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  • 51.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tiivel, Toomas
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Validation of physiological tests in relation to competitive performances in elite male distance cross-country skiing2012In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 1496-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish which physiological test parameters reflects the distance performances in the Swedish National Championships in cross-country skiing (SNC) and the International Ski Federation's ranking points for distance performances (FISdist). The present study also aimed to create multiple regression models to describe skiing performance for the SNC distance races and International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking. Twelve male, Swedish, national elite, cross-country skiers (maximal oxygen consumption [(V) over dotO(2)max] = 5.34 +/- 0.34 L.min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. Their results in the 2008 SNC (15 km race [SNC15] and 30 km race [SNC30]) and FISdist points were used as performance data. On the week preceding the Championship, subjects completed a test battery consisting of 7 physiological tests: isokinetic knee extension peak torque (PT), vertical jumps (VJ), lactate threshold (LT), (V) over dotO(2)max, and 3 double poling tests of different durations (DP20, DP60, and DP360). Correlations were established using Pearson's correlation analysis, and models to describe skiing performance were created using standard multiple linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between the performance parameters and test parameters derived from LT, (V) over dotO(2)max, and DP60 tests. No correlations with any performance parameter were found for PT, VJ, DP20, and DP360 tests. For FISdist and SNC15, the models explain 81% and 78% of the variance in performance, respectively. No statistically valid regression model was found for SNC30. The results of this study imply that the physiological demands in male elite distance cross-country skiing performances are different in different events. To adequately evaluate a skier's performance ability in distance cross-country skiing, it is necessary to use test parameters and regression models that reflect the specific performance.

  • 52.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Winternet, Boden, Sweden .
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub‑techniques predicts sprint performance in elite male cross‑country skiers2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 12, p. 2587-2595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between sprint-prologue performance (using the classical technique) and the oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold ( V˙O2obla), maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O 2max), and mean oxygen uptake during double poling ( V˙O 2dp).

    Methods. Eight elite male cross-country skiers [age 24.8 ± 4.8 years, (mean ± SD)] completed two treadmill roller-skiing tests using the diagonal-stride technique and a 60 s double-poling test on a ski-ergometer to determine their V˙O2obla, V˙O 2max, and V˙O 2dp. Performance data were generated from a 1.25 km sprint prologue. Power-function modelling was used to predict the skiers’ race speeds based on the oxygen-uptake variables and body mass.

    Results. There were correlations between the race speed and the absolute expression of the V˙O2obla (r = 0.79, P = 0.021), V˙O 2max (r = 0.86, P = 0.0069), and V˙O 2dp (r = 0.94, P = 0.00062). The following power-function models were established for race-speed prediction: 1.09 · V˙O 2obla0.21, 1.05 · V˙O 2max0.21, and 1.19 · V˙O 2dp0.20; these models explained 60 % (P = 0.024), 73 % (P = 0.0073), and 87 % (P = 0.00073), respectively, of the variance in the race speed. However, body mass did not contribute to any of the models (P = 0.97, 0.88, and 0.21, respectively).

    Conclusions. Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub-techniques is an indicator of elite male sprint-prologue performance. The absolute expression of the investigated oxygen-uptake variables should be used when evaluating elite male sprint-prologue performances; if skiers oxygen uptake differs by 1 %, their performances will likely differ by 0.2 % in favour of the skier with higher oxygen uptake.

  • 53.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Olsson, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Peak hand-grip force predicts competitive performance in elite female cross-country skiers2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet; Dala Sports Academy.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet; Dala Sports Academy.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Dala Sports Academy.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing2016In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 2138-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and VO2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and VO2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the VO2max expressed absolutely (P = 0.0040), Vmax (P = 0.012), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (P = 0.048), VO2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (P = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.046), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (mL·min·kg) (P = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by VO2max and VO2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  • 55.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The acute effects of a short technique-intense training period on side-foot kick performance among elite female soccer players2019In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 59, no 9, p. 1442-1449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previously, it was shown that elite soccer teams were 24% more likely to win matches if their passing effectiveness were increased by 1%. However, research interventions aiming to improve passing performance are scarce. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of a short technique-intense training period on side-foot kick performance among elite female soccer players.

