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  • 51.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Orsa Skogs- och Trägrupp: Verksamhet april 1996 - oktober 19971997Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Skogsbruk och lokal träförädling - i Norrlands och Svealands inland: Underlag till föredrag på SLU:s jubileumskonferens 1-2 dec 1998 i Umeå1998Report (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Timmerhustillverkning i Finland: Studieresor i februari och maj 20012001Report (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Timmerhusvikingar i västerled: Studieresa i Minnesota och Wisconsin 4-12 april 20012001Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Traditionella timmerhus i modern produktion: Förslag till Kvalificerad Yrkesutbildning1998Report (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Tredje uppgiften: Fyra projekt inom profilområdet "Småskaligt skogsbruk-lokal träförädling-landsbygdsutveckling": Dokumentation samt analys av den kreativa processen1997Report (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Utveckling av småskaliga system för träförädling: FoU-projekt för Mål 6-området1997Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Utveckling av småskaliga system för träförädling: Slutrapport för Mål6-projekt 1997-20002000Report (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Ager, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Utvecklingen av träförädling i Orsa 1994-2000 En forskande aktör ser tillbaka, framåt och det unika: Artikel till HHS-konferens vid Högskolan i Halmstad 9-11 maj 2001 "Högskolor och Samhälle i Samverkan"2001Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Backman, Jörgen
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Nätverk och kluster i Träsverige 20032004Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Development of Small Scale Forestry and Local Wood Manufacturing in Sweden - with special reference to a pilot study in the municipality of Orsa: Paper presented at IUFRO Symposium in Kyoto, Japan, Sept. 8-13, 1997 "Sustainable Management of Small Scale Forestry"1997Report (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Samverkan och nätverk i lokal utveckling inom skogs- och träsektorn: Underlag till Forskarforum kring lokal och regional utveckling Östersund 18-19 nov 19971997Report (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Berglund, Berndt
    Utveckling av timmerhusbranschen: Projektplan för ansökan i Mål 1 och Mål 22001Report (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Lokal utveckling och företagssamverkan i träbranschen: Dokumentation och preliminär analys av ett 30-tal fall1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Networks and cooperatives have become very common in the woodworking industry during the1990’s. As part of a research project on small enterprise development in the woodworking industry within the Target 6 area (in Sweden) of the European Community, this study follows the development of a dozen cooperative projects during the period 1997-2000. In order to broaden the knowledge base of the study, in 1998 we carried out a survey of cooperative ventures in the woodworking industry in the rest of the country, and collected information about their history, present situation and future strategy. Together with our own material we achieved a body of material consisting of some 30 cases which were subjected to exploratory analysis. We identified the following categories of projects and cooperative ventures; ”Local development projects”, ”Development networks”, ”Producer networks” and ”Development supporting networks”. Most of the producer networks were horizontally integrated but some of them were vertically integrated, along the processing chain from the forest to the customer. Nearly all the local development projects and the networks had been initiated within the last four years. It is, therefore, too early to make any conclusions about their success. Our main finding, so far, is that local development and the establishment of networks requires ”driving forces” in the form of committed individuals, time, money and project organisation. Most of the projects and networks were supported by public funds.

  • 65.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Studier av lokal utveckling och samverkan i träbranschen: Forskarforum 98. Lokal och regional utveckling. Östersund 17-18 nov 19981998Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Bengtsson, Patrik
    Ahlström-Söderling, Ragnar
    Fröding, Anders
    Johansson, Lars
    Samverkan i träförädling: Dokumentation och preliminär analys av ett 30-tal samverkansfall1998Report (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Ager, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Liss, Jan-Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Systemstudier Ungskogsbränsle - Projektplan till Nutek1998Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Max Webers Freiburger Antrittsrede: Om migrationsprocesser, social urbäddning och social förändring2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, p. 148-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Max Weber in Freiburg. On migration, disembedding and social change

    This article sets out to introduce the central topics in Max Weber’s inauguration lecture in Freiburg. It is argued that the central, but largely implicit, argument in Weber’s lecture concerns the transformation from a patriarchal to a capitalist mode of employment. Upon this interpretation, Max Weber’s objective is to explain specific migration processes in terms of a configuration of causes, where the social disembedding of rural labour is the key factor.

