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  • 51.
    Hultin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Westman, Maria
    Uppsala universitet.
    Förhandlingar och maktkamper i ett kollektivt textbygge2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att  skapa kunskap om förhandlingsprocesser vid kollektivt textbyggande i skolans tidiga läs- och skriftspråkspraktiker. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkt är i critical literacy (Janks 2010). Utifrån detta perspektiv förstår vi klassrumsaktiviteter som alltid konstituerade  i relation till makt och där relationer i klassrummet är med andra ord kopplade till makt vilka ständigt förhandlas och därmed inte (helt) givna på förhand. I studien har vi följande analytiska fokus: •Hur bemöts förslag i det kollektiva textbygget? •Vilka typer av förhandlande uppstår? •Vilka elevpositioner konstrueras i textbyggandet? •Vilka förhandlingspositioner skapas i det kollektiva textbygget? Resultatet visar att elever intar olika positioner i förhandlingarna och att deras förslag bemöts på olika sätt.

  • 52.
    Hultin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Westman, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish.
    Genres in Transformation in Digital Classrooms2013In: The 41st Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research AssociationDisruptions and eruptions as opportunities for transforming education: Abstract book, 2013, p. 157-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Hultin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Westman, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Swedish.
    Literacy Teaching, Genres, and Power2013In: Educational Enquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 04, no 02, p. 279-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical framework of this article is based on critical literacy (Janks, 2010) and genre theories (Swales, 1990; Schleppegrell , 2004). The main purpose of this article is to contribute to an understanding of the use and production of text genres as a power-embedded practice. In doing so, we analyse first grade children’s texts in terms of genres and sub-genres. Furthermore, we analyse the subject positions that are constituted in the children’s texts. We understand genres as related to power; since they both open and/or closed ways of saying or stating things in and about the world. “Where there is power there is resistance”, as Foucault says (1976). Specific interest will be directed towards children’s ways of offering resistance in their texts, resistance against prescribed dominant genres. This resistance is seen as a creative way for children to use their power and agency, through creating hybrid genres.

  • 54. Humphrey, Neil
    et al.
    Bartolo, Paul
    Ale, Peter
    Calleja, Colin
    Hofsaess, Thomas
    Janikova, Vera
    Lous, Annemieke Mol
    Vilkiene, Vida
    Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Understanding and responding to diversity in the primary classroom: an international study2006In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 305-318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Högberg, Sören
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Att låta det oväntade ge rum åt det oförväntade: Möjligheter inom ramen för skolämnet samhällskunskap2017In: Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education, ISSN 2000-9879, no 2, p. 25-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to illuminate the opportunities for students in social studies to develop dispositions towards taking an active and responsible role in society when teachers are able to support the content of the subject to continuously come forward in an interactive, communicative and evolving process. Based on theoretical informed arguments the author claims that that the question of how the teaching process is carried out is deeply connected with these opportunities for creating meaningful pedagogical situations. Here, unforeseen events are discussed as desirable circumstances for engaging students in social issues. However, this also brings risk into the process since the content discussed and how it is discussed opens up for unexpected answers. These answers which become part of the course content, put the teacher in a position in which he or she needs to respond in one way or another. In such pedagogical situations, the moral dimension of teachers’ work becomes visible and obvious. The position is taken that risk is a crucial part of a teaching process in which one of the aims is for students to be and become active, responsible and engaged in social issues.

  • 56.
    Högberg, Sören
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Lärares gemensamma ledarskap2012In: Lärare som ledare: i och utanför klassrummet / [ed] Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Christer Wede, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, 1, p. 229-247Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Högberg, Sören
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Örebro universitet.
    Om lärarskapets moraliska dimension: ett perspektiv och en studie av lärarstuderandes nätbaserade seminariesamtal2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, an educational perspective called the moral dimension of teaching is developed. The work includes a theoretically informed discussion from a pragmatist point of view in which the concept of pedagogical rhythm is introduced. The concept captures the need for teachers to regularly shift their intentions and occasionally act in contradictory ways as a consequence of the moral which emerges from interaction in pedagogical situations. Using this perspective, criteria are developed for the characteristics of discussions of the work of teachers, which are desirable in order for students in pre-service teacher education to have opportunities to develop their teachership.

    Secondly, the educational perspective as it is conceptualised serves as a theoretical framework for a study of discussions taking place in net-based seminars among students in teacher education. The study consists of 14 recorded seminars in which discussions of the work of teachers are analysed in terms of content and direction for reflection. The result of the analysis is a construction of four different focal points for processes of making judgements: existential, performative, critical and professional. Mainly the performative, and to some extent the critical, focal points appear to be supported by the net-based environment, although potential for the professional focal point is found when available tools in net-based settings are used in deliberate ways.

    Finally, based on these four focal points, possible future predispositions among student teachers are deliberated. Student teachers’ future opportunities to develop a moral and epistemological authority are discussed, as well as teachers’ general opportunities to exercise professional responsibility. The conclusion emphasises that a perspective such as the one developed in the dissertation is important, as it creates an understanding for the need to educate student teachers to exercise a form of responsibility that goes beyond being accountable to society.

  • 58.
    Högberg, Sören
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Pedagogical Rhythm - A Concept for Reflection on Contradictory Actions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedagogical Rhythm – A Concept for Reflection on Contradictory Actions

    This paper will introduce the concept of pedagogical rhythm, which might be seen as a preliminary answer to my question of how to develop, in pre-service teacher education, a morally responsible teaching. I will argue for the need to give opportunities to reflect upon teachers’ work in what I claim to be a more appropriate way for good teaching than towards the kind of standards developed in a neoliberal policy paradigm. Instead of reflecting upon teachers’ work in relation to certain pre-defined outcomes, as well as in relation to a non-defined complexity, the paper will give arguments for the need of reflection processes that are able to take into consideration teachers’ contradictory acting, without necessarily regarding this to be a problem.

    Theoretically the concept of pedagogical rhythm is developed out of Dewey’s line of reasoning, which says that our habits of acting develop in interaction, together with Lefebvre’s work on rhythm analysis, where differences and repetition in our everyday life are crucial units of analysis. Hereby the concept of habit is given a wider meaning as every habit is related to several and among them contradictory habits that all together create a rhythm.

