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  • 51.
    Janols, Henrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Wik, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Nulägesanalys av passivhusbyggande i Sverige 20102012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn slukar årligen ca 40 % av Sveriges totala energiförbrukning. Nya normer kräver energieffektivare bostäder. Normerna idag fokuserar enbart på driftkostnader och tar inte alls hänsyn till energiförbrukningen och koldioxidavtrycket som själva byggprocessen alstrar. Med höga driftvärden blir energiförbrukningen i byggskedet en liten procent men för passivhus, och ännu högre grad för plusenergihus, som förbrukar ytterst lite energi, blir tillverkningsenergin den avgörande miljöbelastningen. Ny teknik för att uppnå de nya kraven finns i viss utsträckning, men kännedom och kunskap om dem saknas då de fått otillräcklig spridning. En del tekniska lösningar befinner sig fortfarande i en utvecklingsprocess och är inte färdigutvecklade för en större produktion. Ambitionen med denna nulägesanalys och därtill lika inventeringsarbete har varit att fånga in de lösningar och tester som gjorts och ta del av utvärderingarna så att vi kan dra nytta utav dessa i vårt arbete. Denna sammanställning grundar sig på muntlig information vi tagit del av under studiebesöken, ritningar, beskrivningar, protokoll samt rapporter vi samlat in.

    Syfte

    Syftet med vår resa till nedanstående objekt var att ta reda på hur flerfamiljshus med passivhus standard är byggda. Vilka stomval har gjorts och av vilken anledning. Vi ville också ta reda på hur man klarat av täthetskraven i de olika projekten samt hur detta mätts. I många fall verkar det som om utformning och arkitektur glöms bort när man ska bygga passivhus som om passivhuskravet vore så betungande att god utformning inte är förening med det. Därför ville vi också bedöma byggnaderna från arkitektoniska aspekter då dessa är av stor vikt för en bra miljö.

  • 52.
    Jansson, Tom
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utvärdering av terrester laserskanning i framställandet av en 3D-modell: Baserat på underlag från ritning och terrester laserskanning av en fackverksbro2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the implementation of building information modeling (BIM) in the Swedish civil engineering industry has increased. This is due to directives from the government stating that the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), in greater occurrence, will benefit from the digital possibilities with the BIM concept. Trafikverket is the government agency responsible for the long-term planning and management of public roads, construction in the infrastructure such as tunnels and bridges, and has great influence in the Swedish civil engineering industry. They claim that the key to enhance the use and development of BIM is to raise their demands towards the rest of the industry. Transitioning from a drawing-based to an object-based approach will affect the entire industry. The idea is to be able to handle all the information in 3D-data and the BIM concept throughout the entire life cycle of the construction. To reach that ambition, the already-built constructions need to be represented as 3D-models in terms of being a part of the BIM concept.

    Terrestrial laser scanning is a method of measurement that is being used worldwide for 3D-documentation of complex objects and environments. The result of a scan is comprehensive with low uncertainty of measurement; therefore the method is well suited to assist in the creation of 3D-models.

    The primary aim of the study is to examine the differences between 3D-models, depending on the measurement method that was used to create them.

    An analysis of the current situation in these fields-of-study was made by a literature study to place this thesis in its proper context. Although the two 3D-models were the same exact object, they were created using two different methods of measurement. The models were compared to identify the differences between them.

    The study unveils that the choice of measurement method influences the results of the 3D-model, where the terrestrial laser scanning method could help to improve the quality of the final product. On the other hand, there were areas where the two methods of measurement could complement each other for even better results.

  • 53.
    Janérs, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kommunikation mellan arbetsledning och yrkesarbetare: En kartläggning över informationsflödet på arbetsplatsen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inadequate communication has for a long time, cost both time and money for the construction industry. Large savings can be made by the construction companies by improving the communication. Improvements can be made both internally, by the organization, and externally between the client and the contractor.

    Purpose: The main purpose of the study is to make a survey of the information flow between project management and professional workers and to locate the weaknesses related to the communication. Those studies and results will give additional grounds to improve the communication within NCC.

    Restrictions: The study was limited to only be done within NCC:s department Infrastructure in Dalarna and manage three ongoing projects. Restrictions were also made to only manage the internal communication between project management and professional workers in the projects.

    Method: In the start phase, a survey of how the information is spread internally within NCC today, what information channels are used and how communication is conducted between project management and professional workers. This by: review follow-ups on projects, participate in meetings and join the professional workers on site.

    Interviews were made with the project management and professional workers. Finally, the shortcomings of the results are presented. The identified problems can later form the basis of a development model in communication, for both project management and professional workers at NCC.

    Result: Shows that some are happy with the communication in the projects while others are not entirely satisfied with the way the communication is handled in the workplace.

    Conclusion: Some of the conclusions obtained from the thesis work are as follows:

    o For a project to be a successful project, both in cost and time, it is necessary to clarify who will participate in the project from start to finish.

    o Closer cooperation and daily communication between professional workers and project management not only lead to less misunderstandings but also to effective and innovative solutions to both execution as a whole and the problems that arise along the way.

  • 54.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse mellan energiberäkning med TMF Energi och IDA ICE -fallstudie för ett småhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For each newly produced house, an energy calculation will be made in the production state and after the building has started to be used, a measurement will form the basis for the energy declaration. This is done to make demands on the energy consumption of the house, in order to reach the targets by 2020 and 2050. There are many different methods for calculating energy consumption. In this report, two energy calculation programs will be compared and look at how the energy usage responds to the solar radiation in the different methods. A hand calculation will be made to validate if the energy usage level is reasonable. The two programs are TMF Energy and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). The calculations are made on a standard house from the house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan. The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in the different methods, so that the results can be compared and see how they differ from one another. The house will be placed differently to see how the orientation affects the energy consumption. The results for the simulations are close to each other and the hand calculation differs from the programs. Even if solar factors change in the different computer programs, results can be matched to form a pattern. The same patterns can be seen in the hand calculation, but with a greater deviation.

  • 55.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse mellan energiberäkning med TMF Energi och IDA ICE -fallstudie för ett småhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For each newly produced house, an energy calculation will be made in the production state and after the building has started to be used, a measurement will form the basis for the energy declaration. This is done to make demands on the energy consumption of the house, in order to reach the targets by 2020 and 2050. There are many different methods for calculating energy consumption.

    In this report, two energy calculation programs will be compared and look at how the energy usage responds to the solar radiation in the different methods. A hand calculation will be made to validate if the energy usage level is reasonable.

    The two programs are TMF Energy and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). The calculations are made on a standard house from the house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan.

    The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in the different methods, so that the results can be compared and see how they differ from one another. The house will be placed differently to see how the orientation affects the energy consumption.

    The results for the simulations are close to each other and the hand calculation differs from the programs. Even if solar factors change in the different computer programs, results can be matched to form a pattern.

    The same patterns can be seen in the hand calculation, but with a greater deviation.

  • 56.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse mellan energiberäkningmed TMF Energi och IDA ICE-fallstudie för ett småhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For each newly produced house, an energy calculation will be made inthe production state and after the building has started to be used, ameasurement will form the basis for the energy declaration. This isdone to make demands on the energy consumption of the house, inorder to reach the targets by 2020 and 2050.There are many different methods for calculating energy consumption.In this report, two energy calculation programs will be compared andlook at how the energy usage responds to the solar radiation in thedifferent methods. A hand calculation will be made to validate if theenergy usage level is reasonable.The two programs are TMF Energy and IDA Indoor Climate andEnergy (IDA ICE). The calculations are made on a standard housefrom the house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan.The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in thedifferent methods, so that the results can be compared and see howthey differ from one another. The house will be placed differently tosee how the orientation affects the energy consumption.The results for the simulations are close to each other and the handcalculation differs from the programs. Even if solar factors change inthe different computer programs, results can be matched to form apattern. The same patterns can be seen in the hand calculation, but witha greater deviation.

  • 57.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bo i Byn: Utformning av seniorbostad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when an elderly person wants to sell the property and move on to somethingthat is easier to handle? Are there opportunities for older people to live in the same city asbefore? What opportunities are there for elderly people who want to move to a smallerresidence? Can a concept be drawn up just for this assignment?This degree project will address the problem of how elderly people face a challenge to get toa simpler accommodation that is more suited to the elderly for functional and maintenancepurposes. The thesis is based on an ongoing project that takes place in Norr Amsberg, a smalltown three kilometer north of Borlänge.In this degree project, a qualitative method will be used which means no calculations isneeded. Thus, facts will be gathered from interviews, research articles and statistics.Six people have been interviewed during this project. Those who have been interviewed aretwo scientists who are stationed in Falun, three older people who have passed sixty-five yearsof ages and finally the enthusiast who started whole project in Norr Amsberg. This provides abroad ground for the conclusions drawn in the report.A concept house has been drawn up during this time, taking account of the wishes of theinterviewees as appearance, functional requirements and location. The house has allaccessibility requirements that a modern home will have. The building that is produced is aconcept and not the finished product.Important conclusions that have been made during this study are how important the housingdesign is and how it affects the elderly significantly more than is generally believed and thatthe need will increase significantly in terms of custom housing in the future. The importanceof housing design and how it affects older people are some major key factors that allmunicipalities learn to address when planning a type of "senior housing" for elderly people.