    METHODS: Four side-foot kick tests were completed before and after a training period: kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS), passing the ball on the move using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS), and repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB). The players were assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions with five side-foot kick exercises. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired-samples t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively.

    RESULTS: The intervention group improved the performance in the RBRS and RRB tests (both P < 0.05), but no differences were found for the SBRS and SBMS tests (both P > 0.05). No improvements were found for the control group independent of test condition (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for the RBRS and RRB tests (both P < 0.05), whereas no differences were found for the SBRS and SBMS tests (both P > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball was improved in elite female soccer players by a short technique-intense training period.

  • 56.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The effect of training on side foot-kick performance among swedish first league women´s soccer players2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE EFFECT OF TRAINING ON SIDE FOOT-KICK PERFORMANCE AMONG SWEDISH FIRST LEAGUE WOMEN’S SOCCER PLAYERS

    Carlsson, M.1, Isberg, J.1, Nilsson, J.1, Carlsson, T.1 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden)

    Introduction

    A high completion rate for passes is important for success in soccer, because longer passing sequences are related to more scored goals (Hughes & Franks, 2005). In a recent study, it was found that female players had a lower pass-completion rate than male players at the highest competitive standard of European soccer, which suggests that elite female players in general do not have the same technical characteristics as elite male players (Paul S. Bradley et al., 2014). The purpose of the study was investigate the effect of a 2-week training intervention on side foot-kick performance among Swedish first league women’s soccer players.

     Methods

    To investigate the effect of training on side foot-kick performance, a pre-post-intervention study was implemented where four side foot-kick tests were performed before and after a 2-week training period. The side foot-kick accuracy were investigated when kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant ball speed (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS) as well as subsequent to a 5-m run with the ball from different approach angles (0°, 30°, and 60°) to a predetermined position, where passing of the ball on the move was executed using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS). The fourth test comprised repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB).

    Based on the results from the pre-tests, the players were assigned to either the intervention group (INT) or the control group (CON). The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions. In each session, two rounds of five exercises focusing on improvement of side foot-kick accuracy were executed. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired samples Student’s t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively.

    Results

    Prior to the training intervention, there were no significant differences between the groups for any of the investigated test variables. The INT group improved RBRS (P = 0.036) and RRB (P = 0.010) during the training intervention, whereas no significant within-group changes were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05). No within-group differences were found for any of the test variables in the CON group (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for RBRS (P = 0.040) and RRB (P = 0.005), whereas no differences were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball could be improved in elite women players by a 2-week training period focusing on improving   side foot-kick performance.

    References

    Bradley PS, Carling C, Diaz AG, Hood P, Barnes C, Ade J, Boddy M, Krustrup P, Mohr M (2013) Hum Mov Sci, 32, 808-821.

    Hughes M, Franks I (2005) J Sports Sci, 23, 509-514.

  • 57.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hellström, John
    Svenska Golfförbundet.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 2, p. 186-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4 °C, 18 °C, 32 °C, and 46 °C) for 24 h prior to the test and each temperature group consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine the club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the groups were investigated using a one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated that ball-speed and carry-distance differences occurred within the four groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The post hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures of 18 °C and 32 °C had greater ball speeds and carry distances than balls at 4 °C and 46 °C (all p < 0.05). The intervals for the between-group differences were 0.6–0.7 m s−1 and 2.9–3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively. Hence, the results showed that ball temperature influences both the ball speed and the carry distance. Based on the findings in this study, standardization of ball temperature should be factored into governing body regulation tests for golf equipment.

  • 58.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Wahrenberg, Viktor
    Carlsson, Marie S
    Andersson, Rasmus
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Gross and delta efficiencies during uphill running and cycling among elite triathletes.2020In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 120, no 5, p. 961-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the gross efficiency (GE) and delta efficiency (DE) during cycling and running in elite triathletes.

