEA-entry increased entry-municipality durable-goods revenues by about 20% and employment by about 17%. Only small and, in most cases, statistically insignificant effects were found in neighboring municipalities.

  • 86.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    What happens when IKEA comes to town?2017In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 313-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a new IKEA store on retail revenues, employment and inflow of purchasing power in the entry municipalities as well as in neighbouring municipalities were investigated using data from 2000–11. A propensity score-matching method was used to find non-IKEA entry municipalities that were as similar as possible to the entry municipalities based on the situation before entry. The results indicate that IKEA entry increased entry municipality durable goods revenues by about 20% and employment by about 17%. Only small and, in most cases, statistically insignificant effects were found in neighbouring municipalities.

  • 87.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    When IKEA enters: Do local retailers win or lose?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IKEA is one of the world’s largest retailers, but little is known about how IKEA impact incumbent retailers when deciding to enter a local market. Previous studies on the effects of big-box entry on surrounding retailers have also generated inconclusive results, and mainly been focused towards entry of Wal-Mart in the United States. We contribute to this literature by investigating the effects of IKEA entry on revenues and employment for incumbent retail firms in three Swedish municipalities during 2000-2010. Our results indicate that a new IKEA store increases average revenues for incumbent retailers within the entry municipality by 11%, but also that the effect is highly heterogeneous within the municipality. Retailers that were located up to 1 km from IKEA experienced a 26% increase in revenues when IKEA entered the municipality. However, the positive spillover effect of a new IKEA store on retail revenues diminished with the distance to IKEA, and turned insignificant for retailers in the city centers and those that were located 5-10 km from IKEA. The effects on employment were much less pronounced, and in most cases statistically insignificant.

  • 88.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Representations and National Marketing: the Case of Indigenous Peoples in Nordic and Russian DMOs’ webpages2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 89. de la Barre, Suzanne
    et al.
    Maher, Patrick
    Dawson, Jackie
    Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin
    Huijbens, Edwards
    Lamers, Machiel
    Liggett, Daniela
    Müller, Dieter
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Stewart, Emma
    Tourism and arctic observation systems: Exploring the relationships2016In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  • 90.
    Duncan, Tara
    et al.
    Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Cohen, Scott A
    School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lifestyle mobilities: Intersections of Travel, Leisure and Migration2014Book (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Skid-VM i Falun - en utvärdering av effekter på samhälle och näringsliv1993Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Tyck till om Sälen - En gästundersökning vintern 1990-911991Report (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Kurbits affärsutveckling 10 år: Vad tycker deltagarna?2018Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Engström, Christina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    The battlefield of the mountain: exploring the conflict of tourism development on the Three Peaks in Idre, Sweden2012In: Tourism planning & development, ISSN 2156-8316, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 411-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the conflict between a Swedish Sami community and a local tourism company eager to exploit traditional Sami land. The aim of the paper is to illustrate the Sami approach and how they negotiated during a conflict concerning the planning process of a large scale tourism development. Three research questions frame the study. How did the stakeholders involved in the conflict communicate and mediate? How were the various objectives prioritized? What is the major contribution this conflict can offer future conflicts? Published text was analysed as a way to map out the conflict and demonstrate how such conflicts are currently managed. Specifically, newspaper articles, letters to editors and authoritative documents were reviewed. A text analysis was employed to scrutinize the published text. Furthermore, the researchers carried out a critical discourse analysis for the purpose of analysing the published and empirical data. Key findings of this study indicate that there is a strong hierarchal order among the different interests of land use. Furthermore, traditional claims to the land are not always considered as superior to economically driven plans. Instead, objectives consolidated by the state government are an important factor in such types of conflicts.

  • 95.
    Engström, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Leffler, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Perceptions of climate change at ski resorts in midsouth of Sweden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change as a phenomenon will imply new risks for the ski industry. Intergovernmental Panal on Climate Change presents three future scenarios, during the periods between 1990-2100, in forms of increased temperatures, a rise in the sea level and seasonal variations, variables out of which two have direct impacts on the ski industry. The aim for this study was to explore and compare attitudes towards climate change between five ski resorts located in mid-south of Sweden. This was done through in depth interviews in both face to face and by telephone. The result of the study was that all the chosen ski resorts were aware of climate change as a phenomenon but have not yet recognized its consequences. All ski resorts use methods to maintain skiing i.e. artificial snow production though not because of climate change.

  • 96. Fayzullaev, Kamoliddin
    et al.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Destination image in Uzbekistan – heritage of the Silk Road and nature experience as the core of an evolving Post Soviet identity2018In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTThe purpose of this research is to analyze the destination image of Uzbekistan presented by the DMO and the destinations images emerging from user generated content in social media posts. In this study, promotional images and user-generated images on the platform Instagram were examined by using content-semiotic analysis. The main findings show that the destination image of Uzbekistan is dominated by heritage and reference to ancient cultural traditions of the region. However, the image represented through user generated content on Instagram is more diverse and to a larger extent depict the destination through natural heritage and experiences in the natural landscape. Furthermore, Uzbekistan is concurrently trying to create a post-Soviet identity through a focus on its history prior to the Soviet past, with focus on heritage of the Great Silk Road which highlight that destination image construction is related to geo-political processes in society which includes contestations of national identity.