    The concept of pedagogical rhythm refers to professional responsibility and the need for teachers to act in multiple ways with temporally different intentions, when interacting with pupils. It deals with different and occasionally contradictory ways of acting, which cannot be totally planned in advance but understood as actions emerging as a consequence of intentions predominantly grown out of teachers’ and pupils shared experiences, in a range of prior pedagogical situations.

    Hence instead of mainly giving attention to goal achievement, as become the focus in a neoliberal paradigm, the perspective presented through the concept of pedagogical rhythm, will give opportunities to pay attention to a variety of different ways to interact with pupils. The accentuation of certain habits in relation to others evolved from all kind of actions should over time be able to describe in terms of a specific pedagogical rhythm.

    The concept of pedagogical rhythm presented in the paper is a draft to later be evolved and used as a theoretical framework within an upcoming doctoral thesis in Education in Sweden. The concept will play a central role for analysing pre-service teacher students’ interaction in net-based seminars, when they deal with questions related to moral issues in teachers’ work.

  • 59.
    Högberg, Sören
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Pedagogisk rytm: Ett begrepp om och för lärares arbete2018In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 55-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to presenting the concept of pedagogical rhythm, the article has a dual purpose. In the theoretically informed text, arguments are made partly to claim that the concept of pedagogical rhythm can help us to better understand the prerequisites for teachers’ work and partly to claim that the concept can open up opportunities for a more nuanced criticism of teachers’ work based on the terms of the profession. The discussion is conducted in a pragmatic Dewey tradition, in which the concept of pedagogical rhythm is understood as a consequence of the interaction that takes place in educational settings. The conclusion drawn is that the concept of pedagogical rhythm, if put into use as an analytical tool, can strengthen the ability of teachers and ultimately the teaching profession to take professional responsibility.

  • 60.
    Indzic Dujso, Aleksandra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Umeå universitet.
    Nationella minoriteter i historieundervisningen: bilder av romer i Utbildningsradions program under perioden 1975-20132015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000 when Sweden signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities the Roma minority became one of the acknowledged national minorities in the country. It meant that the rights of the Roma mi-nority would be safeguarded and the knowledge of its history and culture would be spread. In that context, the Swedish school, with its founded as-signment of democracy, was given an important role. The education was to communicate the multicultural values of the society and to make visible the history and culture of the Roma minority.

    The school books used in teaching today do not meet these demands. The view of the Roma minority given in school books is often inadequate and simplified. The present study will therefore examine a different type of edu-cational material used in schools and teaching, The Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company‟s programs of history and social studies regarding the Roma minority. Starting in postcolonial theory as well as critical dis-course analysis the study examines how the picture of the Roma cultural and ethnic identity in the Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company‟s material has been displayed and possibly changed during the period of 1975 to 2013.

    The results show a picture of Roma which, both in form and content, con-sists of some clearly demarcated discursive categories. The obvious continui-ty of the categories gives a picture of static and invariable Roma identity. At the same time this unambiguous picture is broken both by giving the existing discourses new meaning and also adding new discourses. The complexity and nuances become more prominent and the Roma identity is integrated in common Swedish history telling. The changes in the view of Roma, given by the Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company, can mainly be explained by the change of the Swedish immigration and minority policy and, as a conse-quence of this, the change of the school‟s mission regarding knowledge communication of Sweden as a multicultural country.

  • 61.
    Irisdotter Aldenmyr, Sara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Hultin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Being a Democratic Citizen in the Age of the Therapeutic Culture2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implications for democratic education in primary school, and the fostering of future democratic citizens, when democratic education is understood as value-based education, using socio-emotional manual-based programs. This is done in two steps. First I contextualize the usage of socio-emotional programs through an educational historical point of view, from an educational philosophical and political point of view, and from a sociological perspective. Then I look closer to one of the manual-based programs, the textbook material for Lower Secondary School (grades 7-9): Important for life – social and emotional training (SET), through analyzing the constructions of virtues and values in it. In the last part, I discuss if and how these constructions of virtues and values can be understood as political.

  • 62.
    Kemuma, Joyce
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Do minority teachers matter and are they needed in schools?: A case of minority and/ethnic  teachers  in Swedish schools.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Kemuma, Joyce
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Former Students’ emotional memory work: A biographical study on how pupils in retrospect remember school life.: A biographical study on how pupils in retrospect remember school life .2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Kerstin, Göransson
    et al.
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala Universitet.
    Klang, Nina
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Magnússon, Gunnlaugur
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö Högskola.
    Speciella yrken? Specialpedagogers och speciallärares arbete och utbildning: en enkätstudie2015Report (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Lahdenperä, Pirjo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Gustavsson, Hans-Olof
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    von Schantz Lundgren, Ina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    The Key Role of the School Principal’s Leadership in the Schooling of Newly Arrived Immigrant Pupils in Sweden: Experiences from an Interactive Action Research Project2016In: Open Journal of Leadership, ISSN 2167-7751, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 20-30, article id 2330095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When newly immigrated children and young people begin school in Sweden, certain challengesarise. These may result from weak Swedish-language skills and different schooling backgrounds,as well as organizational and pedagogical limitations in the schools. This generates demands onschool leaders to lead and develop the organization and teachers competences to meet these pupils’needs. This situation was behind the initiation of the project “New Immigrants and Learning—Competence Development for Teachers and School Principals.” The project ran in schools infour Swedish municipalities, its aim was to develop leadership, organizational and pedagogicalskills that would facilitate the schooling and integration of newly arrived pupils. This article aimsto describe and discuss a Participant Action Research (PAR) based on a think tank and researchcircles, drawing special attention to the role of the school leaders. It will also examine whether theresearch circles and the project overall served to develop educational and intercultural leadership,organizational conditions, collegial learning, pedagogical methods and competence in terms ofschooling for this pupil group.