    METHODS: Five male and five female elite triathletes completed two incremental treadmill tests with an inclination of 2.5° to determine their GE and DE during cycling and running. The speed increments between the 5-min stages were 2.4 and 0.6 km h-1 during the cycling and running tests, respectively. For each test, GE was calculated as the ratio between the mechanical work rate (MWR) and the metabolic rate (MR) at an intensity corresponding to a net increase in blood-lactate concentration of 1 mmol l-1. DE was calculated by dividing the delta increase in MWR by the delta increase in MR for each test. Pearson correlations and paired-sample t tests were used to investigate the relationships and differences, respectively.

    RESULTS: There was a correlation between GEcycle and GErun (r = 0.66; P = 0.038; R2 = 0.44), but the correlation between DEcycle and DErun was not statistically significant (r = - 0.045; P = 0.90; R2 = 0.0020). There were differences between GEcycle and GErun (t = 80.8; P < 0.001) as well as between DEcycle and DErun (t = 27.8; P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Elite triathletes with high GE during running also have high GE during cycling, when exercising at a treadmill inclination of 2.5°. For a moderate uphill incline, elite triathletes are more energy efficient during cycling than during running, independent of work rate.

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  • 59.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Betydelse av syreupptag och kroppsmassa för prestation i längdskidåkning2016In: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 25-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet.
    The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Performance in cross-country skiing is influenced by the skier’s ability to continuously produce propelling forces and force magnitude in relation to the net external forces. A surrogate indicator of the “power supply” in cross-country skiing would be a physiological variable that reflects an important performance-related capability, whereas the body mass itself is an indicator of the “power demand” experienced by the skier. To adequately evaluate an elite skier’s performance capability, it is essential to establish the optimal ratio between the physiological variable and body mass. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the importance of body-mass exponent optimization for the evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing.

    Methods In total, 83 elite cross-country skiers (56 men and 27 women) volunteered to participate in the four studies. The physiological variables of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to a blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙l-1 (V̇O2obla) were determined while treadmill roller skiing using the diagonal-stride technique; mean oxygen uptake (V̇O2dp) and upper-body power output () were determined during double-poling tests using a ski-ergometer. Competitive performance data for elite male skiers were collected from two 15-km classical-technique skiing competitions and a 1.25-km sprint prologue; additionally, a 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique was used as an indicator of upper-body performance capability among elite male and female junior skiers. Power-function modelling was used to explain the race and time-trial speeds based on the physiological variables and body mass.

    Results The optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratios to explain 15-km race speed were V̇O2max divided by body mass raised to the 0.48 and 0.53 power, and these models explained 68% and 69% of the variance in mean skiing speed, respectively; moreover, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the body-mass exponents did not include either 0 or 1. For the modelling of race speed in the sprint prologue, body mass failed to contribute to the models based on V̇O2max, V̇O2obla, and V̇O2dp. The upper-body power output-to-body mass ratio that optimally explained time-trial speed was m-0.57 and the model explained 63% of the variance in speed.

    Conclusions The results in this thesis suggest that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass should be used as an indicator of performance in 15-km classical-technique races among elite male skiers rather than the absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression. To optimally explain an elite male skier’s performance capability in sprint prologues, power-function models based on oxygen-uptake variables expressed absolutely are recommended. Moreover, to evaluate elite junior skiers’ performance capabilities in 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trials, it is recommended that divided by the square root of body mass should be used rather than absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression of power output.

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  • 61.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Felleki, Majbritt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Heil, Daniel
    Montana State University.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Scaling maximal oxygen uptake to predict performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers2013In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 31, no 16, p. 1753-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) establish the optimal body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) to indicate performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers; and 2) evaluate the influence of course inclination on the body-mass exponent. Twelve elite-standard men skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine O2max and performance data came from the 2008 Swedish National Championship 15-km classic-technique race. Log-transformation of power-function models was used to predict skiing speeds. The optimal models were found to be: Race speed = 7.86 · O2max · m −0.48 and Section speed = 5.96 · O2max · m −(0.38 + 0.03 · α) · e−0.003 · Δ (where m is body mass, α is the section's inclination and Δ is the altitude difference of the previous section), that explained 68% and 84% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. A body-mass exponent of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.77) best described O2max as an indicator of performance in elite-standard men skiers. The confidence interval did not support the use of either “1” (simple ratio-standard scaled) or “0” (absolute expression) as body-mass exponents for expressing O2max as an indicator of performance. Moreover, results suggest that course inclination increases the body-mass exponent for O2max.