  • 69.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 3-4, p. 4-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2003In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2002In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 4-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 4-6-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Redaktionens förord2001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 3-4, p. 4-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2001:22001Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2001:3-42001Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2002:12002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2002:22002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2002:3-42002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Agevall, Ola
    Växjö universitet.
    Sociologisk Forskning 2003:12003Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Agevall, Ola
    Högskolan i Växjö.
    Weber, kausaliteten och oändligheten1994In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 57-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weber, causality and infinity

    While it is widely acknowledged that Max Weber was a neo-kantian of some sort, comparatively little has been done to trace down how this affects other parts of his work. This article argues that Weber’s theory of causality can be viewed as an answer to problems evolving from his neo-kantian framework. The aim of the article becomes twofold. First, to give an exposition of Weber’s theory of causality, and second to use this piece of theory as an example of how parts of Weber’s methodology are designed to solve problems posed by the neo-kantian framework. The neo-kantian framework referred to can be summarized in the theses that (I) reality offers an infinite plenitude, and (II) that there is nothing in reality itself that can present us with its interpretation. Taken together, these theses result in the necessity for the subject to make a selection from the infinite reality. These theses are applied to the problem of selecting causes from the infinite causal chain. In order to solve this problem, Weber takes recourse to the adequate cause theory, a variant of jurisprudential theory founded by Johannes von Kries. The last part of the article gives an exposition of some of the basic characteristics and consequences of adequate cause theory.

  • 82.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Smartphone-based Parkinson’s disease symptom assessment2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four research papers presenting a microdata analysis approach to assess and evaluate the Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms using smartphone-based systems. PD is a progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by motor symptoms. It is a complex disease that requires continuous monitoring and multidimensional symptom analysis. Both patients’ perception regarding common symptom and their motor function need to be related to the repeated and time-stamped assessment; with this, the full extent of patient’s condition could be revealed. The smartphone enables and facilitates the remote, long-term and repeated assessment of PD symptoms. Two types of collected data from smartphone were used, one during a three year, and another during one-day clinical study. The data were collected from series of tests consisting of tapping and spiral motor tests. During the second time scale data collection, along smartphone-based measurements patients were video recorded while performing standardized motor tasks according to Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scales (UPDRS).

    At first, the objective of this thesis was to elaborate the state of the art, sensor systems, and measures that were used to detect, assess and quantify the four cardinal and dyskinetic motor symptoms. This was done through a review study. The review showed that smartphones as the new generation of sensing devices are preferred since they are considered as part of patients’ daily accessories, they are available and they include high-resolution activity data. Smartphones can capture important measures such as forces, acceleration and radial displacements that are useful for assessing PD motor symptoms.

    Through the obtained insights from the review study, the second objective of this thesis was to investigate whether a combination of tapping and spiral drawing tests could be useful to quantify dexterity in PD. More specifically, the aim was to develop data-driven methods to quantify and characterize dexterity in PD. The results from this study showed that tapping and spiral drawing tests that were collected by smartphone can detect movements reasonably well related to under- and over-medication.

    The thesis continued by developing an Approximate Entropy (ApEn)-based method, which aimed to measure the amount of temporal irregularity during spiral drawing tests. One of the disabilities associated with PD is the impaired ability to accurately time movements. The increase in timing variability among patients when compared to healthy subjects, suggests that the Basal Ganglia (BG) has a role in interval timing. ApEn method was used to measure temporal irregularity score (TIS) which could significantly differentiate the healthy subjects and patients at different stages of the disease. This method was compared to two other methods which were used to measure the overall drawing impairment and shakiness. TIS had better reliability and responsiveness compared to the other methods. However, in contrast to other methods, the mean scores of the ApEn-based method improved significantly during a 3-year clinical study, indicating a possible impact of pathological BG oscillations in temporal control during spiral drawing tasks. In addition, due to the data collection scheme, the study was limited to have no gold standard for validating the TIS. However, the study continued to further investigate the findings using another screen resolution, new dataset, new patient groups, and for shorter term measurements. The new dataset included the clinical assessments of patients while they performed tests according to UPDRS. The results of this study confirmed the findings in the previous study. Further investigation when assessing the correlation of TIS to clinical ratings showed the amount of temporal irregularity present in the spiral drawing cannot be detected during clinical assessment since TIS is an upper limb high frequency-based measure. 