  • 66.
    Lindgren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, French.
    Oom Gardtman, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Charlotte Lindgren intervjuar Ulf Oom Gardtman om rapporten "Formativ feedback i högre utbildning – Inventering, förslag och organisatorisk implementering"2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 67.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Arbete med barn i behov av särskilt stöd sett ur kommunalt perspektiv2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Olika yrkesgruppers syn på arbetet kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd i förskola och skola

    Presentationen tar sin utgångspunkt i en avhandling som behandlar hur pedagogisk personal och rektorer i en kommun ser på sitt arbete kring barn i behov av särskilt stöd (ex. varför barn är i behov av särskilt stöd, hur de ser på medicinsk diagnos och hur de menar att specialpedagogen ska arbeta). Den teoretiska utgångspunkten är ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Från ett sådant perspektiv har skolpraktiker olika spatio‐temporala karaktäristika vilka är situerade i specifika sociokulturella miljöer. Studien tar även avstamp i kritisk pragmatism. Perspektivet används i studien för att studera och belysa komplexa fenomen utifrån olika aspekter. Studien består av fyra delstudier, presenterade i fyra artiklar. I delstudie 1 skickades 2008/2009 en enkät ut till all personal (N=1297) i förskola och skola (72,5 % svarsfrekvens). I delstudien 2 svarade samtliga 45 rektorer i kommunen på en webenkät. Den tredje delstudien beskriver olika yrkesgruppers syn på specialpedagogens roll och arbete. Den fjärde studien är en intervjustudie som presenterar fem grundskolerektorers beskrivningar av sitt arbete med elever och personal. Resultaten visar att det finns både likheter och skillnader mellan de olika yrkesgrupperna. Den största likheten finns i synen på varför barn är i behov av särskilt stöd. De flesta menar att orsaken är barnets individuella brister. Hälften av all pedagogisk personal svarade också att en medicinsk diagnos bör ha betydelse för att barn ska erhålla stöd. Skillnader mellan yrkesgrupperna blir exempelvis särskilt tydliga när de svarar på frågor kring specialpedagogens roll och arbetsuppgifter.

  • 68.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    God inkluderande lärmiljö: Rapport från en forskningscirkel genomförd mars 2017 – mars 20192019Report (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Who Should do What to Whom?: Occupational Groups´Views on Special Needs2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of different occupational groups´ views on work with children in need of special support. This is explored in four separate studies.

    The first study investigates the views of occupational groups in preschools and schools in one municipality. A questionnaire was handed out to all personnel (N=1297) in the municipality in 2008 (72.5 % response rate). The second study explores the views of educational leaders (N=45) in the same municipality. Questionnaire # 2 was distributed in 2009. All the educational leaders responded to the questionnaire. The third study describes the views of different occupational groups concerning special educational needs coordinators´ (SENCOs) role and work. This was highlighted by comparing responses from questionnaire #1 and # 2. Responses concerning SENCOs´ work were also added using a third questionnaire. This questionnaire was handed out in 2006 to chief education officers (N=290) in all municipalities in Sweden. The response rate was 90.3%. Finally, the fourth study presents five head teachers´ descriptions of their work with special needs issues. Study four was a follow-up study of questionnaire # 2. These head teachers were selected because of their inclusive values and because they seemed to be effective according to certain criteria. They were interviewed in January 2012.

    The results reveal a number of interesting findings. For example, there are both similar and different views among the occupational groups concerning work with children in need of special support. A majority of the respondents in all groups state that children´s individual deficiencies is one common reason why children need special support in preschools/schools. Differences between the occupational groups become especially visible regarding their views of SENCOs‟ work.

    Critical pragmatism (Cherryholmes, 1988) is applied as a theoretical point of departure. Skrtic´s (1991) critical reading and analysis of special education relative to general education is specifically used to interpret and discuss the outcome of the studies. Additionally, Abbott´s (1988) reasoning concerning the “division of expert labor” is used to discuss the occupational groups´ replies concerning “who should do what to whom”.

    The findings in the studies are contextualized and theoretically interpreted in the separate articles. However in the first part of this thesis (in Swedish: Kappa), the theoretical interpretations of the empirical outcome are discussed in more detail and the results are further contextualized and synthesised. Inclusion and premises for inclusive education are also discussed in more depth in the first part of the present thesis.

  • 70.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala Universitet.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö Högskola.
    Special educators in Sweden: descriptions of their education and work2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper presentation is to provide an overview of special educators’ work in Sweden. The paper investigates special educational needs coordinators’ (SENCOs’) and special-education teachers’ perceptions of their occupational role, of their preparedness for the role and of how their role is practised. The paper also illuminates questions about special educators’ knowledge and values as well as the grounds for the occupational groups to claim special expertise related to the identification of and work with school difficulties. A questionnaire was sent out in 2012 to all special educators in Sweden who were examined in the years and in accordance with the Swedish Examination Acts of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N= 4252, 75% response rate). The study is unique in terms of three aspects. Firstly, it is unique due to the large-scale data collection. Secondly, the education of special educators in Sweden is in an international perspective unique. Swedish special educators have to study one and a half years (advanced level) following a degree in teaching in order to get a degree as a SENCO or a special-education teacher and thirdly, the Swedish school system has been long renowned for its ambition to be a school for all, i.e. for its inclusive tendencies. Thus, special educators have supposedly played an important part in this effort for a more inclusive school system. According to the results, special educators state that they are well prepared to work with some tasks, such as counseling, leading development work and teaching children/pupils individually or in groups. Concurrently, there are tasks that the groups are educated for (e.g. school-development work), which they seldom practise in their daily work. Primarily using Abbott’s (1988) reasoning concerning jurisdictional control, we discuss SENCOs’ and special-education teachers’ authority to claim special expertise in relation to certain kinds of work, clients and knowledge and thus, their chances of gaining full jurisdictional control in the field of special education. This study is part of a research project called Special professions? – A project about special-education teachers’ and special educational needs coordinators’ education and work and is funded by the Swedish Research Council.

  • 71.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö Högskola.
    Möllås, Gunvie
    Högskolan för lärnade och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Cameron, David Lansing
    Universitet i Agder, Norge.
    Hannus-Gullmets, Britta
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Special professions?: The role of special educators in the Nordic countries2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special educators play a central role in schools´ work in relation to special educational needs. They represent, and are expected to represent, specific ways to identify and work with problematic school situations. Despite their important position, very little is known about what constitutes their professional role with regard to knowledge base, professional activities, legitimacy and status within the educational system. Little is also known about the conditions for developing a professional role, for example in relation to state and local policies.

    The purpose of this round table session is twofold: a) to discuss the role of special educators in Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark and conditions for developing a shared understanding of the professional role within each country as well as between the countries; b) to discuss possibilities for joint, comparative studies within the field.