  • 97.
    Frööjd, John
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lorensson, Dennis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Befolkningsförändringar: Ett hinder för landsbygdens utveckling2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att visa vilken effekt befolkningsförändringarna inom landsbygdsregionerna har på den regionalpolitik som förs idag. Samt vilka de samhälleliga konsekvenserna blir. För att detta syfte ska uppfyllas krävdes det tre stycken frågor. Dessa frågor är: Vilka effekter får befolkningsförändringarna på glesbygdsregioners socioekonomiska förutsättningar? Vad säger forskningen om den landsbygdspolitik som förs idag? Vilka är det stora dragen inom landsbygdspolitiken efter inträdet i EU? The aim of this thesis is to show what effects population changes in rural areas may have on the regional policy which is used today and what are the consequences. In order to fulfil these aim three questions were posed: Which effects population changes have on the socio-economic conditions in sparsely populated areas? What does the research say about today rural politic? What are the main features within rural policy after Sweden joined the EU?

  • 98.
    Gao, Yongliang
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    XXX, Xuri
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Profiling visitors to Dalarna Museum: What are the motivational factors that influence visitors' frequency of visits2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies on museum visitors are extensively centred on national museums, the studies on regional museums are scarce. To fill in the academic gap, a research is proposed concerning the visitors of Dalarna Museum, a regional museum in Sweden. With an aim to profile visitors’ demographic characteristics and investigate the motivational factors that influence visitors’ frequency of visits, a face-to-face questionnaire survey was implemented at Dalarna Museum. To get visitors’ demographic characteristics, a few closed and open questions are devised to profile visitors’ gender, age, occupation, income, education, number of children and residence place. To investigate the motivational factors that influence visitors’ frequency of visits, a seven-point Likert questionnaire is employed with 17 motivational factors included. During a 12-day data collection, 372 visitors were invited to participate in the questionnaire survey, whereof 357 had filled in the questionnaire, generating a response rate that is as high as 96 percent. After data cleansing, there are 355 completed and valid responses in total. According to the results, some of visitors’ demographic characteristics are similar including gender, age, occupation, income, and number of children. However, the characteristics regarding visitors’ residence places and educational attainments are different comparing the frequent visitors to occasional visitors. Through running a multiple regression analysis, 13 out of the 17 motivational factors are detected having significant influences on visitors’ frequency of visits to Dalarna Museum, of which the most influential one is visitors’ day-outs with their friends and relatives.

  • 99.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How does the use of different road networks effect the optimal location of facilities in rural areas?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median problem is often used to locate P service facilities in a geographically distributed population. Important for the performance of such a model is the distance measure.

    Distance measure can vary if the accuracy of the road network varies. The rst aim in this study is to analyze how the optimal location solutions vary, using the p-median model, when the road network is alternated. It is hard to nd an exact optimal solution for p-median problems. Therefore, in this study two heuristic solutions are applied, simulating annealing and a classic heuristic. The secondary aim is to compare the optimal location solutions using dierent algorithms for large p-median problem. The investigation is conducted by the means of a case study in a rural region with an asymmetrically distributed population, Dalecarlia.

    The study shows that the use of more accurate road networks gives better solutions for optimal location, regardless what algorithm that is used and regardless how many service facilities that is optimized for. It is also shown that the simulated annealing algorithm not just is much faster than the classic heuristic used here, but also in most cases gives better location solutions.

  • 100.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    How do neighbouring populations affect local population change over time?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study covers a period when society changed from a pre-industrial agricultural society to a post-industrial service-producing society. Parallel with this social transformation, major population changes took place. In this study, we analyse how local population changes are affected by neighbouring populations. To do so we use the last 200 years of local population change that redistributed population in Sweden. We use literature to identify several different processes and spatial dependencies in the redistribution between a parish and its surrounding parishes. The analysis is based on a unique unchanged historical parish division, and we use an index of local spatial correlation to describe different kinds of spatial dependencies that have influenced the redistribution of the population. To control inherent time dependencies, we introduce a non-separable spatial temporal correlation model into the analysis of population redistribution. Hereby, several different spatial dependencies can be observed simultaneously over time. The main conclusions are that while local population changes have been highly dependent on the neighbouring populations in the 19th century, this spatial dependence have become insignificant already when two parishes is separated by 5 kilometres in the late 20th century. Another conclusion is that the time dependency in the population change is higher when the population redistribution is weak, as it currently is and as it was during the 19th century until the start of industrial revolution.

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