  • 62.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Scaling of upper-body power output to predict time-trial roller skiing performance2013In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 582-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the most appropriate allometric model to predict mean skiing speed during a double-poling roller skiing time-trial using scaling of upper-body power output. Forty-five Swedish junior cross-country skiers (27 men and 18 women) of national and international standard were examined. The skiers, who had a body mass (m) of 69.3 ± 8.0 kg (mean ± s), completed a 120-s double-poling test on a ski ergometer to determine their mean upper-body power output (W). Performance data were subsequently obtained from a 2-km time-trial, using the double-poling technique, to establish mean roller skiing speed. A proportional allometric model was used to predict skiing speed. The optimal model was found to be: Skiing speed = 1.057 · W 0.556 · m −0.315, which explained 58.8% of the variance in mean skiing speed (P < 0.001). The 95% confidence intervals for the scaling factors ranged from 0.391 to 0.721 for W and from −0.626 to −0.004 for m. The results in this study suggest that allometric scaling of upper-body power output is preferable for the prediction of performance of junior cross-country skiers rather than absolute expression or simple ratio-standard scaling of upper-body power output.

  • 63.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Umeå universitet.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Lillehammer University College.
    Rønnestad, Bent R
    Lillehammer University College.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Optimal V. O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers2015In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 6, p. 353-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (V. O2max) as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for V. O2max among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their V. O2max. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classicaltechnique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for V . O2max to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be race speed = 8.83⋅(V . O2max m-0.53) 0.66 and lap speed = 5.89⋅(V . O2max m-(0.49+0.018lap)) 0.43e0.010age, which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that V. O2max divided by the square root of body mass (mL⋅min−1 ⋅kg−0.5) should be used when elite male skiers’ performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for V . O2max was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

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  • 64.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Scaling oxygen consumption to body mass in real elite cross-country skiing performances2009In: Book of Abstracts: Sport sciences: Nature, Nurture and Culture / [ed] Loland, S., et al., 2009, p. 351-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Which are the main physiological differences between a successful and less successful cross-country skier? To our knowledgeno previous studies have examined a real elite cross-country ski competition. Main purpose of this study was therefore to validatecommonly used test parameters to skiing time and to International Ski Federation (FIS) overall seasonal ranking points and to createmultiple regression models to predict skiing performances.Methods: Twelve highly motivated male Swedish national elite cross-country skiers completed a test battery consisting of: isokinetic kneeextensor peak torque tests at three different velocities; three different vertical jumps tests; two-part treadmill roller skiing test determininglactate markers, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion; 60 and 360 s double poling tests determining meanupper-body power (DP60Pmean) (DP360Pmean) and mean oxygen consumption (DP60VO2mean) (DP360VO2mean).Performance data were collected from the Swedish National Championship (SNC) in cross-country skiing (13-17 March 2008): 15-km withindividual start in classical technique (SNC15); 30-km double pursuit with mass-start (SNC30); sprint prolog in free-style technique(SNCsprint). In addition to ski races, overall seasonal ski ranking points were collected from FIS 3rd Cross-Country Points List 2007/2008published before SNC for distance (FISdist) and sprint (FISsprint) races.Correlations between test parameters and performance data were established using Pearson´s correlation analysis. Prediction modelswere created using standard multiple linear regression analysis.Results: Time to exhaustion during the incremental treadmill roller ski test is best correlated with both SNC15 (r = -0.86, p < 0.001) andSNC30 (r = -0.81, p < 0.01). For SNC15 significant correlations were shown with VO2max both absolute and relative to body weight, lactatemarkers, DP60Pmean and DP60VO2mean. Corresponding correlations for SNC30 were: lactate markers, DP60VO2mean and percentagedecrease in mean knee extension peak torque when comparing highest and lowest velocities. Highest correlation coefficient forSNCsprint was found for DP60Pmean (r = -0.93, p < 0.05). Significant correlations for SNCsprint was also detected for DP360Pmean aswell as DP360VO2mean and jump height in squat jump.Prediction models explain 68, 91, 68, 77 and 82% of the variance in performance for SNC15, SNC30, SNCsprint, FISdist and FISsprint,respectively.Discussion: Correlations found in this study have validated several commonly used physiological tests with real elite cross-country skiingperformances. Frequently investigated test parameters like VO2max and anaerobic thresholds are of great importance for success incross-country skiing. Many recent research studies have focused on upper-body capacity and we could confirm that high mean powerproduction in double poling is necessary to be successful as elite skier in both sprint and distance races.