    Theoretical points of departure that will guide our discussions are: a) different perspectives on special needs education, the deficit or compensatory perspective (e.g. Ainscow, 1998; Haug, 1998), the relational perspective (e.g. Clark, Dyson & Millward, 1998; Persson, 1998; Skrtic, 1991) and the interactive perspective (Ainscow, 1998); b) different perspectives on professions, the knowledge base, the every-day practice of the profession, legitimacy and status (c.f. Collin, 1990; Gross, 1958; Torstendahl, 1990).

    Empirical points of departure will be preliminary results from three Swedish surveys: one total population survey of special pedagogues and special teachers examined between the years 2003-2011(N=4 252, response rate 75,0%) and one Swedish survey of all teachers working as special educators, resource teachers etc. (N=511, response rate 62,5%), in a sample of municipalities and one survey to all teaching staff and support staff in one municipality (N=1297, response rate 72,5%).

  • 72.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Klang, Nina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Göransson, Kerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Special Professions?: A Presentation of a Research Project Concerning Special Educators´ Education and Work in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proposal information

    The purpose of this paper presentation is to provide overall findings generated from a research project funded by the Swedish Research Council concerning special educators’ education and work. The role of special educators, and their counterparts, is discussed in relation to implications for the development of inclusive education. The overarching research question concerns how special educators identify and shape their occupational role. More specifically the research questions presented below are:

    1. According to special educators, what characterizes the professional knowledge and values they claim that they represent? (Study 1)

    2.  What tasks do special educators consider to be characteristic of their occupational role, as practiced by them? (Study 1)

    3.  On what grounds can special educators claim special expertise concerning the identification of, and work with, school difficulties? (Study 1)

    4. To what extent are special educators and to what extent are support teachers assigned to work with special support in ten municipalities in Sweden? (Study 2)

    5. What work tasks characterize/constitute the occupational role of special educators, and what work tasks characterize/constitute the occupational role of support teachers? (Study 2)

    6. What work tasks do special educators and what work tasks do support teachers believe should characterize the two occupational roles? (Study 2)

    7. What characterizes the work tasks of six special educators who pursue a typical special educator role according to their survey ratings? (Study 3)

    8. What characterizes the contexts in which the six special educators enact their professional roles? (Study 3)

      Our theoretical point of departure is Skrtic’s (1991, 1995) reasoning concerning special education as a parallel system to regular education, which in turn, counteracts the development of inclusion. We also use Abbott’s (1988) notions of division of labor and jurisdictional control in order to better understand the formation of special educators’ role as well as conditions for special educators to develop inclusive practices. In study two, Skrtic’s (1991, 1995) theoretical accounts of inclusive education, and Abbott’s (1988) notion of jurisdictional control is specifically used to gain further understanding about the formation of special educators’ and support teachers’ role in relation to implications for inclusion.  In study 3, a typology of school contexts (Ball et al., 2012) is used to describe the complex local contexts in which special educators enact their professional roles.

      From an international viewpoint, this research project is of value for several reasons. Firstly, it involves large-scale data collections. While it has long since been common to use questionnaires in special needs research in order to study the views of different occupational groups, mostly teachers, it is still uncommon to study large samples of groups that are influential in special needs work (Göransson et al., 2015). Secondly, the education of special educators in Sweden is from an international perspective not at all typical. In Sweden a special educator has to study one and a half years (advanced level) following a degree in teaching in order to get a degree as a special educator. Thus, Swedish special educators have received comparatively more education than their counterparts in most other European countries (Göransson et al., submitted). This is of special interest since, thirdly, Sweden is still considered to have one of the most ‘inclusive’ educational systems in the world (OECD, 2011).

      Methods

      The project consists of three separate, yet linking studies. The first study is a questionnaire study which investigates all special educators in Sweden who were examined in the years and in accordance with the Swedish Examination Acts of 2001, 2007 and 2008 (N= 4252, 75% response rate). Thus, the first study is a total-population study of special educators in Sweden. The second study is a questionnaire study as well. It was distributed to all special educators and support teachers in ten municipalities (n=511, 61.6% response rate). Both questionnaires were distributed in 2012. Descriptive statistics are mostly used in the presentation of the data from the two questionnaires, since whole populations were studied. In questionnaire # 2, two independent samples t-tests were also used when data was analyzed. In study 3, case-study methodology (Merriam, 1992) was used to illustrate the complexity of enactment of special educator roles in local school contexts. Through purposive sampling, six participants were chosen from study 2 to represent typical special educators. Following criteria were used: (a) reported tasks corresponded to examination statutes (b) participants reported that they could influence the work at school. Within each case, data were collected using participant observations, diary recordings, and interviews with special educators, headmasters and teachers. Data analysis within and across cases was conducted to discern special educator roles and tasks as well as the contexts in which the roles were enacted.

      Conclusions

      According to the first study, special educators display a relational perspective on school difficulties. Regarding the mission of education they seem to represent what might be called an ‘equity discourse’ (cf. Englund and Quennerstedt, 2008), which is quite contradictory to the current education agenda, focusing excellence, increased goal attainment and accountability (Göransson et al., 2013). Special educators believe that they are well prepared to work with some tasks, such as counseling, leading development work and teaching children/pupils individually or in groups. Concurrently, there are tasks that they are educated for (e.g. school-development work), which they seldom practice. We discuss special educators’ authority to claim special expertise in relation to certain kinds of work, clients and knowledge (Abbott, 1988). Results from the second study indicate that there are wide variations between municipalities regarding to what extent special educators or support teachers work with special support. The characteristics of the occupational role of special educators are more in line with inclusive practices than the role of support teachers. Moreover, special educators consider that support teachers should work more as ‘traditional special teachers’, than do the support teachers themselves. In study 3, six categories of work tasks were discerned: teaching, social relational work, assessment, informing and following up, supporting and providing materials, school-development, and practical chores. The time devoted to these tasks varied among the six special educators. Related to Abbott’s concept of professional jurisdiction, it can be questioned whether the tasks the special educators as a group claim control over are unique to the profession. While teaching and assessment are typical across all cases, special educators’ conceptions of school-development tasks are quite different. How the role is enacted is also related to local school contexts (Ball et al., 2012), as situated school contexts, the material contexts and values and experiences of staff.

      References

    Abbott, A. (1988). The System of Professions. An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago: University of Chicago.

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. 1. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactments in secondary schools. London: Routledge.

    Englund, T. & Qennerstedt, A. (2008). Vadå likvärdighet? – studier i utbildningspolitisk språkbildning. [What Equivalence? - Studies in Education policy language education]. Gothenburg: Daidalos.

    Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G. & Nilholm, C. (2015) Voices of Special-educators in Sweden. A Total-population Study. Educational Research, 57, 287-304.

    Göransson, K., Lindqvist, G., Möllås, G., Almqvist, L. & Nilholm, C. (submitted) Ideas about occupational roles and inclusive practices among Special Needs Educators and Support Teachers in Sweden. Educational Review.

    Göransson, K., Malmqvist, J. and Nilholm, C. (2013). Local school ideologies and inclusion: the case of Swedish independent schools. European Journal of Special Needs Education. 28 (1), 49-63.

    Merriam, S.B. (1992). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2011). Social justice in the OECD: How do the member states compare? Sustainable Governance Indicators 2011. Gütersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann Stiftung.

    Skrtic, T. M. (1991). Behind special education.  A critical analysis of professional culture and school organization. Denver, CO: Love Publishing Company.

    Skrtic, T. M. (1995). Deconstructing/Reconstructing public education: Social reconstruction in the postmodern era. In T. M. Skrtic (Ed.), Disability and democracy: reconstructing (special) education in postmodernity, (233-273). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

  • 73.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Head Teachers´ Strategies in Inclusive Schools- an Interview Study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Department of Learning and Communication, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Malmö University.
    Promoting inclusion?: "Inclusive" and effective head teachers´descriptions of their work2014In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 74-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the reported interview study from Sweden is to contribute to our understanding of how head teachers can promote inclusive practices. Five head teachers were selected from a larger sample of head teachers working in compulsory schools (6–16) according to specific criteria in order to obtain head teachers who work effectively and express inclusive values relative to a relational perspective. The interviews were semi-structured, and a thematic analysis was performed. Head teachers’ strategies were in focus. The theoretical point of departure is critical pragmatism. Overall the five head teachers reported similar strategies. The head teachers describe the importance of educational leadership through observation and participation in activities in the classrooms. They advocate flexibility in the solutions provided for students in need of special support preferring solutions carried out in the regular classroom by the class/subject teacher. Head teachers see special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) as important partners in their work towards more inclusive practices. Head teachers express the importance of consensus among their staff. They seem to welcome government’s increasing demands and steering concerning how head teachers should manage their schools. Finally, it is discussed whether the head teachers can be said to work ‘inclusively’ and, more generally, the methodological challenges researchers must confront in studies concerning ‘inclusive’ education.

  • 75.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Almqvist, Lena
    Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Different agendas? The views of different occupational groups on special needs education2011In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate how different occupational groups explain why children have problems in school, how they believe schools should help these children and the role they believe that special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) should have in such work. A questionnaire was distributed to all teaching and support staff in a Swedish municipality (N=1297). As a result, 938 persons (72.5%) answered the questionnaire. The answers given by (a) preschool teachers (b) teacher assistants (c) SENCOs (d) special teachers (e) class teachers and (f) subject teachers were compared. Several interesting patterns emerged from the data indicating that the occupational groups to a large extent have different ideas concerning how the school should work with children in need of special support. The SENCOs were, for example, the only group that believed that they should be involved in school development. The outcome of the study is discussed in relation to the notion of inclusive education.

  • 76.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education. Uppsala Universitet.
    Rodell, Annica
    Stöd och anpassningar: Att organisera särskilda insatser2015 (ed. 1.1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Vinterek, Monika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Visualization of Ways to Work with Different Learning Areas in Preeschool2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study

    The aim was to investigate the intentional work of one preschool to create conditions for learning within seven fields 1) Joy and motivation to learn 2) Creativity 3) Self-perception 4) Responsibility and implementation 5) Thinking and analysis 6) Communication and social relations and finally 7) Empathy.

    Relationship to previous research works

    Prior research suggests that knowledge on e.g. how to take responsibility and how to collaborate has important implications for what happens later on in life. Interventions at an early age are more meaningful than later efforts (Ruhm & Waldfogel, 2012). This makes it particularly important to understand how work with this type of knowledge is conducted and promoted in preschool.

    Theoretical and conceptual framework

    This pilot-study is part of a larger research project initiated by the Swedish National Agency for Education. The seven learning areas in focus in this study are based on learning goals formulated in the Swedish curriculum. It is primarily an empirical study using a hermeneutic approach.

    Paradigm, Methodology and Methods

    Three preschool teachers and one childcare worker were observed during ten days. The learning environment and interactions between adults and children were registered. Follow-up interviews were also performed. 

    Ethical considerations

    All participants involved in the study (i.e. preschool managers, preschool personnel, legal guardians) were informed about the study and gave their written consent.

    Main findings

    Results reveal that it is possible to observe how preschool personnel work to create conditions for learning within the seven fields. 

    Implications for practice and/or policy

    A visualization of ways to work with the areas focused is assumed to increase teachers' intentional conduct and be useful in developing educational practice.

  • 78.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Nes, Kari
    Fasting, Rolf
    Ström, Kristina
    Different Understandings of Inclusion: Round Table Presentation2011In: NERA´s 39th Congress - Rights and Education, Jyväskylä, Finland, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Lindqvist, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Educational Work.
    Wetso, Gun-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    How do Teachers and Personnel in Preschool and School in a Swedish Municipality Look upon their Work with Children in Need of Special Educational Support?2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Lindqvist, Inger
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Munters, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Making Learning Possible: Net based learning at Dalarna University2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dalarna University (DU) has made a strategic choice to emphasize pedagogic development for the next generation. DU is renowned in Sweden for developing net based courses. From the perspective of the University, however, we develop pedagogical thought and e-learning possibilities for both campus and net based courses.

    The Next Generation Learning Centre (NGLc) is vital for the pedagogical development at DU. Our role is to make students’ learning possible (Ramsden 2003). According to sociocultural perspectives on learning, communicative interaction and the use of cultural artifacts are vital parts in all learning (Säljö 2000). At our university we clearly focus on different computer based systems as artifacts that support learning and that make synchronous interaction possible, in seminars as well as during lectures. We choose systems that support learning well rather than the newest technology. 

    We have defined three basic needs for the learning process and have chosen programs for information exchange (Fronter), Adobe Connect for seminars, and the “Videochat” - our own system for streaming and/or recording lectures.

    We do not consider Adobe Connect and the Videochat as virtual tools – the seminars and lectures are for real (same time – any place). Hence our conscious use of “net based” instead of “distance” courses. Students and teachers testify that they interact more in a seminar via Connect compared to in a physical lecture hall and confirm the pedagogical closeness. 