  • 83.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Nyholm, Dag
    Senek, Marina
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Motion sensor-based assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility tests: results from levodopa challenge2019In: IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, E-ISSN 2168-2208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative, progressive disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects motor control. The aim of this study was to develop data-driven methods and test their clinimetric properties to detect and quantify PD motor states using motion sensor data from leg agility tests. Nineteen PD patients were recruited in a levodopa single dose challenge study. PD patients performed leg agility tasks while wearing motion sensors on their lower extremities. Clinical evaluation of video recordings was performed by three movement disorder specialists who used four items from the motor section of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), the treatment response scale (TRS) and a dyskinesia score. Using the sensor data, spatiotemporal features were calculated and relevant features were selected by feature selection. Machine learning methods like support vector machines (SVM), decision trees and linear regression, using 10-fold cross validation were trained to predict motor states of the patients. SVM showed the best convergence validity with correlation coefficients of 0.81 to TRS, 0.83 to UPDRS #31 (body bradykinesia and hypokinesia), 0.78 to SUMUPDRS (the sum of the UPDRS items: #26-leg agility, #27-arising from chair and #29-gait), and 0.67 to dyskinesia. Additionally, the SVM-based scores had similar test-retest reliability in relation to clinical ratings. The SVM-based scores were less responsive to treatment effects than the clinical scores, particularly with regards to dyskinesia. In conclusion, the results from this study indicate that using motion sensors during leg agility tests may lead to valid and reliable objective measures of PD motor symptoms.

  • 84.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Gothenburg University.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University.
    Senek, Marina
    Uppsala University.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University.
    Objective assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility test using motion sensors2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Objective assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms during leg agility test using motion sensors

    Objective: To develop and evaluate machine learning methods for assessment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms using leg agility (LA) data collected with motion sensors during a single dose experiment.

    Background: Nineteen advanced PD patients (Gender: 14 males and 5 females, mean age: 71.4, mean years with PD: 9.7, mean years with levodopa: 9.5) were recruited in a single center, open label, single dose clinical trial in Sweden [1].

    Methods: The patients performed up to 15 LA tasks while wearing motions sensors on their foot ankle. They performed tests at pre-defined time points starting from baseline, at the time they received a morning dose (150% of their levodopa equivalent morning dose), and at follow-up time points until the medication wore off. The patients were video recorded while performing the motor tasks. and three movement disorder experts rated the observed motor symptoms using 4 items from the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor section including UPDRS #26 (leg agility), UPDRS #27 (Arising from chair), UPDRS #29 (Gait), UPDRS #31 (Body Bradykinesia and Hypokinesia), and dyskinesia scale. In addition, they rated the overall mobility of the patients using Treatment Response Scale (TRS), ranging from -3 (very off) to 3 (very dyskinetic). Sensors data were processed and their quantitative measures were used to develop machine learning methods, which mapped them to the mean ratings of the three raters. The quality of measurements of the machine learning methods was assessed by convergence validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to treatment.

    Results: Results from the 10-fold cross validation showed good convergent validity of the machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) with correlation coefficients of 0.81 for TRS, 0.78 for UPDRS #26, 0.69 for UPDRS #27, 0.78 for UPDRS #29, 0.83 for UPDRS #31, and 0.67 for dyskinesia scale (P<0.001). There were good correlations between scores produced by the methods during the first (baseline) and second tests with coefficients ranging from 0.58 to 0.96, indicating good test-retest reliability. The machine learning methods had lower sensitivity than mean clinical ratings (Figure. 1).

    Conclusions: The presented methodology was able to assess motor symptoms in PD well, comparable to movement disorder experts. The leg agility test did not reflect treatment related changes.