  • 58.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bo i Byn: Utformning av seniorbostad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when an elderly person wants to sell the property and move on to something

    that is easier to handle? Are there opportunities for older people to live in the same city as

    before? What opportunities are there for elderly people who want to move to a smaller

    residence? Can a concept be drawn up just for this assignment?

    This degree project will address the problem of how elderly people face a challenge to get to

    a simpler accommodation that is more suited to the elderly for functional and maintenance

    purposes. The thesis is based on an ongoing project that takes place in Norr Amsberg, a small

    town three kilometer north of Borlänge.

    In this degree project, a qualitative method will be used which means no calculations is

    needed. Thus, facts will be gathered from interviews, research articles and statistics.

    Six people have been interviewed during this project. Those who have been interviewed are

    two scientists who are stationed in Falun, three older people who have passed sixty-five years

    of ages and finally the enthusiast who started whole project in Norr Amsberg. This provides a

    broad ground for the conclusions drawn in the report.

    A concept house has been drawn up during this time, taking account of the wishes of the

    interviewees as appearance, functional requirements and location. The house has all

    accessibility requirements that a modern home will have. The building that is produced is a

    concept and not the finished product.

    Important conclusions that have been made during this study are how important the housing

    design is and how it affects the elderly significantly more than is generally believed and that

    the need will increase significantly in terms of custom housing in the future. The importance

    of housing design and how it affects older people are some major key factors that all

    municipalities learn to address when planning a type of "senior housing" for elderly people.

  • 59.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Intervjustudie av oskyddade trafikanters situation på 13 m mötesseparerad landsväg2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I kölvattnet av Nollvisionen uppstår problem för oskyddade trafikanter. Vid mittseparering av 13-metersvägar blir utrymmet för dessa trafikantgrupper otillräckligt och nya lösningar måste till. Detta examensarbete syftar till att förbättra framkomligheten och trafiksäkerheten för oskyddade trafikanter på s k MLV (Mötesseparerad LandsVäg). Målet med examensarbetet har varit att inventera problem, identifiera förbättringsområden, finna bra lösningar samt att beräkna vilka kostnader som dessa lösningar orsakar. Som ett resultat av arbetet har framkommit att det saknas en nationell samstämmighet i synen på hur oskyddade trafikanter på MLV, skall behandlas. Vidare existerar det en stor fokusering i centrala direktiv, kanske mest inofficiella, på bilisters och transportörers behov vid utformningen av MLV. Som en konsekvens av detta har de oskyddade trafikanterna blivit undanträngda, både bildligt och fysiskt talat, från dessa vägtyper och därmed begränsas deras förflyttnings-möjligheter. Ytterligare resultat är att det behövs mer utredning kring hänvisning för de oskyddade trafikanterna på MLV, detta för att i möjligaste mån separera trafikantgrupperna. I arbetet har också utförts en kostnadsberäkning av en GCM-lösning (GCM står för Gång, Cykel och Moped) på en vägsträcka, riksväg 80 mellan Falun och Hofors. Kostnaden blev 1,1 - 2,2 mn kr, vilket motsvarar en projektfördyring med 4,4 - 11 %, beroende på alternativ. De viktigaste slutsatserna i arbetet är att man bör anstränga sig till det yttersta för att erbjuda ett alternativ till en MLV, och att man då också måste förbättra skyltningen, för att undvika att oskyddade trafikanter irrar sig in på MLV:n, trots acceptabla alternativvägar. För detta har ett förslag till ett nytt vägmärke framtagits, Alternativ GCM-väg längs MLV, se Bilaga 5.

  • 60.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effectiveness of trigger speed of vehicle-activated signs on mean and standard deviation of speed2016In: Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, ISSN 1943-9962, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 293-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive or inappropriate speeds are a key factor in traffic fatalities and crashes. Vehicle-activated signs (VASs) are therefore being extensively used to reduce speeding to increase traffic safety. A VAS is triggered by an individual vehicle when the driver exceeds a speed threshold, otherwise known as trigger speed (TS). The TS is usually set to a constant, normally proportional to the speed limit on the particular segment of road. Decisions concerning the TS largely depend on the local traffic authorities. The primary objective of this article is to help authorities determine the TS that gives an optimal effect on the Mean and Standard Deviation of speed. The data were systematically collected using radar technology whilst varying the TS. The results show that when the applied TS was set near the speed limit, the standard deviation was high. However, the Standard Deviation decreased substantially when the threshold was set to the 85th percentile. This decrease occurred without a significant increase in the mean speed. It is concluded that the optimal threshold speed should approximate the 85th percentile, though VASs should ideally be individually calibrated to the traffic conditions at each site.

  • 61.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effectiveness of vehicle activated signs on mean speed and standard deviation of vehicle speed2014Report (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Data based Calibration System for Radar used by Vehicle Activated Signs2014In: Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing, ISSN 2327-7203, no 2, p. 11p. 106-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accurate measurement of a vehicle’s velocity is an essential feature in adaptive vehicle activated sign systems. Since the velocities of the vehicles are acquired from a continuous wave Doppler radar, the data collection becomes challenging. Data accuracy is sensitive to the calibration of the radar on the road. However, clear methodologies for in-field calibration have not been carefully established. The signs are often installed by subjective judgment which results in measurement errors. This paper develops a calibration method based on mining the data collected and matching individual vehicles travelling between two radars. The data was cleaned and prepared in two ways: cleaning and reconstructing. The results showed that the proposed correction factor derived from the cleaned data corresponded well with the experimental factor done on site. In addition, this proposed factor showed superior performance to the one derived from the reconstructed data.

  • 63.
    Jäderbrink, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Isaksson, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kostnadseffektivisering av ett lågenergikoncept: En komponentjämförelse för småhus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this degree thesis is to investigate and establish how the choice of components such as windows, entrance doors and HRV-units affect the energy demand and operating cost of a detached house.

    The Swedish company Fiskarhedenvillan currently offers two different concepts for detached houses; conventional houses and passive houses which comply with the German Passive House Institute (PHI).   The passive house concept (as set by PHI) puts high emphasis on not just low energy consumption but also on high comfort. With high demands come high investment costs. Fiskarhedenvillan wishes for the concept of the passive house to be modified to a nearly zero-energy building by replacing certified components with non-certified ditto with the intention to lower the investment costs.   The objective of this thesis degree is to develop a more cost efficient low-energy concept compared to the passive house according to PHI and this by making different choices concerning components. Two question formulations were made:

    • By what amount can the investment costs be reduced by changing components and how will the modification affect the energy demand?
    • Is it possible to develop a more cost efficient low-energy concept?

    The comparison research was made by using a control sample, projected to meet the demands set by PHI, as a reference.  A comparison was made by using the planning tool Passive House Planning Package together with data from the control sample. The variation in result between the control sample and the new alternatives was due only to choice of components. 

    The study resulted in two equally cost efficient combinations of components with regard to technical lifespan. Both combinations consist of non-certified windows and entrance doors but have the certified HRV-unit used in the controlled sample. Thus, the most cost efficient alternative consists of both certified and non-certified components.

    Conclusions:

    • The investment cost can be reduced by up to 59,1 % for components or 6,7 % for building kit with new components included. The energy demand increased by11 kWh/m². 
    • It is fully possible to develop a concept that is more cost efficient than Fiskarhedenvillan’s existing low-energy concept.
  • 64.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    HiG.
    Sattari, Amir
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Linden, Elisabet
    HiG.
    Wigö, Hans
    HiG.
    Sandberg, Mats
    HiG.
    Experimental study on contaminant entrainment in air distribution systems with free jets2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Kamaludin, Abdulkani
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ahmed, Abdurahman
    Omräkningsfaktor för jämförelse av investeringskostnader vid nyproduktion av olika lägenhetstyper: Fallstudie på Hyttkammaren, ett fler bostadshus i Falun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nybyggnation av bostäder är en av de viktigaste uppgifterna i

    dagens samhälle. Bostadsbolag bygger varje år nya lägenheter för

    mycket stora pengar och för att det ska vara ekonomiskt lönsamt

    är det viktigt att det byggs lägenheter som drar ned på kostnaderna

    så mycket som möjligt.