    We use systems that require as little technical knowledge from the students as possible. As a preparation for students we offer recurrent introduction courses in all our systems during the first four weeks of each semester. Equivalent courses are offered to teachers.

    The support department (NGLc) has generous opening hours to support and help teachers and students with technical and pedagogical issues. There are day courses as well as evening courses, and we provide the same support for all.

    We record and provide sign language interpretation of lectures to deaf/hearing impaired students. We also adapt Fronter for blind or visually impaired students.

    During our presentation we describe and show how we work generally with net based learning, and we will also introduce more specific solutions that have been appreciated by our teachers and students.

    • DU´s success through net based learning 5 minutes
    • Presentation of technical artifacts 7 minutes
    • NGLc´s function  11 minutes
    • questions 7 minutes

    References

    Ramsden, Paul (2003). Learning to teach in higher education. 2. ed. London: RoutledgeFalmer

    Säljö, Roger (2000). Lärande i praktiken: ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. [Learning in practice - A sociocultural perspective]. Stockholm: Prisma

  • 81.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Alla Tiders Teknik & Teknikerjakten Framväxt, organisation, verksamhet och framtid : En utvärderande studie2006Report (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    ”ANDT på Schemat”: Utvärdering av hur ett undervisningsmaterial om alkohol, narkotika, droger och tobak för elever i årskurs 7-9 fungerar i praktiken2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan har en lång tradition av att arbeta förebyggande gentemot olika former av droger. ANDT-undervisning kan i en del avseenden vara framgångsrik, samtidigt som det är viktigt att förväntningarna på de resultat som kan uppnås är realistiskt ställda. Lokalt bedrivs projekt för att få in undervisning om ANDT-frågor i skolan. Ett sådant exempel är ”ANDT på schemat” som den här rapporten handlar om. Projektet genomfördes under höstterminen 2015 med medverkan av elever i årskurs sju i två kommunala skolor. Syftet med utvärderingen är att ur ett pedagogiskt perspektiv beskriva och tolka på vilka sätt ett kursmaterial om alkohol, narkotika, droger och tobak (”ANDT-pärmen”) uppfattades fungera av de lärare och elever som medverkade i projektet. Med utgångspunkt i vad utvärderingsresultatet visar är ett ytterligare syfte att beskriva och diskutera pedagogiskt problematiska aspekter och därmed i förlängningen förhoppningsvis även bidra till uppslag för att utveckla skolans ANDT-undervisning i allmänhet. Utvärderingen bygger på en deskriptiv fallstudie. Insamlingen av data har skett genom att flera datainsamlingsmetoder användes.

     

    Projektet ”ANDT på schemat” har initierats av en arbetsgrupp med representanter från Länsstyrelsen Dalarna och Borlänge kommun. Det undervisningsmaterial som arbetsgruppen arbetade fram byggs upp med samma struktur oavsett om temat är alkohol, narkotika, doping och tobak utifrån sju grundläggande frågeställningar. Arbetet är i första hand tänkt att ske ämnesövergripande och att lärarna kan välja att arbeta med ett eller flera av dessa teman samtidigt, liksom välja om de vill arbeta med alla sju frågeställningar eller välja ut några av dessa. Det är således ett flexibelt undervisningsmaterial som kan användas på en rad olika sätt. Förutom de sju frågeställningarna som är i fokus ska undervisningen också utveckla elevernas förmåga att söka information på internet och att träna en källkritisk hållning, liksom att förbättra förmågan att reflektera över egna värderingar och attityder till droger av olika slag.

     

    Enligt de ursprungliga planerna skulle projektet innehålla medverkan av fem skolor. En skola föll bort redan innan projektet startade, senare föll ytterligare en andra skola bort och i ett tredje fall skulle ”ANDT-pärmen” används på ett sätt som skulle göra det svårt att utvärdera resultatet. Med tanke på att det bara var en av de fem ursprungliga skolorna i projektet som kom att genomföra projektet ”ANDT-på schemat” pekar det på att det finns organistoriska svårigheter att hantera. Det visade sig att det även fanns olika förutsättningar på de två skolorna som provade att använda ”ANDT-pärmen”. En slutsats av detta är att det krävs lång framförhållning i planeringen och att det är rektor som är ansvarig för att skapa nödvändiga förutsättningar, men även att det kan finnas behov av ”eldsjälar” som driver denna fråga bland kollegorna och på så sätt skapar ett intresse. En annan slutsats är att det måste finnas tid avsatt för lärare att planera hur undervisningen ska genomföras. Å andra sidan är det kanske inte alltid realistiskt att kunde göra det på det sätt som skulle vara önskvärt genom alla aktiviteter som konkurrerar med varandra om utrymme i skolans vardag. Detta kan ses som ett generellt problem som skolor i gemen har att hantera.

     

    I de två skolor som provade ”ANDT-pärmen” verkar det som att lärarna uppfattade innehållet som användbart, vare sig att undervisningen skedde i projektform eller genomfördes som en temadag. Bland de fördelar som nämndes av de lärare som genomförde temadagen var att det fanns fakta, referenser och litteraturtips samlat på ett sådant sätt som att det underlättade planeringen. Det gör att det samtidigt finns ett stort utrymme för de involverade lärarna att skapa sin egen undervisning utifrån de lokala förutsättningar som råder. I skola B där undervisningen genomfördes i projektform utifrån ”ANDT-pärmen” beskrev lärarna detta som ett funderande sätt att arbeta. De nämnde samtidigt brist på tid för att hinna samplanera, men att det samtidigt trots detta gav en möjlighet till pedagogiska samtal. Här finns också ett annat problem i form av att det visade sig svårt att få arbetet i grupp att fungera. Lärarna framhöll å andra sidan den fördel som det innebar att använda filmproduktion som en del av undervisningsprocessen. När elever bearbetar det material de har samlat in och presenterar en film så kan detta ses som en viktig del av elevers lärande. I en digitaliserad värld där eleverna lätt kan hämta information behöver de inte bara lära sig att söka information, de behöver också på olika sätt värdera denna. ANDT-temat verkar väl lämpat för att öva elevernas källkritiska förmåga. En sammanfattande slutsats är att undervisning om alkohol, narkotika, droger och tobak med fördel kan genomföras i projektform. Ett sådant arbetssätt involverar både lärare och elever, vilket även kan ses som att det har potential för att skapa goda relationer mellan elever och lärare och på så sätt även skapa ett bättre arbetsklimat i skolan. Vad som samtidigt framstår som ett problem är att det kan vara svårt att implementera undervisning i projektform på bred front i en skolvardag som fortfarande i hög grad styrs av traditionella undervisningsformer och schemaläggningsstrukturer.