  • 65.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Rønnestad, Bent
    Lillehammer University College.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The importance of scaling VO2MAX to predict cross-country skiing performance2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A high maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is of importance for success in elite male competitive distance cross-country skiing (Carlsson et al. 2012). However, it is still debatable how VO2max should be expressed to best indicate skiing performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the optimal body mass exponent for VO2max to indicate performance in elite-standard male cross-country skiers. Methods Twenty-four elite-standard male cross-country skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller skiing test in diagonal stride technique determining VO2max. Performance data was compiled from a 15-km classic technique race. To predict performance a log-transformation of power-function model: Race speed = β0 • VO2max^β1 • m^β2 was used, where β0 to β2 are constants, and m is body mass. Statistical analyses used R version 2.13.2 (R Development Core Team, New Zeeland) and alpha was 0.05. Results Participants’ VO2max was 5.39 ± 0.57 l/min (mean ± s) and m was 75.5 ± 6.3 kg. Mean race speed was 5.83 ± 0.41 m/s. The model that best predicted performance was: Race speed = 8.829 • VO2max^0.663 • m^-0.355 = 8.829 • (VO2max • m^–0.535 )^0.663, that explains 69.2% of the variance in race speed for the 15-km classic technique race (P < 0.001). For the VO2max-to-mass ratio within the model, the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the body-mass exponent ranged from -0.947 to -0.122. Discussion The optimal body mass exponent for VO2max to indicate performance in elite-standard male cross-country skiers was -0.535. Moreover, the CI for the body-mass exponent does not support the use of simple ratio-standard scaling and absolute expression of VO2max as indicators of 15 km classic ski racing performance in elite-standard men skiers. 

  • 66.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Hellström, John
    Svenska golfförbundet, Stockholm.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE EFFECT OF BALL TEMPERATURE ON BALL SPEED AND CARRY DISTANCE IN GOLF DRIVES

    Carlsson, T.1, Nilsson, J.1,2, Hellström, J.3, Tinmark, F.2, Carlsson, M.1. 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden), 2: The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Stockholm, Sweden), 3: The Swedish Golf Federation (Stockholm, Sweden). 

    Introduction

    Previously it was reported that golf-ball temperature has influence on the golf balls’ coefficient of restitution, impact duration, and maximal deformation (Allen et al., 2012). They concluded that their research was the first step in a process for determining the effect of temperature on a golf drive. However, how large influence the golf-ball temperature has on golf drives remains to be investigated. The purpose was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. 

    Methods

    The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4°C, 18°C, 32°C, and 46°C) for twenty-four hours prior to the test, and each of the four different ball-temperature groups consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the four ball-temperature groups were investigate using a one-way analysis of variance. 

    Results

    The results indicate that there are ball-speed and carry-distance differences within the four ball-temperature groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The post-hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C had both greater ball speeds and carry distances compared to the balls in the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C (all P < 0.05); the intervals for the between-group differences were 2.0 to 2.4 km/h and 2.9 to 3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The novel results of the current study show that the ball’s temperature has a significant effect on the ball speed after club-head impact and carry distance for drives performed by an elite golfer. The ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C gave significantly increased ball speeds and carry distances compared to the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C. This knowledge could be used to maximise the carry distance and/or to minimise the carry-distance variability related to ball temperature.