    Genom många års lägenhetsbyggande har bostadsbolag samlat på

    sig erfarenheter som bekräftar att små lägenheter är dyrare att

    bygga än större lägenheter per kvadratmeter.

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att ta reda på hur mycket

    dyrare små lägenheter är i förhållande till de större lägenheterna

    samt vad det är som drar upp kostnaderna för de små lägenheterna.

    Bakgrunden till det här arbetet är att Kopparstaden, ett

    bostadsbolag som ägs av Falu Kommun, har märkt att

    bostadsbyggande är olika dyrt på olika platser i landet och vill ta

    reda på vad orsaken till detta är. De har inlett en undersökning där

    de jämför ett dussin bostadsprojekt utspridda över Dalarna och

    jämför deras projektkostnader för att ta reda på vilka som är dyrast

    och vad som orsakar deras skillnader. För att kunna göra en rättvis

    jämförelse mellan projekten måste justeringar göras efter faktorer

    som byggtid, storlek, standard samt tomt- och fastighetskostnad.

    Syftet i den här studien är att ta fram de procentuella

    kostnadsskillnaderna mellan olika lägenhetsstorlekar för ett

    testobjekt som Kopparstaden sedan kan använda till att göra

    storleksjusteringar mellan olika byggnadsprojekt

  • 66.
    Karlsson, Samuel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Husgrunders miljöpåverkan: Jämförelse av grundläggningsmetoder för ett småhus2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings affect the environment and climate in many ways, not only during the

    operating stage, but also during production. While buildings are constructed to

    be more energy-effective, a greater share of the buildings total energy demand

    will depend on how the building is produced. Previous studies show that

    buildings with a frame made of wood has substantially lower energy demand and

    greenhouse gas emissions due to production than building frames made of

    concrete. The aim with this report is to investigate the environmental effects due

    to different methods for foundation of a detached house. The main focus is to

    calculate the energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents

    from production of materials. Three different constructions are compared;

    foundation with cellular glass (The Koljern-method), a concrete slab, and a post

    and pier foundation with a wood-based floor. By designing the three

    constructions to be equal in terms of ability to carry the load from a two story

    house 8X12m, and with equal U-values, the comparison is made out of the

    required use of materials. Data for use of energy and CO2e-emissions” from

    cradle to gate” has been taken from declarations on the building products,the

    ICE database and EPD-documents for the various materials. Thereafter, the

    total use of energy and emissions of CO2e has been calculated. Assessments

    from the SundaHus database is also studied to get a more detailed picture of the

    environmental impact and health aspects of the materials.

    The result shows that the post and pier foundation has the lowest use of energy

    in production of the materials and a negative release of greenhouse gas due to

    sequestration. The foundation made of cellular glass has the highest demand of

    energy for producing the materials for the foundation, and a concrete slab has

    the highest emissions of greenhouse gas.

    From estimations made by SundaHus, no further conclusions could be made

    due to the use of environmentally and health restricted materiel. The deduction

    is that the post and pier foundation can be an interesting alternative to reduce

    the carbon footprint from the production of building foundation, but to get a better

    overview a total lifecycle analysis has to be made.

  • 67.
    Karlsson, Sara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ljungkvist, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ytterväggars värmegenomgångskoefficient och förmåga att lagra värme: En jämförande studie av två ytterväggskonstruktioner gjord genom mätningar i klimatkammare och en datorsimulering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted in order to investigate wheater the u-value of an outer wall

    construction can be improved by changing isolation- and board material. The negative

    impact the emissions of greenhouse gases has on the environment require development of

    new approches to make our buildings more energy efficient. A new wall that is thinner with

    equivalent or better u-value and with a better heat storage capacity will make the building

    more energy efficient and the indoor environment more pleasant without large temperature

    changes that can occur with a wooden framework.

    A new exterior wall was made and compared with Bra Hus existing wall by doing

    measurements on both of them in a climate chamber and build them in WUFI Pro, a

    computer simulation program. The material was changed from mineral wool and a regular

    gypsum board to cellulose insulation and PCM Comfortboard, a gypsum board with cells

    of a special vax mixture which has a heat storage capacity. The measurements in the climate

    chamber were made to calculate the u-value and analyze how fast the temperature dropped

    with and without the PCM Comfortboard.

    The measurements showed that the wall with the new material had better u-value than the

    existing one, but theoretical calculations indicated that the existing wall should be better.

    A conclusion of this is that PCM Comfortboard is the element effecting the u-value the

    most because the isolation material have equal thermal resistance. With a great heat storage

    capacity and ability to contribute to a more even indoor temperature the PCM

    Comfortboard makes an excellent board to use with intension of reducing the energy need

    for heating.

    Another conclusion is that cellulose insulation is equal to mineral wool and can be used

    instead as an environmentally friendly choice.

  • 68.
    Kifle, Eyob
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Fart, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Luftläckningens inverkan på energiåtgången i byggnader med väggar av massivträ utan fuktspärr2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the training to become building engineers the writers of this essay have been committed to the development of energy and climate smart houses. In several courses there have been discussions on how to save nature's resources by decreasing the consumption of energy. In order to achieve this, houses which are air tight so that the warmth is prevented from leaking out of the building, are being built. An example of such a house is a "Passive House".

    Högskolan Dalarna has since 2013 carried out a research project where a building with the measurement 15 m2, named the "Test Cube", has been erected as a Passive House with a frame of massive wood without a plastic based moisture barrier. Measurements of the air tightness have been performed regularly over 24 months and the result of these measurements indicates a systematic variety of the air tightness over the year.

    In this essay the authors are examining how the yearly variety of a building's air tightness affects the energy need in a building without a plastic based moisture barrier. Furthermore are the authors examining the energy performance as well as how the measured air tightness in the "Test Cube" theoretically will change if a corresponding building system will be used in a 120 m2 fictitious building. This is done with the help of the measurements done over the 24 months in the "Test Cube".

    The result of these investigations is that the yearly variety of air tightness barely affects the energy performance of the fictitious building despite the air tightness varying between 0,15-0,20 l/sm2.

  • 69.
    Knutz, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energibehovsanalys av passiva massivträhus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a project which created a test building designed to advance and improve passive houses. The so-called “test building” can help to evaluate different scenarios for moisture transport and tightness. The test building has advanced HVAC systems to control temperature and moisture levels, which makes the test building a good tool to check if theoretical energy calculation formulas match reality.

    The aim of this thesis was partly to investigate how different energy calculation programs match reality and each other, as well as to investigate if the test building fulfills its goal of being classified as a passive house. The method used was based on energy calculations made by hand as well as four different energy calculation programs on the computer. These were compared with each other and with real energy measurements from the test building.

    From the results of the energy calculations the following conclusions could be made; the comparison between the programs shows a difference of up to 12 kWh/m2, yr or 8 % between the highest and lowest results. The electricity consumption of the household and the habits of the inhabitants has a large influence on the result. The comparison between measured energy usage and calculated energy usage is < 15%. Here there is an uncertainty between the weather data used in the calculations and the real weather data. The test building cannot fulfill the claim of a passive house at 150m2 that have a central heating system installed today.

  • 70.
    Lassbo, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lindholm, Rikard
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hållfasthetsegenskaper hos gammalt konstruktionsvirke: Jämförelse med nytt konstruktionsvirke med avseende på böjhållfasthet och tryck vinkelrätt mot fibrerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there are many older buildings with old wood that need renovation and remodeled to adapt to today's living standards . To be able to renovate and change the houses correctly, it is important to know how the materials in the houses change. This study investigates how the strength properties of old construction timber relate to new construction timber. Data collection has been done by testing the strength properties of construction timber older than 80 years. The tests performed are the compression perpendicular to the grain to obtain the elastic modulus perpendicular to the grain (E

    c,90), and the bending strength to obtain the elastic modulus parallel to the grain (Em). Both tests have been implemented according to EN 408: 2003 with some exceptions. The result of compression perpendicular to the grain shows that the timber is in good quality according to current requirements, the average is in the class C18. For bending strength, the timber keeps a good quality according to today's requirements and the average is in class C18. It indicates that old construction timber retains a large proportion of its strength properties and keeps a good quality in relation to new construction timber.

  • 71.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Umeå universitet.
    Trygg, L.
    Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1719-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the differences in primary energy (PE) use of a multi-family building refurbished with different refurbishment packages situated in different district heating systems (DHS). Four models of typical DHS are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. The refurbishment packages are chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency of a representative multi-family building in Sweden. The study was made from a broad system perspective, including valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in PE savings for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of DHS. Also, the package giving the lowest specific energy use per m2 was not the one which saved the most PE. © 2017 The Authors.