  • 85.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Nyholm, Dag
    Senek, Marina
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Treatment response index from a multi-modal sensor fusion platform for assessment of motor states in Parkinson's disease2019Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to develop and evaluate a multi-sensor data fusion platform for quantifying Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor states. More specifically, the aim is to evaluate the clinimetric properties (validity, reliability, and responsiveness to treatment) of the method, using data from motion sensors during lower- and upper-limb tests.

    Methods: Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls were recruited in a single center study. Subjects performed standardized motor tasks of Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), including leg agility, hand rotation, and walking after wearing motion sensors on ankles and wrists. PD patients received a single levodopa dose before and at follow-up time points after the dose administration. Patients were video recorded and their motor symptoms were rated by three movement disorder experts. Experts rated each and every test occasions based on the six items of UPDRS-III (motor section), the treatment response scale (TRS) and the dyskinesia score. Spatiotemporal features were extracted from the sensor data. Features from lower limbs and upper limbs were fused. Feature selection methods of stepwise regression (SR), Lasso regression and principle component analysis (PCA) were used to select the most important features. Different machine learning methods of linear regression (LR), decision trees, and support vector machines were examined and their clinimetric properties were assessed.

    Results: Treatment response index from multimodal motion sensors (TRIMMS) scores obtained from the most valid method of LR when using data from all tests. Features were selected by SR, and this method resulted in r=0.95 to TRS. The test-retest reliability of TRIMMS was good with intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.82. Responsiveness of the TRIMMS to levodopa treatment was similar to the responsiveness of TRS.

    Conclusions: The results from this study indicate that fusing motion sensors data gathered during standardized motor tasks leads to valid, reliable and sensitive objective measurements of PD motor symptoms. These measurements could be further utilized in studies for individualized optimization of treatments in PD.

  • 86.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Filip, Bergquist
    Gothenburg University.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Uppsala University.
    Senek, Marina
    Uppsala University.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University.
    Feasibility of a multi-sensor data fusion method for assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Feasibility of a multi-sensor data fusion method for assessment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of measuring Parkinson’s disease (PD) motor symptoms with a multi-sensor data fusion method. More specifically, the aim is to assess validity, reliability and sensitivity to treatment of the methods.

    Background: Data from 19 advanced PD patients (Gender: 14 males and 5 females, mean age: 71.4, mean years with PD: 9.7, mean years with levodopa: 9.5) were collected in a single center, open label, single dose clinical trial in Sweden [1].

    Methods: The patients performed leg agility and 2-5 meter straight walking tests while wearing motion sensors on their limbs. They performed the tests at baseline, at the time they received the morning dose, and at pre-specified time points until the medication wore off. While performing the tests the patients were video recorded. The videos were observed by three movement disorder specialists who rated the symptoms using a treatment response scale (TRS), ranging from -3 (very off) to 3 (very dyskinetic). The sensor data consisted of lower limb data during leg agility, upper limb data during walking, and lower limb data during walking. Time series analysis was performed on the raw sensor data extracted from 17 patients to derive a set of quantitative measures, which were then used during machine learning to be mapped to mean ratings of the three raters on the TRS scale. Combinations of data were tested during the machine learning procedure.

    Results: Using data from both tests, the Support Vector Machines (SVM) could predict the motor states of the patients on the TRS scale with a good agreement in relation to the mean ratings of the three raters (correlation coefficient = 0.92, root mean square error = 0.42, p<0.001). Additionally, there was good test-retest reliability of the SVM scores during baseline and second tests with intraclass-correlation coefficient of 0.84. Sensitivity to treatment for SVM was good (Figure 1), indicating its ability to detect changes in motor symptoms. The upper limb data during walking was more informative than lower limb data during walking since SVMs had higher correlation coefficient to mean ratings.  

    Conclusions: The methodology demonstrates good validity, reliability, and sensitivity to treatment. This indicates that it could be useful for individualized optimization of treatments among PD patients, leading to an improvement in health-related quality of life.

  • 87.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Feasibility of using smartphones for quantification of Parkinson’s disease motor states during hand rotation tests2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Verification of a method for measuring Parkinson’s disease related temporal irregularity in spiral drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, article id 2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDR