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  • 51.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Relation between natur and human settlements in Iceland2002In: The 25th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, Reykjavik, Island, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Samples from Viking age and Medieval houses in Iceland – what can they tell us about the environment inside and outside of the houses?2007In: University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the period 2000 to 2006 subfossil insect remains have been analysed from house floor samples in Iceland from several localities and former settlements from Viking age long houses, medieval turf houses and from later historical house remnants. Few constructions, such as wells, outhouses or other peripheral buildings, which can be used for macrofossil analysis, have been excavated from Icelandic Viking age or medieval settlement sites. This is in opposite to many excavated settlements in Scandinavia. Therefore, a common sampling environment in Iceland is from former house floors. This means special taphonomical problems, limited use in interpretation, a risk of redeposition and human interference on the cultural layer caused by human activities inside the house. One of the aims is to analyse the fossil insect remains, primarily beetles, for possible interpretation of the environmental conditions, the relation between a settlement and its surrounding nature, as well as the indoor environment of the buildings and also to compare the different settlements. The majority of samples from house floors from Iceland are generally poor in fossil insect remains with a domination of beetles originating from the surrounding environment probably used in the building material, reflecting the natural environment and the building phase. But there is some variation. In house floor samples from the 18th and 19th centuries the typical secondary use of abandoned houses as stables is obvious and in the early medieval settlement at Keldur there was a floor of waste within the medieval house representing a period when a part of the house had been used as smithy or for metal work. One of the difficulties with house floor samples is the degree of preservation and content of fossil remains. This is totally dependent on the house history, e.g. its location in the landscape and the material used during its construction, the function of the house or activities in different rooms and finally the abandonment history of the house. But the floor sample usually provides a high preservation degree and high organic content in the sediment. From a taphonomical point of view it is also important to identify parts of the subfossil insect species that is connected to different parts of the building and building material, like roof material or the turf used for the walls.

  • 53.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Skuttunge fornsjö: undersökning kring existensen av en försvunnen sjö2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med arkeologiska utgrävningar i Skuttunge, var en av de centrala frågorna att utreda existensen av den s.k. Skuttunge fornsjö som ska ha funnits i området och relationen mellan den forntida bebyggelsen och sjön. Sjöar och vattendrag har alltid utnyttjats av människor för olika syften. Men relationen ställs i ytterligare en annan situation om man dessutom kan påvisa att bebyggelse och aktiviteter har legat vid sjö eller vattendrag på något vis, eftersom man då kan kanske kan knyta ekonomiskt uttag och resursutnyttjande mer direkt till vattenmiljön. Många områden och landskap i Sverige som ligger under Högsta kustlinjen (HK) har legat under havsytan under en kortare eller längre period efter avsmältningen av den senaste inlandsisen (Weichsel III). Uppland utgör dessutom ur den aspekten ett av de yngsta områdena i Sverige och avsättningarna i landskapet är starkt präglade av detta faktum genom finkorniga havs- och sjösediment (som exempelvis postglacial lera och gyttjelera) och svallsediment (som exempelvis klapper, svallgrus, svallsand och svallad morän). Naturligtvis har genom detta landhöjningen i lite mer kuperad terräng skapat en hel del avsnörda och isolerade bassänger, vattensamlingar och liknande som i alla fall under en period kan betecknas som en ”sjö”. Allt sedan Maj-Britt och Sten Florin (1960) gjorde undersökningar i området i anslutning till utgrävningar i Dragby fr.o.m. 1958 och presenterade idén om en sjö, så har begreppet ”Skuttunge fornsjö” eller ”Skuttungesjön” funnits som ett allmänt begrepp för området. Egentligen var det inte speciellt grundliga undersökningar eller bevis som från början låg till grund för teorin om denna sjö, utan det var helt enkelt en rimlig tolkning med tanke på landhöjningen och den fornlämningsbild man kunde koppla till detta (fig. 2). Intresset då låg också mer i perioderna yngre stenålder och bronsålder då man naturligtvis kan räkna med närhet och direkt koppling till kust- och havsmiljö, likväl som en existens av en sjö. Man placerade in sjöbildningen som en isolerad rest då landhöjning och havsytesänkning passerat nivån för höjder i området som kan fungera som pasströsklar. Man anger nivån för sjöns avsnörning till då havsytenivån sänkts förbi 30 meters nivå över nuvarande havsyta. Det speciella, men inte alls unika, med situationen i Skuttunge är att området som tolkats som ytan för den s.k. Skuttunge fornsjö har varit fördämd av en isälvsavlagring i form av rullstensåsen Uppsalaåsen i öster. Utloppet för den tänkta sjön var till att börja vid Dragby och österut genom ett smalare parti av rullstensåsen (fig. 3). Sedan har det skapats ett tryck mot åsen, genom att havsytan sänkts ytterligare mot öster och sjön pressat på ungefär på likadant sätt mot åsen från väster. Eftersom isälvsavlagringar ofta till delar är uppbyggda av relativt lätteroderade material så har man tolkat ett genombrott i åsen i höjd med Lövstalöt och idag kan man fortfarande se denna plats som en ravinbildning genom åsen. Sjön ska då ha tappats på sitt vatten relativt snabbt. Det finns andra exempel på detta på andra platser och i rapporten nedan presenterar jag ett bra exempel på samma förlopp i västra Uppland och Örsundaåns dalgång. Problemet med dessa relativt sett ganska tillfälliga bildningar, är att de lämnar mycket lite spår efter sig. Vad man kan förvänta sig på platser där vatten legat under längre tid är sediment i form av gyttjelera och kanske t.o.m. torvtillväxt, åtminstone i de djupaste partierna i området. Speciellt i områdena runt Mälardalen så har det skett mycket verksamhet i form av sjösänkningar och utdikning av torvmarker. På dessas tidigare sjöbottnar kan man t.o.m. ibland hitta områden med gyttja. Det finns framför allt tre svaga punkter i både gamla och nya undersökningar kring den s.k. Skuttunge fornsjö. Dels bristen på sedimentavlagringar som på något vis kan peka mot en tidigare sjö, dels undersökningar som kan påvisa vattenmiljön (exempelvis diatoméanalyser) och dels dateringar. Den sista punkten hänger mycket ihop med de andra två. Även om Maj-Britt Floring var en ledande diatomé analytiker i Sverige vid mitten av 1900-talet så presenterar hon inga sådana analyser i samband med deras publicering av tanken på Skuttunge fornsjö (Florin, 1960). De pollendiagram som finns med i artikeln inriktar sig på att tolka kulturutvecklingen i området och bl.a. odlingens framväxt kopplat till utgrävningarn i Dragby. Undersökningen som presenteras här är inriktad på att i första hand studera områdets sedimentavlagringar för att utröna om det över huvud taget fanns några avsättningar som kunde peka mot en sjöbildning.

  • 54.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Studies of recently dead insects to understand insect remains in archaeological deposits2004In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 211-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today it becomes more and more common during archaeological investigations to use insect analyses when interpreting the natural and cultural environment during prehistoric and historic times. The composition and amount of insects in the deposits is dependent on both what insect species that is deposited and the preservation of the remains. It is therefore important to understand how different insects are preserved in archaeological deposits. Results are presented from analyses of recently dead insect remains in two wells and a stable floor, in south central Sweden. These data where compared with the results from Iron Age deposits. These data yield clues regarding the deposition of insect remains in prehistoric rural sites. It is concluded that ground-dwelling insects dominate records from wells and beetles enter the well accidentally and drown. Because of the absence of beetles associated with substrates like dung and wood in the modern deposits, in opposite to prehistoric, it is concluded that these groups of beetle species probably either are present around an uncovered well or are secondarily deposited through dumped material if the well head is covered and enclosed. The indoor environment of a stable is characterized through more remnants of insect species from the local human environment and wood, but also incorporates species randomly trapped during local flight.

  • 55.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    The macrofossil Remains: Preliminary Report on selected samples from Hrísbrú, Iceland, 20042005Report (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    The outside inside: – problems in interpreting Viking age and Medieval houses in Hólar from macrofossil remains2008In: Status of research in Skagafjordur 2008, Hólar, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hólar offers the opportunity to develop several questions around the settlements and buildings from Viking age and medieval time in Iceland. In Iceland, samples for macrofossil analysis are primarily taken from inside the former house, from the floor, along walls, in different rooms etc. since there are usually few other constructions and/or deposits in the settlement area. This is in opposite to the situation in excavated settlements in other parts of the Nordic countries where other constructions such as wells, outhouses or other peripheral buildings and features can be used for macrofossil analysis and as a complement. But, on the other hand, there is often an opportunity to sample constructions and special rooms “inside” the former Icelandic house in a way that is much more unusual in corresponding situations in other Nordic countries from the same time periods, especially Viking age (800-1050 AD). Sampling indoor in former buildings creates different and much more complicated taphonomical problems, especially if the macrofossil remains do not reflect any special indoor activity or is easily connected to human activities. How did the biological remains end up in the building? Which part of the buildings history do they reflect? If the remains seem to primarily reflect the construction time of the house, is there a straight forward relation between these activities and the macrofossil remains? There may also be a complicated history during the actual use of the building, in connection to the difficulty to understand what period and/or phase in use of the building that the macrofossil remains reflect. Of course there is also always the risk of redeposition and human interference on the cultural layer caused by human activities inside the house. In a more diverse settlement situation there would be a lot of different constructions and features outside the buildings to complement the picture of the settlement activity. The impression is also that the Icelandic Viking age and medieval house to a higher extent reflects the outside environment, partly since a lot of the building material is directly from the surrounding environment (e.g. turf). Also, the geographical position of Iceland reduces the number of insect species that may come in contact with human settlements and environments and substrates around it. To complicate this picture even more, the Icelandic houses have been rebuilt periodically, repaired and reused during a long time period and it is therefore important to understand what part of the history the samples represent. The aims of the investigation in question here is to analyze the fossil insect remains, primarily beetles, for possible interpretation of the environmental conditions, the relation between the Hólar settlement and the surrounding nature, the indoor activity and environment of the buildings. In Hólar this idea is developed and sampling have been expanded to spatial sampling from house floors, testing different sizes of sample volume as well as different parts of the cultural layer and working with different sampling spots in different rooms in the houses. The general picture of samples from house floors from Hólar, as well as other sites in Iceland, is that they are most often poor in fossil insect remains. But in the results, there is a domination of beetles living on plants and in the vegetation surrounding environment The big majority of the insect remains found in samples in Hólar reflect what is interpreted as the early phase of the building, repairing during some part of the house use history or changed activity and/or use of the house for other purposes (e.g. from human activity to stable for domestic animals). The majority of the species found is normally living in the natural environment, like open areas with low shrubs and/or peat, most of the species are common also today and is by no mean adapted to human interfered environments or activity (i.e. synantropic). One conclusion would be to connect them to the turf that are part of the walls in the house, another interpretation is that the species are transported in to the settlement with shrubs as roof material or, more likely, with shrubs as floor cover material. A typical change in the use of houses at Hólar, as in other parts of Iceland, is reflected in floor samples from the 18th and 19th centuries when houses was secondary used as stables for horses and sheep before being abandoned. This is reflected by remnants of hay and manure found together with beetles connected to this and similar kinds of environments. Since the situation is special in Iceland, it is important to learn more about the houses of different periods, the floor sediments and how to use them. One of the main difficulties with house floor samples in for example Sweden is the low degree of preservation and number of subfossil remains. Deposition of macrofossil remains is totally dependent on the house history, e.g. its location in the landscape and the material used during its construction, the function of the house or activities in different rooms and finally the abandonment history of the house. When looking into indoor environments in for example Sweden the former floor deposit are usually very difficult and/or impossible to use and compensated with sampling in other features (e.g. former post holes). But in Hólar the floor deposit usually provides a high preservation degree and high organic content in the sediment and therefore provides satisfactory opportunities for sampling. A more common problem in the Icelandic situation is that building remnants is covered by a very thin top soil layer, which means increased risk for bad preservation and bioturbation. From 2007 started some tests to collect samples from the surrounding mires in the Hólar area, in order to analyze samples in the natural surroundings to better understand the relation between the Hólar settlement and the surrounding nature. The method, a normal and often used way to work in palaeoecological investigations, is to core into the mires and subsample in stratigraphical units and different levels of the mire. The method has similarities with sampling during archaeological excavations, but with some important considerations around the building up of sediment (mainly organic sediment) and dating. The dating is essential since the growth of the mire normally is ruled by natural process, controlled by the climatic history and also since time and sedimentation on soil surface will compact layers in the stratigraphy. One of the aims for this increased investigation is to get a better picture of the origin of the macrofossil remains in samples from the excavated former houses in Hólar and to see the relation between the settlement and land use of natural resources.

  • 57.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    The well in the settlement - environmental studies through insect analysis on well samples2007In: Eurasian Perspective on Environmental Archaeology, Poznan, Polen, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    The well in the settlement, a source for human-environmental interaction and palaeohydrological situation in southern Sweden2008In: International Geological Congress (33rd IGC), General contributions to Geoarchaeology, Oslo, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I present the results from sediment and subfossil insect analyses in investigated wells from primarily Pre Roman Iron Age and Roman Iron Age (500 BC-400 AD) in southeast Sweden. The well has played an important role in the daily life of people for a long time period, from prehistoric time until today. Several of the investigated wells revealed very little or no organic remain, even though the sampled sediment in the wells provided very good preservation conditions. This is an effect of the usage time of the wells in the activity period and some wells must therefore have been used for a very short time. The short usage times for the wells is probably connected to bad construction of the well, low or decreasing water table in the well and/or bad water quality. In opposite to the situation today, several of the investigated settlements was situated by or close to the sea (Baltic Sea) at the time of activity. Therefore, there is a possibility that some of the wells may have been affected by sea water making the quality of the well water worse, a possible situation that increases as we go back in time. This is also an interpretation in investigations other investigations. Today this has changed totally in the area since Sweden experience heavy land elevation from the end of the last glaciation (Weichsel, stadial III). In the study presented here, a simple categorisation is used based on the results from the insect analysis, sediments and the construction of the well. The first category is the wells primarily used as water resource for people (and domestic animals) at the settlement. With a more ore less characteristic funnel shaped. The other type of wells are those that in a first stage have been used as water resource for people/animals, but reused in a later stage as water resource for grazing animals. Sometimes the primarily purpose from the beginning was to construct a water pit for the cattle. When studying wells in the settlement in the prehistoric and medieval landscape, it is easy to reflect over the palaeohydrological situation and the relation between people and water. It is not always a straightforward understanding on the usage of the well and it may be a quite diffuse relation between the well in the settlement and other natural water resources in the landscape. The settlements in the investigation presented here are situated close to natural water resources, so the well must have functioned as an important complementary water resource. Sometimes there is a clear relationship between the settlement and rivers close to the settlement. From this point of view the relation between the natural water resources in the landscape and the well in the settlement is not simple to understand, but the role of water for survival of people and animals is unquestionable, therefore the palaeohydrology is one of the most important parts of the landscape to understand in a geoarchaeological perspective.

  • 59.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Under år 2000 görs den sista kartläggningen av SKÄRGÅRDENS JORDARTER.2000In: Skärgården – från Grisslemhamn till landsort, no 10 februariArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Undersökningar av insekter från tre brunnar i Tillinge sn, Uppland, och Tillberga sn, Västmanland1996In: Fyra järnåldersboplatser längs Mälarbanan / [ed] Hulth, Helena; Norr, Svante, Arkeologikonsult AB , 1996Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Urban and Rural Environments from Iron Age to Medieval time in Northern Europe: Evidence from Fossil Insect Remains from South-Eastern Sweden and Novgorod, Russia1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    “Young and fresh” – environmental history of settlements during 3000 years in Sweden’s latest region through land uplift, south-east Sweden2007In: University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Old Uppsala (“Gamla Uppsala”) is one of the most famous and important prehistorically sites in Sweden, supposed to have been location for strong power and maybe a pagan temple. The site is especially famous for its three big grave mounds (600th century) situated on the glaciofluvial esker running through the area. Several archaeological excavations have taken place here and this paper presents an interdisciplinary project in the area with the aim to investigate the environmental history of the area during prehistorically time. Sampling where collected in a smaller depression in the area, that primarily had been a smaller swamp, trough a coring transects for sediment, insect, pollen and diatom analysis. The landscape around Old Uppsala is characterised by the processes during last glaciation and its melting phase and the processes during the land uplift. This south-east region is the youngest in Sweden and was the last parts to come up through land uplift after the end of the last glaciation. The topography of Old Uppsala is characterised by glaciofluvial esker running through the site. The highest parts of this esker (25 m.a.s.l.) rose above sea level around 2900 years ago, together with small heights of bedrock and till and the results from the analysis points to open wood land and probably with an early grazing culture in the area. The area was occupied as soon as it was raised above sea level. About 2500 years ago, the sampling site became a small isolated water filled depression because of the land uplift and gyttja was deposited on the bottom. In time it developed to a small alder marsh and the depression was overgrown in the 600th century. At this time an increasing number of fires (charcoal in the air) in the surroundings together with human impact and cultivation, show that the human settlement had increased rapidly. The human impact in the form of cultivation and grazing in the area increases to a maximum until 600th century and there are strong indications of grazing on the surrounding esker hills. There are also indications that the depression that changed into an open march with probable hay-making. After the maximum there is a decrease in the impact from cultivation and grazing which probably is a result of changed land use, where earlier cultivated parts were used for the settlement instead. Through this changing land use, there is an increasing land erosion process in the area. As a result almost a meter of clay deposited on the gyttja in the small depression. The grazing activity is though the most stable part of the cultural landscape in Old Uppsala, present through Roman Iron Age (0-400 A.D.), Migration period (400-550 A.D.) and in the beginning of Vendel period (550-800 A.D.). At the beginning of the Viking Age (c. 800 A.D.) there is an increase of the cultivation activities in the area. But there is lacking traces from this period. Coring was performed in a small river bank, north of Old Uppsala, in an attempt to find more sediments representing Viking Age, but it was not possible to core further back in time than late Medieval time.

  • 63.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Översvämningar i Voxna älv: studier av situationen under de senaste 100 åren2004Report (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Andersson, Lisa
    Israels, Bertil
    Olsson, Daniels Sven
    "Falun ovan från Falun under", ny kunskap om Falu gruva Projektrapport 1: Metod- och kunskapsutveckling: projektuppbyggnad, att rekonstruera markförhållanden och uppbyggande av dendrokronologiska undersökningar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report is the first presentation of the project 'Falun above from Falun under' and comprises two reports on ongoing work within the project and two individual articles on dating wood from older parts of the mine and buildings. The main aims of the project were to reconstruct the landscape surrounding Falu Copper mine before mining activity started and to determine how increasing activity in the area affected the environment, and whether this could be measured as a indicator of increasing human impact in the area.

  • 65.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Field report from sediment coring in peat for landscape analysis in Hjaltadalur, Skagafjörður, north Iceland 2010: Sediment drilling in Hólar, Vidvik and Kolkuós, Hjaltadalur2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [un]

    This field report presents fieldwork undertaken in Hjaltadalur, Skagafjördur, northern Iceland during summer 2010. The main aim was to initiate coring in selected mires in order to determine the composition of organic material and sediments in the mires, sub-sample for sedimentological and palaeoecological analyses, and initiate advanced landscape analysis of Hjaltadalur. Three mires were selected for sediments coring in Hjaltadalur: Ástunga close to Kolkóus, Hólakot at Viðvik, and Hólar. All three represented a landscape transect in NW to SE direction, from close to the coast to valley interior, i.e. close to the old settlement at Hólar.

  • 66.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Lindsten, Johan
    "Falun ovan från Falun under", ny kunskap om Falu gruva. Projektrapport 2: Jordartskartering och sedimentborrningar runt Falu gruva2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report is the second presentation of the project ‘Falun above from Falun under’ and comprises one report on ongoing work within the project. The main aims of this particular project are to reconstruct the landscape surrounding Falu Copper mine before mining activity started and to determine how increasing activity in the area affected the environment, and whether this could be measured as an indicator of increasing human impact in the area. This report presents the mapping and investigation of quaternary deposits and landscape analysis, the results from cores taken at two lake sites, Önsbacksdammen and Stora Vällan, 14C dating on selected seeds, and planning of continued research within the project.

  • 67.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Ljungblom, Linus
    Ström, Lars
    Kartläggning av markförhållanden och miljöarbete vid Aspeboda golfbana2005Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    300 år gamla insektlämningar från Falun1990In: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, no 5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Insect assemblages and local environment of the medieval town Uppsala, south-eastern Sweden1996In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 23, p. 873-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insect remains from a medieval settlement in the town Uppsala, S Sweden, were analysed. Eighty-one insect taxa were identified from samples dating from the 12th to the 15th century. The insect assemblages are totally dominated by beetels. Only a few remains of butterflies, true flies and a bumble bee were found. The insects imply that the settlement was situated in open landscape. The settlement most likely concisted mainly of farm buildings throughout the stuided period. Crops such as wheat, barley and cabbage were probably cultivated, particularly during the early settlemtn phases. Later, at the beginning of the 15th century, stock rearing seems to have dominated. The results suggests that the climate, during Medieaval time in southern Sweden was similar to the present or characterized by slightly higher summer temperatures. A number of currently very rare species were also recorded.

  • 70.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Traustadottir, Ragnheidur
    Nordiskt forskarnätverk med arkeologi och Island i fokus2005In: FornvännenJournal of Swedish Antiquarian Research, ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 100, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Traustaðottir, Ragnheiður
    Iron production in Iceland - metallurgic analyses of iron and slag from four sites in Iceland2006In: Geoarchaeology 2006, Exeter, England, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During excavations at sites in Iceland, samples of slag and iron was selected for advanced metallurgic analyses. The aim of the project is to increase the understanding and knowledge of iron production and metal work in Iceland during Viking Age and medieval time. Samples from four sites have been investigated so far: the Viking age and early medieval house Hofstaðir in Garðabæ, the medival turf house at Keldur in Ragnarvöllum and early medieval harbour Kolkuós and churchyard in Keldudalur in Skagafjördur. All samples was analysed at Geoarchaeological Laboratory (GAL) in Uppsala, Sweden. The samples from Hofstaðir í Garðabæ is connected to a smithy process from which there are traces in the form of microscopic hammer scale. Similar processes was concluded through hammer scale remains in the medival turf house Keldur in Ragnarvöllum and together with results from insect analyses at Keldur it could be concluded that a living room during a period had been used as smithy or for iron work. The material from the medieval harbour Kolkuós in Skagafjördur was complex and it could not be concluded if there had been any smithy, iron work activity or similar at the place, even though boat building and repairmen was interpreted. An interesting result, from both, Hofstaðir, Keldur and the early medieval churchyard Keldudalur in Skagafjördur, was the presence of bone or calcium and phosphor in the samples. In the example Keldur bone was probably added in the production to make the iron harder for the progress in the iron making process. But in the bone material found in samples from the other sites, Hofstaðir and Keldudalur, it is clear that bone most probably was used as fuel in the process of iron production. In that time wood got rare in Iceland because of the expansion of the colonisation. In the northern part of the country there are resources in drift wood coming with sea currents, but this is not the case on southern Iceland to the same extent Therefore, there is a lack of wood for charcoal production. Tests have shown that equal parts of wood and bone as fuel makes almost the same effect in fire.

  • 72.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Traustaðottir, Ragnheiður
    Iron production in Iceland - metallurgic analyses of iron and slag from four sites in Iceland [Poster]2007In: Högskolan Dalarna - Forskningens Dag den 20 mars 2007, Falun, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During archaeological excavations in Iceland, samples of slag and iron were selected for advanced metallurgic analyses to increase the understanding and knowledge of iron production and metal work in Iceland during Viking Age and medieval time. Samples from four sites have been investigated so far. The Viking age and early medieval house Hofstaðir in Garðabæ outside Reykjavik, the medival turf house at Keldur in Ragnarvöllum south Iceland and early medieval harbour Kolkuós and churchyard in Keldudalur in Skagafjördur, north Iceland. Sometimes churches were used as a smithy after abandonment. The samples from Hofstaðir and medival turf house at Keldur are connected to a smithy process from which there are traces in the form of microscopic hammer scale. An interesting result, from both, Hofstaðir, Keldur and the early medieval churchyard in Keldudalur, was the presence of bone or calcium and phosphor in the samples. In the case of the medieval settlement at Keldur, bone was probably added in the production to make the iron harder for the progress in the iron making process. But in the bone material found in samples from the other sites, Hofstaðir and Keldudalur, it is clear that bone most probably was used as fuel in the process of iron production. In that time the forest had decreased and wood got rare in Iceland because of the expansion of the colonisation. In the northern part of the country there are resources in drift wood coming with sea currents, but this is not the case on southern Iceland to the same extent Therefore, there is a lack of wood for charcoal production. Tests have shown that equal parts of wood and bone as fuel makes almost the same effect in fire.

  • 73. Königsson, Lars-König
    et al.
    Eriksson, Jemt-Anna
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Människa, Ekonomi och Miljö i Gamla Uppsala1993In: Arkeologi och Miljögeologi i / [ed] Duczko, Wladyslaw, Uppsala: Arkeologiska Institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 1993, Vol. 7, p. 79-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 74. Traustadottir, R
    et al.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Isländska biskopssätets historia - skrivet i jorden2003In: Populär arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 31-53Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 75. Traustadottir, Ragnheidur
    et al.
    Hjaltalin, Thor
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Lönngången på Keldur2001In: Populär Arkeologi, ISSN 0281-014X, Vol. 19, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 76. Wirtén, Katarina
    et al.
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Preliminär insektsanalys. Övergiven gårdsbrunn - en fälla för ekofakter, med ett palaeoentomologiskt bidrag av Magnus Hellqvist1996In: TOR, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 26, p. 83-91Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 77. Ylva, Bäckström
    et al.
    Gamrell, Åsa
    Hellqvist, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physical Geography.
    Ljungqvist, John
    Rapport från arkeologiska utgrävningar vid Mattsgården, Gamla Uppsala, 19981998Report (Other academic)
12 51 - 77 of 77
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