  • 72.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Umeå universitet.
    Ödlund, L
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, no SI, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

  • 73.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Umeå universitet.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings Universitet.
    System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 106, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration.

    This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases.

    The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used.

    When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures.

  • 74.
    Lindberg, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelsestudie avseende stomsystem: Ramverk eller fackverk/balk/pelar-system2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project included a comparison study on frame systems. The study investigated framework and truss/beam/column-system and was conducted independently with support of Ramboll AB 's office in Falun. The aim was primarily to examine what differences there are between frameworks with two joints and truss/beam/column-systems for light industrial buildings and try to determine why the truss/beam/column-system is the dominant system in Sweden because the rest of Europe has taken a different development and dominated by framework with two joints. The study examines the differences between the systems in a industrial building with predetermined dimensions in steel.Initially, a literature study was conducted to gain a broader view of the systems and to create a better understanding for the conditions for each system. After the literature study was conducted could a exampelhouse and underlay for the comparison study be developed. A survey study were also conducted and the purpose was to create a clear picture of which system the frame system designers in Sweden usually choose and why. The results of the study showed that frameworks with two joints give an increased cost compared with truss/beam/column-system in material consumption and production, and the calculations become more complicated for the framwork. Should further studies be done with these systems in buildings with other measurements, it might possible to obtain specific measures of buildings where the cost of frameworks with two joints will be the same as for a building with truss/beam/column-system and therefore become an equivalent alternative.An important conclusion of this project is that a framework with two joints is used much more rarely than truss/beam/column-system as frame systems in light industrial buildings in Sweden because the cost will be much higher with a framework with two joints and that it is a more complicated system in the computational work . The main conclusions from comparative study can be summarized as follows:

    • Framwork with two joints is more expensive to use.
    • Framework with two joints is a more complicated system computationally.
    • The tradition of using framework with two joints does not exist and it's therefore the system does not being used.
  • 75.
    Ljungdahl, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Caroline, Norrström
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utveckling av träregelvägg anpassad förframtida energikrav2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Various proposals on wooden joist walls are presented in this report, forFiskarhedenvillan’s standard wall. Boverket has issued a new referral where the energyrequirements for houses has been intensified and become more accurate, depending tothe county and city. The climate zones have been replaced by an adjustment factor.The aim is to develop four new improved wall structures and to do moisture simulations toinvestigate how the constructions are able to be exposed to moisture. The walls should fitinto the company's system solutions.The insulation alternatives that are studied are rock wool and cellulose insulation.Tests are made in the degree thesis to see what would happen if the vapour barrier isreplaced with a thicker OSB and also if the exterior gypsum is replaced by a“Västkustskiva”. Although a thicker construction with cellulose insulation is developed.Calculations and simulations are made to see if the wall structures passed the energyrequirement, depending on house-style and geographical location.Three of Fiskarhedenvillan’s houses were investigated based on two locations, Lund andUmeå.The investigation resulted that all wall structures passed the moisture simulations andalso did the walls pass the coming energy requirements set in Boverket’s referral.Three of the walls has very similar U-value but are different in thickness and insulationmaterials.The conclusion is that the structure of cellulose insulation and OSB got the best results inall areas. The wall:

    • has the lowest U-value, which means a low energy consumption
    • manufactured from recycled materials
    • economically feasible to Fiskarhedenvillan’s customers
  • 76.
    Morin, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Abrahamsson, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Analys av klimatpåverkan från renoveringsåtgärderav ett flerbostadshus: Fallstudie av Kornstigen 25 på Tjärna Ängar i Borlänge kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The total climate impact from the construction processes in Sweden is estimated at 10 million tons carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions per year. This corresponds to almost all of the emissions from all cars in Sweden. A common perception has been that the management phase accounted for 85 % of the climate impact and the production phase for 15 %. Therefore, a lot of effort has been made for energy efficiency of buildings which has resulted in a drastically reduction of the climate impact of the management phase. For the production phase, climate impact has rarely been taken into account which has resulted in stagnation. Dalarna University is a part of a project aiming a cautious energy-efficient renovation of “miljonprogramsområdet” Tjärna Ängar in Borlänge. One ambition of the project is that the climate impact will not increase as a result of the renovation. To assess the climate impact of buildings, Life Cycle Assessment has become more and more common.The study aims to demonstrate and critically examine the potential of using Life Cycle Assessment to support decisions for improved environmental performance in renovation. It also aims to identify the most beneficial of two alternative renovation options from a climate perspective. What distinguished the renovation options was mainly the ventilation system; one had FTX ventilation, while the other exhaust air heat pump. The climate impact from the production phase could then be compared and put in relation to the expected climate impact for the management phase of the building throughout its life cycle.A literature review was made where the existing knowledge of the subject was identified. A case study of climate impact in the form of greenhouse gas emissions as a result of the energy renovation was made. Data on climate impact from material and products were collected from Bidcon Klimatmodul, different reports on life cycle assessment, databases and environmental product declarations and were reported as carbon dioxide equivalents. Calculation of climate impact from transports has been done using NTM, the Network for Transport and Environment.For the 30-year analysis period, the production phase of the two renovation options accounts for about 20% of the overall climate impact compared to the climate impact from energy use during management. According to the result, the renovation option with FTX gives a slightly bigger climate impact than the FVP alternative. This is mainly due to the fact that the incoming products are mainly the same in both options and that all the components and materials that gave the most impact on the climate were common to both of the renovation options. The result also shows that transports represents a very small part of the climate impact in this case study.The main conclusion from the study is that climate impact is not increased as a result of the renovation, neither for alternative FTX or FVP. Not doing any renovation at all results in a larger climate impact during the analysis period.

  • 77.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Heier, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    The perception of Swedish housing owner’s on the strategies to increase the rate of energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings2018In: Intelligent Buildings International, ISSN 1750-8975, E-ISSN 1756-6932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the energy performance of existing buildings is crucial for reaching both EU and national climate and energy targets. The main objective of this study was to map challenges that Swedish housing owners perceive when making energy-efficiency refurbishments. A secondary objective was to compare how well these challenges relate to national strategies. The study applied a combined methods approach with audience response meters and in-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. The housing owners express the view that they have sufficient knowledge of national ambitions to improve the energy performance of buildings and welcome the new building regulations. Despite this supposed knowledge and the current economic situation with beneficial loans, the refurbishment rate still remains low. The housing owners explain that they are concerned about the ‘performance gap’ and request more accurate energy performance predictions. They are also waiting for proof that all sustainability goals can be reached in reality. Probably, too few projects fulfilling ambitions in all categories: economically, socially and energy-wise have been followed up and demonstrated nationally. The new national information centre on refurbishment of buildings may help to spread information about such projects, raise awareness and thus increase the refurbishment rate.

  • 78.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Holmberg, Sture
    Performance evaluation of ventilation radiators2013In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 51, no 1-2, p. 315-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ventilation radiator is a combined ventilation and heat emission unit currently of interest due to its potential for increasing energy efficiency in exhaust ventilated buildings with warm water heating. This paper presents results of performance tests of several ventilation radiator models conducted under controlled laboratory conditions.

     

    The purpose of the study was to validate results achieved by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in an earlier study and indentify possible improvements in the performance of such systems. The main focus was on heat transfer from internal convection fins, but comfort and health aspects related to ventilation rates and air temperatures were also considered.

      The general results from the CFD simulations were confirmed; the heat output of ventilation radiators may be improved by at least 20 % without sacrificing ventilation efficiency or thermal comfort.

     

    Improved thermal efficiency of ventilation radiators allows a lower supply water temperature and energy savings both for heating up and distribution of warm water in heat pumps or district heating systems. A secondary benefit is that a high ventilation rate can be maintained all year around without risk for cold draught.

  • 79.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bergdahl, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lågtemperaturuppvärmning med tilluftsradiatorer och värmeåtervinning i frånluft: en varsam renovering av flerbostadshus för energieffektivisering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att nå reella sänkningar av energianvändningen i hela byggnadsbeståndet krävs tillgång till kostnadseffektiva renoveringspaket med energieffektiva systemlösningar där samspel mellan installationssystem och byggnad beaktas.

    Denna förstudie belyser möjligheter med alternativa renoveringspaket med lågtemperatur-tilluftsradiatorer och värmeåtervinning i frånluften (FX). Systemkombinationer och jämförelser har gjorts med mera etablerade lösningar med traditionella radiatorer, balanserad mekanisk ventilation (FTX) och solvärme. Mindre prövade lösningar såsom frånluftsmoduler (VBX) kopplat till befintliga värmepumpar och behovsstyrd ventilation undersöktes också.

    Energianvändning och kostnadseffektivitet med de undersökta åtgärdspaketen prövades för två äldre bostadshus med vardera specifika restriktioner: den ena inom fjärrvärmenätet och det andra ett K-märkt hus utanför fjärrvärmenätet. Samtidigt reflekterades det över vilka tekniska lösningar som samtidigt är gynnsammast ur hållbarhetssynpunkt. För flertalet befintliga byggnader behöver såväl metoder som komponenter utvecklas på ett varsamt sätt som uppfyller båda ägarens krav som övergripande mål baserat på systemförutsättning och kostnadseffektivitet.

    Förstudien visar att:

     lågtemperatur-tilluftsradiatorer är en systemkomponent som möjliggör ökad komfort via förvärmning och filtrering av inkommande ventilationsluft, effektivare värmeproduktion och minskning av värmeförluster i distribution av varmvatten. Renovering med installation av FX-system i kombination med lågtemperatur-tilluftradiatorer är ett alternativ till FTX system som begränsar byggåtgärderna i byggnaden och ger lägre livscykelkostnad

     Byggnadsskalets täthet blir avgörande för energinyttan båda med FX- och FTX-system. Förstudien visar att FX-system är fördelaktig i byggnader med dålig lufttäthet

     I byggnader med befintligt frånluftssystem kan behovsstyrning av ventilationen vara ett enkelt och kostnadseffektivt sätt att sänka ventilationsförlusterna och spara energi som alternativ till att installera återvinningssystem

    Förstudien visar klart att energieffektiv renovering kan åstadkommas med val av varsamma metoder som också åstadkommer ökad komfort och systemnytta, utanför såväl som inom fjärrvärmenätet. Samtidigt kan ägarens krav på kostandsnytta nås och byggnaders bevarandekrav uppfyllas.

    Nu krävs det demonstrationsprojekt för att inte minst sprida kunskap i branschen men också applicering på större bostadsområden.

  • 80.
    Nilsson, Lars-Bertil
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Från olycka till säker väg: En granskning av den svenska trafikolycksstatistiken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for all road safety work in Sweden is based on a decision taken by the government in 1997. The decision included strategic long-term work, with the ethical approach that no one would have to die or be seriously injured in traffic. The focus was shifted to traffic accidents, but that the consequences for personal injuries would be reduced. The Swedish Transport Administration, which is responsible for approximately 100 000 kilometers of state roads, has developed a systematic way of working in order to realize the vision of the injury level in traffic accidents. By setting sub-goals, cooperation with other actors, developed indicators and annual analyzes, a method is created to monitor the results of different road safety measures. An important part of road safety work is the traffic accident statistics collected from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (Strada). The reporting to Strada is carried out by police and emergency care. The Transport Agency, which is responsible for Strada and Transport Administration, which is one of the users of traffic accident statistics, has highlighted the importance of this information in road safety work. Both actors have also stated that there are problems with reporting to Strada. In this degree project the problem is divided into two categories: loss and deviations. Loss is meant traffic accidents that are never registered in Strada. Deviations refer to incorrect information, based on the actual event, which is registered to Strada. The purpose of the thesis work is to study these two categories of problems, focusing on the police's reporting, and how they affect the Swedish Transport Administration's road safety work, primarily from a construction engineering perspective. The method of the investigative part has been divided into two parts. The first part is an interview study. People who are well-informed in the chain of events "From Accident to Safe Road" have been interviewed. Through the interviews, the problems and how they affect road safety work can be better explained. The second part consisted of a survey. The target group was the police who report traffic accidents on a daily basis. Deviations were identified by the survey. The study showed that there is a loss in police reporting to Strada, and there are different types of loss. The police in Dalarna report about 98 percent of the traffic accidents that are the responsibility of the police. Other loss is caught to some extent by the healthcare industry. There are deviations in the police's reporting. By other supplementary sources of information, these deviations are corrected to a certain extent. The problems do not primarily affect the Swedish Transport Administration's construction engineering aspects. The building engineering aspects are based on standard road construction with the functional objective as a first step. On the other hand, research on the basis of standardized roads can be affected. The priority for which roads should be addressed can also be influenced by loss and deviations.

  • 81.
    Norin, Joakim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Israelsson, Calle
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelseanalys av källarkonstruktioner: Studie med avseende på fuktbelastning, bärighet, värmeisolering, ekonomi och miljöpåverkan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fiskarhedenvillan har för avsikt att kunna rekommendera och tillhandahålla erforderliga konstruktionsritningar över en lämplig källarkonstruktionslösning som är integrerbar med deras byggsystem. Dagens rekommenderade konstruktionslösning anses ha utrymme för utveckling vilket ligger till grund för denna rapport.

    Syftet med denna rapport var att utvärdera och analysera fyra olika källarkonstruktioner med hänsyn till utvalda parametrar, där den mest fördelaktiga konstruktionen presenteras. Dessa parametrar omfattade fuktbelastning, bärighet, värmeisolering, ekonomi och miljöpåverkan.

    Studien utfördes främst genom en litteraturstudie samt att data som framkom av genomförda mätningar och beräkningar utvärderades och analyserades för respektive konstruktion och parameter. Resultaten jämfördes sedan mot övriga utvalda konstruktionslösningar.

    Efter jämförelseanalysen kunde Jackon Thermomur 350 rekommenderas och presenteras som den mest fördelaktiga lösningen. Konstruktionen valdes främst ut för att den inte påvisar några direkta negativa egenskaper samt att den redovisar det bästa U-värdet. En betydande fördel är även enkelheten till integration med Fiskarhedenvillans befintliga byggsystem.

    En av de viktigaste slutsatserna från arbetet är att det krävs stor noggrannhet vid uppförande av en källarkonstruktion med avseende på den fuktbelastning som konstruktionen utsätts för. Därför bör stor vikt läggas på säkerställande av tillräcklig och tillförlitlig dränering.

    En intressant reflektion var att Leca® som är ett av de mest populära byggmaterialen vid byggnation av källare och som beskrivs som fuktsäkert påvisade tendenser att öka det totala fuktinnehållet vid icke motfylld suterrängkonstruktion. Vidare kan det även diskuteras vilken egenskap som efterfrågas vid uppförande av en källarkonstruktion, något som möjliggör att valet av konstruktion kan variera.

  • 82.
    Olin, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Palm, Alexander
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energieffektivt byggande: Konkreta aspekter att beakta vid uppförandet av kommunala förskolor i Dalarna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy issue is becoming more relevant to handle and consider in the construction industry, particularly

    energy efficiency has become a rapidly growing subject. In the current situation efforts is made to improve

    energy-efficient construction. Counties choose to go in and invest in energy efficient development.

    The purpose of this report is to relate the standpoint of the underlying controlling aspects when

    establishing energy efficient preschools. Aspects covered include the application of management systems

    and communal goals. The choice of contract form and the use of new techniques and placement of the

    property.

    The task is being limited to only compare two Dala-counties establishment of preschools with energy as

    focal point the two counties compered were Leksand and Säter. Contact was made for determination of

    interviews with people responsible for the establishment of the preschools. The interviews were open for

    free answers and reasoning. The literature review was done to get a related theory and to establish the

    foundation of knowledge work based on. The information that emerged from the interviews have been

    compiled on the basis for responding to the work issue.

    The shortage of preschools have resulted in an effort to satiate the covered demand by establish building

    suited for kids. The counties involved new concepts such as new methods for floor heating when they

    established the preschools to secure energy and climate friendly standards to reach EU targets. Careful

    planning is something to take into considering when establishing buildings in this case one of the counties

    started their establishment before the planning was completed which was a reason why the project dissented

    from its planned budget.

    The conclusion from this report is that the accuracy in the planning stage of the building process is crucial

    if building projects are to achieve their goals, in this case, both achieved their local requirements. In contrast

    one of the municipalities did get a more winding road than planned. To establish and operate pilot projects

    in the construction industry, which means to test new areas resulting in a "ripple" effect. Meaning that

    resembled municipalities can choose to start their own energy efficient constructionproject. The municipal

    goals in energy-efficient construction is controlled by the municipality's own established policy documents

    and the municipality's position in energy-efficient construction. Attractiveness is something that

    municipalities among themselves competing with each other, for a municipality to appear attractive it is

    required that modernization takes place within the municipality. If the municipality choose to invest in

    energy efficiency, this appears to be positive and raises the status of the municipal energy thinking.

  • 83.
    Olsson, David
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Moen, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Luftad Badrumskonstruktion: En alternativ metod till traditionellt stambyte2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is in an extensive period of renovation of homes, bathrooms are in a special need of restoration. Buildings from the period surrounding "miljonprogrammet" stands for the majority of the major needs of renovation, where both kitchens and bathrooms are nearing the end of their lifespan. "Miljonprogrammet" lasted between 1965 and 1975 after the parliament in 1964 decided that the country had a need of one million homes in the coming 10 years. This has resulted in a big increase of homes in need of repairs and improvements.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate ventilated bathroom construction as an alternative method for changing pipe systems. The methods economic value, time aspects and material properties are in focus. The purpose was converted into the following questions:

     How profitable is renovation with ventilated bathroom construction?

     How long does it take to renovate with ventilated bathroom construction?

     Are there any quality risks in renovating with ventilated bathroom construction?

     What is the expected lifespan of a bathroom renovated with ventilated bathroom construction?

     Does renovation with ventilated bathroom construction fulfill the needs and requirements that clients are looking for?

     What are the limits when renovating with ventilated bathroom construction?

     How does renovation with ventilated bathroom construction compare to standard methods from a sustainable point of view?

    The study was limited to the use of ventilated bathroom construction in apartment blocks built under the period of "miljonprogrammet" in Sweden. All the real estate companies that were contacted are located in the region of Dalarna. The method "relining" was not included in this study.

    The method used involves foremost interviews with entrepreneurs and real estate companies, but also literature study and surveys. To be able to evaluate the method advice were given from a contact at Länsförsäkringar AB.

  • 84.
    Olsson Thor, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Fuktutredning av massivträkonstruktion: Analys av vägg utan ångspärr2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is part of a research and development project for Dalarna University,where the goal is to produce a design without a vapour barrier that will meettoday's measure of airtightness and moisture requirements.

    The purpose of this report is to investigate how moisture affects a building withsolid wood and various insulation materials without vapour barrier. Mineral woolinsulation and wood fiber insulation will be compared against each other to seehow they affect the moisture load in a wall. The test object is located in Dalarna,no additional moisture load affect the indoor environment.

    To carry out this work, three different methods are used. A moisture simulationwas performed using the program WUFI, measured values in terms of relativehumidity and temperature were collected over two years from the wall of thebuilding. A sampling was performed with a physical operation on the same levelin the wall where measurement sensors were placed.

    Results are presented in form of graphs and tables where you can read thecurrent state of the construction in terms of relative humidity, temperature,moisture content and microbiological fouling. Insulation materials demonstrate ahigh relative humidity at outer layers of the construction during the wintermonths. The external environment has been shown to play a major part for theresults. No direct microbiological fouling has been detected despite a highcontent of moisture.

    The result of wood fiber insulation demonstrates a better ability to handlemoisture. A further study with a moisture load and 21 degrees indoors should beperformed. But for this study to work it’s recommended to change the currentfacade solution to a two- step sealed facade solution to manage the moistureload in the wall.

  • 85.
    Palmqvist, Camilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Strömeus, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Behovsstyrd frånluftsventilation: - Jämförelse med två andra ventilationssystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the demands on energy efficiency in the community is getting higher. Buildings and products are becoming more energy efficient. It is possible to influence energy consumption by choosing ventilation systems with lower energy consumption without risking poor air quality.

    The purpose of the study is to compare the demand-controlled exhaust ventilation to exhaust and supply air ventilation with heat exchanger and exhaust ventilation in terms of energy consumption. The study includes simulations in the computer program TMF Energy and studies of a single-family house located in Borlänge. The program has been used as a calculation tool to survey the theoretical specific energy of the three selected ventilation systems. In order to measure the demand-controlled exhaust ventilation an obligatory ventilation control and effect- and comfort measurements was performed. The measurements were made to determine how demand-controlled exhaust ventilation affects the indoor climate and the ventilation rate that is sufficient to maintain good air quality.

    The result shows that demand-controlled exhaust ventilation can reduce energy consumption compared to exhaust ventilation. The result also shows that a low ventilation rate can be sufficient to ventilate a single-family house.

  • 86.
    Pehrson, Oscar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Analys av omkostnader vid byggande av flerfamiljshus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The profit margins for companies in the construction sector have been low for a long time even though the market has been good. One explanation for the low profit margins is that costs have increased at the same rate as income. This means that a good control over the finances for a project is essential for the success of a good result.

    At spreadsheet work for a project, it is not the direct costs but the overhead cost that creates uncertainty. Overhead costs can be described simply as the cost of the temporary factory in the workplace and includes rental of equipment, barracks and cost of formwork, clothes etc. Previous projects have shown that the calculated overhead cost and the actual outcome are not always corresponding well.

    When there is uncertainty among calculation engineers and site managers how big the costs are, and under which account every expense should be placed. The purpose of the thesis is to show how the distribution of costs varies between projects. Results will give key indicators that can be used as the basis for future calculations. The key indicators formulated are cost per gross area, cost per profession working hours and cost per apartment. The analysis is focused on the economic outcome of production of seven multifamily houses in central Sweden, where all projects are equal in terms of construction.

    The results gave values of 1320 SEK/gross area, 310 SEK/hour and 143 000 SEK/apartment. The key indicators SEK/gross area and SEK/hour had even values between all projects and are therefore reliable. The key indicator SEK/apartment varied significantly and is therefore not reliable. The reason of the variation is attributed to the fact that some of the projects not only contain apartment, but also offices, business premises and collaboration facilities.

    To get extra accuracy around overhead cost management, there should be a more consistent approach around the concept of overhead cost within the company. Creating a search document will help the site manager’s work with placement of overhead cost. To keep the key indicators updated in the future, there should also be a template created which the site manager fills in at the end of each project. This can be used in experience feedback.

  • 87.
    Pettersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Danielsen, Carl
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse av fuktskydd för träsyllar: Fallstudie av fem stycken fuktskyddande åtgärder2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid byggnation av hus med träregelstomme monteras en liggande regel på en

    betongplatta, en så kallad syll. Syllen är oskyddad under lång tid av byggtiden

    och kan då utsättas för nederbörd i form av regn och snö. Fukthalten i syllen får

    inte vara för stor när väggbeklädnad monteras för att fukten skall ha en chans att

    torka ut vilket annars kan orsaka mögelpåväxt med konsekvenserna att den

    huvudsakliga funktionen blir sämre genom att svampar bryter ned träets fibrer.

    Dessutom kan dålig lukt uppstå.

    Det finns möjlighet att montera fullskaligt väderskydd under byggtiden för att

    säkerställa torr miljö, men då detta är en stor kostnad är det få husbyggare som

    väljer detta alternativ.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att analysera och jämföra olika typer av

    fuktskyddslösningar för syllen under byggskedet. Respektive lösning kommer att

    utvärderas och jämföras utifrån i examensarbetets framtagna

    jämförelseparametrar.

    Resultatet visade att varianterna med en obehandlad syll av sibirisk lärk och en

    syll från Kebony visade sig ge bra beständighet mot fukt. Den av sibirisk lärk

    värderades högre då produkten från Kebony inte är beprövad under längre tid

    och behöver analyseras mer ingående.

    Det visar sig att olika omfattning av fuktpåverkan alltid förekommer, men dess

    skadeverkan är av olika omfattning och att det kan accepteras i sådan

    utsträckning att inte konstruktion eller människor tar skada.

    Viktiga slutsatser från detta projekt är: Det är ovanligt att fuktproblemet i syllarna

    blir omfattande att de ger märkbara problem, men då problem uppstår krävs

    stora och dyra insatser.

    Ytterligare slutsatser är att tätade ändar på syllarna begränsades uppsugningen

    av stående vatten väldigt bra från kortändorna och att vid extrema

    vädersituationer behövs något väderskydd eller annat material som syll för att

    kunna garantera ett fuktsäkert bygge.

  • 88.
    Ramírez Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Umeå universitet.
    Assessment of renovation measures for a dwelling area: impacts on energy efficiency and building certification2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 97, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has an ambitious plan to reduce energy use and emissions by the year 2030. The building and real estate sectors have a great potential to help reduce emissions by energy efficiency. However, different energy sources and environmental standards affect the decision making of these major renovations in the existing stock. This study investigates how different renovation strategies affect the energy rating of a selected Building Environmental Assessment Tool and analyses the consequences in terms of greenhouse gas emissions for the local district heating system. Both building energy simulations and energy systems cost optimization were used to determine the energy use and local emissions. The results of different renovation scenarios were used to evaluate the rating in the selected tool and the impact in the district heating local emissions. The used methodology illustrates how energy efficient renovation impacts on the district heating system’s local emissions. However, a bias towards resource classification within the Swedish Building Environmental Tool, Miljöbyggnad, needs to be addressed in order to assess the impact of local emissions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 89.
    Ranerfors, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    VR i byggprojekt: En studie om tillämpning av Virtual Reality i byggprojekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how

    Virtual Reality can be applied in a construction project. The purpose is to

    explain how

    Virtual Reality can be used during design and production in a construction project. As BIM

    has a significant role in the digitization of the construction sector, new methods are needed to utilize 3Dand

    BIM-models. VR has proven to be a useful tool for visualizing these models. This is a new and

    innovative technology that requires more research to be utilized on a larger scale. In this study, two

    consultants with experience of VR in construction projects were interviewed, as well as two contractors.

    The interview questions were based on the theoretical framework and the objectives. The result is

    based on the interview study and shows a clear positive attitude towards the use of VR in construction

    projects. The main benefits were the understanding, communication and internal and external

    examination of BIM models. Within the design phase, VR can facilitate decision makings as the

    understanding of the problems increases. The immersive experience in VR feels like experiencing the

    model in real life, which creates a good decision basis in all stages of a construction project. The ease of

    use in the VR environment creates opportunities for all project members to examine a model, regardless

    of technical skill level. Even external examiners can easily check a model in VR. During the production

    phase, VR can be used to increase understanding for each construction worker. The purpose of each

    specific sub operation is clarified, which can contribute to increased dedication and compassion for

    construction workers. A difficulty encountered during this work is the required computer capability to

    achieve a good experience in VR. A compatible equipment is required which makes an investment of

    equipment necessary. A less expensive option exists for those occasions when this investment is not

    relevant. Rendered images from a model can be used with a smartphone and a VR case, for a good but

    easier VR experience. Further the study describes the possibilities VR has in the construction industry.

    Modeling, traffic flow simulations, global cooperation and education appear as future opportunities with

    VR.

    If BIM is used in a project, time and money can be saved. Since VR can be seen as a complement to

    BIM, it can contribute to additional savings as the process becomes more efficient and at the same time

    more qualitative. As VR can save both time and money, each project becomes better and cheaper,

    which in turn affects society at large.

  • 90.
    Romppainen, Joel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Sundberg, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Teoretiska och praktiska tester av byggsystemet Lignea2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under den senaste tiden har miljömedvetenheten ökat i Sverige och nya miljömål ställer krav på energibesparingar i byggbranschen. Bygg- och fastighetssektorn är den som förbrukar mest av Sveriges totala energianvändning. Minskning av energianvändning och koldioxidutsläpp är ett måste, ifall miljömålen ska uppnås. Nya innovationer och energismarta lösningar för byggnader måste utvecklas och testas för att undersöka möjligheterna och de framsteg de skulle kunna bidra med.Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en utförlig beskrivning av ett nytt byggsystem som kallas Lignea. Lignea är ett byggsystem av förtillverkade trämoduler som riktar sig till produktion av småhus. Byggsystemet eftersträvar att vara ett energieffektivt och miljövänligt alternativ till dagens traditionella byggsystem. Modulerna i byggsystemet Lignea består av trä och isoleringen av träfiberisolering, vilket gör Lignea till ett miljöanpassat byggsystem där ingående material består av naturliga material och skulle kunna återanvändas eller återgå till kretsloppet på olika sätt. Rapporten syftar också till att redovisa resultat och slutsatser av de studier och tester som utfördes på ett testhus uppfört med byggsystemet. Studierna gjordes för att utvärdera byggsystemets täthet, fukt- och värmetekniska egenskaper.Olika metoder användes för att uppnå resultaten för respektive undersöksområde. En fuktsimulering genomfördes i programmet WUFI. Fuktsimuleringen jämfördes sedan mot verkligt uppmätta värden från fyra fuktsensorer inbyggda på olika platser i testhusets väggar, de verkliga mätningarna varade i 21 månader. Tryckprovningsutrustning användes för att undersöka tätheten i konstruktionen samtidigt som testhuset termograferades för att lokalisera luftlekagen. U-värdesberäkningar genomfördes för att undersöka värmegenomgångsmotståndet.Resultatet och slutsatserna grundar sig på teoretiska beräkningar och praktiskt utförda tester som kan användas för att klargöra byggsystemets täthet, fukt- och värmetekniska egenskaper.De verkliga fuktmätningarna visade att den relativa fuktigheten i väggkonstruktionen inte innebär någon risk för byggsystemet. Undersökningarna som genomförts på byggsystemet har resulterat i slutsatser som bidragit till förbättringsförslag och förslag på fortsatta studier av byggsystemet.

  • 91.
    Räs, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Borgvall, Ansgar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ombyggnad av självdragssystem till behovsstyrd ventilation: En fallstudie av ekonomiska och energimässiga effekter i flerbostadshus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to prevent global warming, the Swedish government has placed a number of environmental quality objectives. As the housing and service sector accounts for 40% of Sweden's final energy use, the property and construction industry is largely influenced by environmental work. Sweden has come a long way in building new energy-efficient buildings, but a large part of the existing property stock needs reconstruction both in terms of technical life and energy consumption.

    The report evaluates demand-controlled ventilation as an alternative to existing natural ventilated systems, which is the most common in older buildings. Through a case study on natural ventilated buildings in Borlänge, an energy balance calculation has been prepared to estimate current energy losses through ventilation. Calculations have then been made on energy and economic consequences of the installation of exhaust ventilation and demand-controlled ventilation. Demand control is done with exhaust air dampers that react on

    carbon dioxide (CO2) and air moisture combined with a pressure regulated exhaust fan at the end of the ventilation duct. This ensures that the ventilation level is the same in every apartment.

    The calculations indicate that ventilation flows can be reduced by 30% compared to the new building requirements. Due to high installation costs and generally low flow in naturally ventilated buildings, it’s hard to find profitability if you intend to do this as an individual energy saving measure.

  • 92.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Wik, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Janols, Henrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Helling, Håkan
    Lövenvik, Tommy
    Passive crosslaminated timber buildings: Final report Cerbof-project no. 762013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, Stora Enso’s newly developed building system has been further developed to allow building to the Swedish passive house standard for the Swedish climate. The building system is based on a building framework of CLT (Cross laminated timber) boards. The concept has been tested on a small test building. The experience gained from this test building has also been used for planning a larger building (two storeys with the option of a third storey) with passive house standard with this building system.

    The main conclusions from the project are:

     It is possible to build airtight buildings with this technique without using traditional vapour barriers. Initial measurements show that this can be done without reaching critical humidity levels in the walls and roof, at least where wood fibre insulation is used, as this has a greater capacity for storing and evening out the moisture than mineral wool. However, the test building has so far not been exposed to internal generation of moisture (added moisture from showers, food preparation etc.). This needs to be investigated and this will be done during the winter 2013-14.

     A new fixing method for doors and windows has been tested without traditional fibre filling between them and the CLT panel. The door or window is pressed directly on to the CLT panel instead, with an expandable sealing strip between them. This has been proved to be successful.

     The air tightness between the CLT panels is achieved with expandable sealing strips between the panels. The position of the sealing strips is important, both for the air tightness itself and to allow rational assembly.

     Recurrent air tightness measurements show that the air tightness decreased somewhat during the first six months, but not to such an extent that the passive house criteria were not fulfilled. The reason for the decreased air tightness is not clear, but can be due to small movements in the CLT construction and also to the sealing strips being affected by changing outdoor temperatures.

     Long term measurements (at least two years) have to be carried out before more reliable conclusions can be drawn regarding the long term effect of the construction on air tightness and humidity in the walls.

     An economic analysis comparing using a concrete frame or the studied CLT frame for a three storey building shows that it is probably more expensive to build with CLT. For buildings higher than three floors, the CLT frame has economic advantages, mainly because of the shorter building time compared to using concrete for the frame. In this analysis, no considerations have been taken to differences in the influence on the environment or the global climate between the two construction methods.

  • 93.
    Samuelson, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utformning av ny butik i Sunne: Arkitektritning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project work includes project planning, structural engineering and construction. The report contains a new proposal of how to build a completely new business premises. The proposal solves the lack of commercial space and parking for Ica Sunne who wants to develop their business. This project is part of "fair trading" because other shops in the centre have parking near their stores. It is impotrant for the whole centre that ICA maintain their business operations in central Sunne. The project work includes research and interviews compiled into a final architectural drawings for the business requirements and the model of a new commercial building with apartments on the second and third floor and the design of new parking lots. The exterior is of importance since it must comply with the existing built environment. The goal is to eventually try to implement this project.

  • 94.
    Sandholm, Victor
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tottmar, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effektiv logistik i byggbranschen: Lösningsguide för att undvika vanligt förekommande logistiska utmaningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Logistics is a very wide concept that affects almost all areas regarding building projects. Logistics can briefly be described as the transportation of favors and products from start to finish, it is unfortunately also something that businesses tend to look past to a certain degree thus undermining its actual importance, primarily because of deadlines and time limits. Good solutions regarding logistics is the foundation that later on enables work to run smooth and efficiently, this in return means that a lot of times the whole purpose of saving time by not developing a good logistic system for the project, becomes contra-productive.  The following study pinpoints important areas regarding logistics in the building industry. Working with logistic solutions has become a tool to achieve a more competitive status in today’s society, and an increased efficiency in this area can reduce prices and time limits by a lot. These past two decades logistic consulting corporations have almost become a natural part of building projects, thanks to the increased complexity of administrative tools these sometimes need to be hired for a project to work smooth with all the involved entrepreneurs.  The following essay is based on an objective description regarding the whereabouts of the biggest, and the most usual logistic flaws in the building industry. Why are these common? And how are they counteracted to minimize the time economical aspects?  These solutions are produced to minimize common faults in the industry, to later be applied in a case study. After the factions are compared, the results themselves can be further compared to see if their concepts matches the actual reality. In its whole this can be summarized by that the case study’s approach was analyzed and compared to what in theory could be viewed as the optimal solutions.   It has shown that Bonava’s strategy closely relates to the existing theories, and that these in reality could lay ground for other successful project like Elitroddaren. However there are some minor faults in the case study which could have been implemented in a more efficient manner, for an even better result

  • 95.
    Sandén, Efraim
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hastighetsdämpande åtgärder: En studie om olika aspekter på planering och projektering av hastighetsdämpande åtgärder.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic calming measures are found throughout Sweden, many of the existing ones have been built by municipalities. What is the passability of ambulance and fire brigade for traffic calming measures? This master thesis looks at how municipalities think when they are planning and projecting / building traffic calming measures, and how passability is for ambulance and fire brigade. It is different between the country's municipalities as to which dialogues they have before making a traffic calming measure. It is also different from what makes a municipality build a traffic calming measure. Municipalities use different approaches to project a traffic calming measure. According to the questionnaire survey, the municipalities favored a regulation for traffic calming measures. According to the survey, it was found that the passability of traffic calming measures is not such a big problem for ambulance and fire brigade. Largest problem with passability have ambulance and fire brigade when there is a lot of traffic and queues. Of the traffic calming measures available, bumps have the biggest negative impact on the passability of ambulance and fire brigade, so it is important to consider the design of bumps.

     

  • 96.
    Sarhatlić, Nerim
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Identifiering och kartläggning av buller i centrala Falun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A problem in today's modern society is that the noise levels are too high. These high levels of noise is a health hazard and can give man permanent damage. Noise pollution is something that must not be neglected.

    The purpose of this study is to identify and map the noise on Holmgatan in central Falun. The purpose is also to analyze the results and put them in relation with the regulatory requirements and guidelines regarding noise levels and to analyze the results and see if actions should be taken against the noise on Holmgatan.

    The thesis is limited to noise measurements and mapping of parts of Holmgatan, considered to be especially vulnerable to noise. Noise measurements were conducted during four weekdays and during times from when most stores open to most of them then closing, at. 10-18.

    The method consisted of noise measurements which were performed at hourly intervals along the selected portion of Holmgatan. The days on which these measurements were performed was from 2/12 to 5/12-2013.

    The results are reported as average value per hour of any day on which noise measurements were made. The results varied, the lowest average noise was 57 dB and the highest average noise was 83 dB. It is clearly seen that the higher values are closer to a street used by buses and other transport vehicles. The lower values were generally near Geislerka parken, which is a large garden, an open area in the middle of Holmgatan. Overall, the average noise values were between 60-65 dB.

    The conclusion suggests that the noise level at Holmgatan do not exceed regulatory requirements on what is considered as harmful but it is just below the guidelines for the maximum level of outdoor noise (70 dB). Actions such as planting vegetation on the facades and to redirect the traffic could be done to reduce noise levels at Holmgatan.

  • 97.
    Sattari, Amir
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. KTH.
    Particle image velocimetry visualization and measurement of airflow over a wall-mounted radiator2015In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 289-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common room-heating technique involves the use of a wall-mounted radiator without forced convection. The cold surrounding air passes adjacent to the warm surfaces of the radiator where it absorbs heat and gains momentum to rise along the wall surface and finally circulate in the entire room. Understanding the properties of heated airflows is important for several purposes. To understand the flow process it is important to identify where the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs and to quantify the turbulent fluctuations. With the objective to characterize the airflow in the vicinity of wall surfaces, the local climate over the radiator was visualized and measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry technique. The PIV technique yields 2D vector fields of the flow. The resulting vector maps were properly validated and post-processed using in-house software to provide the average streamlines and other statistical information such as standard deviation, average velocity, and covariance of the entire vector field. The results show that, for a room with a typical heating power, the airflow over the radiator becomes agitated after an ordinate of N = 5 - 6.25 over the radiator upper level, in which N is the dimensionless length based on the thickness of the radiator. Practical problems encountered in near-wall PIV measurements include generating a homogeneous global seeding that makes it possible to study both plume and entraining region, as well as optical problems due to near-surface laser reflection that makes the measurement process more complicated.

  • 98.
    Selo, Jovan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tayfur, Bora
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Frånluftsåtervinning i ett äldre flerfamiljehus: Hovgården - Borlänge2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we have studied a building located in Hovgården in Borlänge. The report investigates two energy saving installations that can help to reduce the amount of oil used today in the house. The purpose of the report was to examine the possibilities and viability of exhaust heat pump (FVP) and VBX module that can recover heat from the exhaust air. The investigation showed that neither VBX nor FVP can replace the oil-fired boiler in an acceptable way. With VBX the COP of the existing heat pump is increased from 2.8 to 3.11 leading to 17 MWh/year electricity saving. However FVP can recycle 59 MWh/year from the exhaust air but still cannot cover the power demand of the building during the coldest days. The result was that the two investigated systems are not able to replace oil heating.

  • 99.
    Sundholm, Sebastian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energirenovering av befintliga bostadsbeståndet för att uppnå energi- och miljömål för 2020, 2030 och 20502018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim to examine how Sweden's existing housing stock needs to adapt to achieve the objectives and agreements signed to counteract climate change as well as, what specific measures should be prioritized in order to achieve the objectives within the set timeframe. To answer the purpose, the study has used theoretical and real objects where extensive energy savings have been performed. This potential has been applied to the entire housing stock and its environmental impact has been calculated.The study focused on the category of single-family homes and apartment buildings. The results showed that when all renovation measures were applied, greenhouse gas emissions fell by 88% from 1990 years, energy efficiency increased by 47% from 2016 years, and the share of renewable energy was considered to continue to increase. The proportion of fossil fuels was relatively large 1990 for heating homes and hot water that were phased out to more environmentally friendly alternatives over time. This meant that 2016 was the housing stock were significantly below the targets set for greenhouse gas emissions for years 2020 and 2030 i.e. The targets were already fulfilled in 2016. However, the target for 2050 was set at a reduction of at least 80%, which meant that all the measures for reducing energy consumption in the study needed to be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to set targets.The study shows that all the goals that Sweden has adopted can be achieved or achieve great improvement as all of the study's energy saving and carbon reduction proposals are implemented.

  • 100.
    Sundholm, Sebastian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energirenovering av befintliga bostadsbeståndet för att uppnå energi- och miljömål för 2020, 2030 och 20502018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim to examine how Sweden's existing housing stock needs to adapt to achieve the objectives and agreements signed to counteract climate change as well as, what specific measures should be prioritized in order to achieve the objectives within the set timeframe. To answer the purpose, the study has used theoretical and real objects where extensive energy savings have been performed. This potential has been applied to the entire housing stock and its environmental impact has been calculated.The study focused on the category of single-family homes and apartment buildings. The results showed that when all renovation measures were applied, greenhouse gas emissions fell by 88% from 1990 years, energy efficiency increased by 47% from 2016 years, and the share of renewable energy was considered to continue to increase. The proportion of fossil fuels was relatively large 1990 for heating homes and hot water that were phased out to more environmentally friendly alternatives over time. This meant that 2016 was the housing stock were significantly below the targets set for greenhouse gas emissions for years 2020 and 2030 i.e. The targets were already fulfilled in 2016. However, the target for 2050 was set at a reduction of at least 80%, which meant that all the measures for reducing energy consumption in the study needed to be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to set targets.The study shows that all the goals that Sweden has adopted can be achieved or achieve great improvement as all of the study's energy saving and carbon reduction proposals are implemented.

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