  • 83.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    EU-Projektledarutbildning för ABF-funktionärer : En utvärderande studie2003Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    FOKIS-projektet: fack och kooperation i samverkan för att skapa nya arbeten1998Report (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Folkbibliotek och folkbildning till ömsesidig nytta: Kartläggning, analys och förutsättningar för ökad samverkan mellan bibliotek och studieförbund i Dalarnas och Örebro län2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Såväl folkbildningens organisationer som folkbiblioteken är mitt uppe i ett pågående utvecklingsarbete som grundas i ständiga fortgående samhällsförändringar och ändrade behov och nya kulturmönster hos medborgarna. Det finns därför goda motiv för studieförbunden och folkbiblioteken att samverka och ta stöd av varandras erfarenheter för att kunna svara upp mot medborgarnas behov av organiserat icke-formellt lärande. Projektet, Folkbibliotek och folkbildning till ömsesidig nytta tar detta som utgångspunkt för att genomföra en kartläggning, som syftar till att undersöka möjligheterna att förstärka och utveckla en utvidgad samverkan mellan biblioteken, länsbiblioteken, länsbildningsförbunden samt studieförbunden i Dalarnas och Örebro län.

  • 86.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Förmår facket att spela en roll i lokal arbetsorganisationsutveckling?: Erfarenheter från ett LO-program om kunskapsutveckling, arbetsorganisation och lönesystem2002Report (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Gagnefs kommuns Barn- och utbildningsförvaltning: En utvärderande studie av dess ledningsorganisation2002Report (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Hälso- och sjukvårdens Utvecklingscentrum Dalarna (HUD). : Framväxt, organisation, verksamhet och framtid. - En utvärderande studie2005Report (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    LO och Kunskapslyftet: En studie om LO-förbundens medlemmar och deras väg till skolbänken2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En bärande tanke med att genomföra Kunskapslyftet var också att svensk vuxenutbildning i början av 2000-talet organisatoriskt och pedagogiskt skulle vara väl rustad att tillgodose de nya kraven. Kunskapslyftet kom därmed att bli Sveriges största satsning på vuxenutbildning hittills. För LOs medverkan i Kunskapslyftet anslog staten till LO dryga 20 miljoner kronor per år, tillsammans mer än 100 miljoner kronor. LO kom därmed att inta en roll som en viktig aktör i genomförandet av Kunskapslyftet och det innebar bl.a. att ett stort antal utbildningsprojekt kom att genomföras inom denna ram. Den studie som nu genomförs syftar till att belysa vilka resultat och effekter som LOs och LO-förbundens engagemang inom Kunskapslyftet uppfattas ha gett upphov till. Med utgångspunkt från hur dessa frågor kan besvaras diskuteras Kunskapslyftets betydelse för att förändra och utveckla LOs roll som aktör inom det utbildningspolitiska området.

    Verksamheten under Kunskapslyftets genomförande kan ses som att den har gått igenom olika utvecklingsfaser. En avgörande fråga inför starten av Kunskapslyftet var hur långtidsarbetslösa, invandrare och flyktingar, de med läs- och skrivproblem, människor som av olika orsaker inte fullföljt sin skolgång skulle kunna motiveras att påbörja en utbildning. Allt eftersom Kunskapslyftet pågick kunde man allt tydligare se att det fanns betydande svårigheter med att nå invandrare och flyktingar. Relativt snart efter det att verksamheten startade lyckades man få igång lokala projekt. Verksamheten bedrevs i hög grad med informella former, mindre av formella möten och mera av gemensamhetsskapande aktiviteter. Att använda verksamhetsformer som anknyter till kulturellt betingade vanor för att nå invandrare och flyktingar kan förmodligen ses som ett effektivt sätt att skapa delaktighet och därmed även ett engagemang för utbildningsfrågor. Viktiga erfarenheter från detta arbete är att det är en tålmodig och tidskrävande uppgift att förmå lågutbildade att ta steget till att börja utbilda sig. Det är många barriärer som skall brytas igenom.

  • 90.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    ”Meningsfull matematik”: en utvärdering av två forskningscirklars arbete i Ornäs och Torsångs skolor i Borlänge ht 1998/vt 19991999Report (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Provux, en IT-baserad utbildning för Project Management: En utvärderande studie2001Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    School development: Some reflections on the role of school leaders2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High expectations of development and renewal of form and content in schools are now very common. However there seem to be no simple answers how to do. Schools are a complex organisation with many stakeholders involved. The complexity concern for example formal decisions taken on many different levels, state, municipally and in school-units, but perhaps the most important decisions are made informal in the classrooms. Schools as an organisation also seem to be hard to change. Developing processes have a tendency to take long time before there are possible to discover any results. Teachers have continuously lack of time, here and now, as there are so many things to be done. What is the role of the school-leader under these conditions? One of the problems school-leaders have to face is, as there are many expectations, the difficulty to make priorities among their work. The teachers demand the school-leaders to be “visible”. Meetings take so much time those school-leaders can not take active part in the daily work as expected. They are supposed to be “pedagogical-leaders”, at the same time this usually does not seem to work in practise. Politicians and the public are keen to know what the results are. The budget gives restrictions that can not be exceeded. The parents would like to have influence and so on and on. In short, the expectations of the school-leaders are high. In the paper is discussed what possibility school-leaders have to manage school-development. Following questions are raised:

    • What kind of strategically choices do school-leaders meet when they are going to manage school-development?
    • Is it possible to manage school-development in a long-term perspective and what may school-leaders do to make it possible to involve the personnel in an efficient way?

    It seems apparent that school development is a field just as complicated as one has reason to believe. It is important to give teachers a possibility to be involved in school-development processes and also the managers’ choice of development strategy seems to be of importance. Managers have to be those who create necessary prerequisites and co-ordinate the activities. The accomplishment is in many aspects possible to hand over to the teachers. There is however a risk to see school-development processes as clearly defined short-term projects. When school-development on the other hand is run in a long-term perspective there seems to be possible to expect more lasting effects as a result. There are of course no simple solutions how to do, but it seems as a necessary prerequisite that school-development must be well prepared and carried out systematically, with high involvement and on the ground of dialogue. The managers have to support these processes especially when difficulties of different kinds occur and, not at least, have faith to the teachers ability.

  • 93.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Sociala Ekonomins Idécentrum i Dalarna: En utvärderande studie2007Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    ”Uppfinnarverkstaden”: ett EU-projekt inom europeiska socialfonden avseende långtidsarbetslösa ungdomar i åldern 17 - 24 år med extra behov av stöd och hjälp1997Report (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    When the global gets local: possible effects on schools2003In: Leading Schools with a Global Perspective: Proceedings of the International Conference. Riga: University of Latvia. Riga Teacher Eduction Center, Distance Education Centre of Latvia / [ed] Ahonen, J., Diggins, P., Ekiert-Oldroyd, D, Erculj, J., Groth, E., Ivanova, I., Milan, P., Njerve, I., Targamadze, V., 2003, p. 164-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is it, for example, necessary for pupils to learn English and why do they have to know about other cultures? One answer may be that society is changing constantly and that we live in a more and more global society. The global perspective may be recognised in different ways. Many products are often the same all over the world. Films and commercials are also many times the same. Wherever you are you may order a pizza or Chinese food. Pollutions spread over the borders of nations, and so on and on. But, what is then the content in a deeper perspective and what are the forces behind this continuously ongoing globalisation process? How does it impact, for example, the activities that take place at schools? If we are able to catch central aspects of the globalisation process as phenomenon is seems also possible to handle at least some aspects of its consequences, both positive and negative ones. Accordingly, from this perspective, it gives schools an important role to play in order to prepare pupils for their present and coming lives. From these points of view the aim of this paper is to discuss:

    • How is it possible to understand the concept globalisation and what consequences may the ongoing globalisation process have on schools?
  • 96.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    WWW.arbetslinjen.com: En studie av ett projekt om samverkan för att underlätta tillträdet till arbetsmarknaden för personer i aktivitetsgarantin2005Report (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Lundgren, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Youth Lift ett EU-projekt inom europeiska socialfonden: ett introduktionsprogram för unga som inte deltar i gymnasieskolans ordinarie program. – Utvärdering1997Report (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Education.
    Fändrik, Anna Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Nerström, Nicola
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Forskningscirkeln som metod för att initiera och utveckla lokalt skolutvecklingsarbete i gymnasial yrkesutbildning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den svenska skolan är rektor, som det uttrycks i skollagen, inte bara ansvarig för den löpande verksamheten med administration, ekonomi etc., utan även för det pedagogiska ledarskapet och att verksamheten kontinuerligt utvecklas. Syftet med detta paper är, från denna utgångspunkt, att beskriva och diskutera hur skolledningen på en gymnasieskola tillsammans med en grupp lärare på skolans yrkesprogram använde en forskningscirkel för att etablera ett, både kortsiktigt och långsiktigt, pedagogiskt utvecklingsarbete. De resultat som presenteras här bygger på en kvalitativ fallstudie som sedan, drygt ett halvår efter att forskningscirkeln formellt hade avslutats, kompletterats med uppföljande gruppintervjuer, dels med forskningscirkeldeltagare och dels med två skolledare.

     Forskningscirkeln bedrevs över två terminer och resulterade i att sju olika miniforskningsprojekt, vilka under den tid forskningscirkeln pågick kom olika långt. Flera av de aktiviteter som hade påbörjats i forskningscirkeln fortsatte på ett informellt plan och i en del avseenden även hade vidareutvecklats. Den biträdande rektorn var t.ex. ofta ute bland lärarna för att kommunicera och försöka fånga upp lärarnas behov av stöd i klassrummen. Skolledarna beskrev att de ville fungera som motor för ett tålmodigt, systematiskt och långsiktigt utvecklingsarbete med inriktning mot att utveckla ett kollegialt lärande. De hade, bl.a. mot bakgrund av de erfarenheter som forskningscirkeln gett, initierat en skolutvecklingsgrupp med uppgift att identifiera utvecklingsbehov liksom fortsätta det utvecklingsarbete som redan hade pågått under flera års tid och där forskningscirkeln med de positiva erfarenheterna därifrån utgjorde en viktig del. Det stod samtidigt klart att det är fråga om långsamma processer som både kräver tid att initiera, genomföra och att implementera. En av framgångsfaktorerna tycks vara att det inte sker ”top down”, utan mer utifrån lärarnas egna initiativ och upplevda behov. Således är en sammanfattande tentativ erfarenhet att forskningscirkeln som arbetsform, både kortsiktigt och mera långsiktigt, förefaller kunna spela en pådrivande roll i lokalt skolutvecklingsarbete.

  • 99.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Groth, Erik
    Raziskovalni krozek kot orodje za v solo usmerjen razvoj uciteljev in izboljsave v solah2000In: Raznolikost Kakivosti / [ed] Trnavcevic, A, Maribor: CIP - Kataloznio Publikaciji Univerzietna Knjiznica , 2000, p. 99-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Lundgren, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Education.
    Groth, Erik
    Forsberg-Sternudd, Mia Marie
    Dalarna Centre for Educational Development: In-Service Teacher Training Teachers in Research Circles as an example2000In: Selected papers presented in concurrent sessions / [ed] Montané, M., Cambra, J., 2000, p. 141-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present changes in society leads to the fact that school’s traditional forms for work are reconsidered. This leads into a change in educational forms and a new teacher’s role. There are reasons to try to find new forms for further education for teachers, issuing from the teachers themselves. Lately the collaboration between teachers and researchers has been put forward as a possible way to develop school. One of the problems has been the lack of arenas for such an exchange.

    By "Research Circles" Dalarna Centre for Educational Development has created such arenas, where teachers and researchers are working together. The social con-text in the Research Circle invites into an activity, which could be characterised as "the educational discourse". It is founded upon the condition that the participants share a common frame of references, codified in a linguistic usage.

    The aims with this paper are

    • to describe how Dalarna university, in collaboration with the municipalities in the region, has created Centre for Educational Development as an arena for school de-velopment

    • to describe and discuss if the research circle as a form for work can serve as a meeting-place for teachers and researchers and if this can be a way for teachers in-service learning

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