    REFERENCES:

    Allen T, Bowley A, Wood P, Henrikson E, Morales E, James D. (2012) Procedia Eng, 34, 634-639.

  • 67.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers2016In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.002maxand 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher V̇O2max or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables to monitor skiers’ performance-related training adaptations linked to changes in aerobic power and anaerobic capacity.

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  • 68.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling capacity of elite junior cross-country skiers2017In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, no 8, p. 1523-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To compare the effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling gross efficiency (GE), maximal speed (Vmax), peak oxygen uptake (V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak) for elite male and female junior cross-country skiers.

    Methods

    Thirty-three elite junior cross-country skiers completed a 6-week training-intervention period with two additional 40-min training sessions per week. The participants were matched in pairs and within each pair randomly assigned to either a strength-training group (STR) or a ski-ergometer-training group (ERG). Before and after the intervention, the participants completed three treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, Vmax, and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak. Mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate differences between and within groups. Paired samples t tests were used as post hoc tests to investigate within-group differences.

    Results

    Both groups improved their Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.01). For the gender-specific sub-groups, it was found that the female skiers in both groups improved both Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.05), whereas the only within-group differences found for the men were improvements of Vmax in the STR group. No between-group differences were found for any of the investigated variables.

    Conclusions

    Physiological and performance-related variables of importance for skiers were improved for both training regimes. The results demonstrate that the female skiers’ physiological adaptations to training, in general, were greater than those of the men. The magnitude of the physiological adaptations was similar for both training regimes.

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  • 69.
    Clazon, Carl
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Näslund, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Handdominans inom ishockey och dess relation till poängproduktionen inom Elitserien2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 70.
    Dahlberg, Tom
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Kroppsideal via Instagram2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The advanced technology of today’s society has brought on a heavy uprising of social media where images of training and bodies are a common phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine how body ideals are created on the internet, with focus on social media. Two questions were used to help with this objective: How do male fitness profiles portrait themselves and their bodies on the net based service Instagram? Do connections exist between these profiles portraits of the body and specific body ideologies? (Rosenmann & Kaplan, 2014).

    Method

    The study was carried out with a nethnographic method, a method specifically focused on qualitative research regarding the internet. Three male fitness profiles and five of their images each were selected based on popularity on Instagram to be examined and analyzed in relation to body ideal.

    Results

    The images had similar attributes which included that they, often in a gym environment, showed undressed, extremely muscular bodies with emphasized focus on the upper body. Differences were present in the images but not to any significant extent. The profiles were defined by the body ideology of metrosexuality and consumer masculinity (Rosenmann & Kaplan, 2014).

    Conclusion

    The representation of the images of these fitness profiles translate well into the current muscular body ideal that contains a lean, muscular, well defined body. Clear connections could be made to Rosenmann’s och Kaplan’s (2014) body ideology of metrosexuality and consumer masculinity.

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  • 71.
    Dannberg, Isabella
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Ivarsson, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Alkoholutbildning på svenska riksskidgymnasium: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur skidgymnasietränare arbetar med att utbilda sina adepter i alkoholfrågor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to examine whether and if so how special sports teachers / trainers on the cross-country high schools are working to educate trainees about alcohol. The study results to promote the Swedish cross-country operations and, if possible, spreading good educational example to other sports college. Method A qualitative study has been carried out through a half-structured telephone interview. The sample covered a total survey of all 16 national ski school coaches in Sweden in the sport cross-country skiing. Participants were contacted through an information letter and then determined time for the interview. The results were then analyzed using a content analysis. Results The results showed that all RIG-ski school in Sweden conducting some form of education through theory lessons in a more or less degree. Two of the ski high schools had a specific lecture on the effects of alcohol on performance. Besides this, the result could indicate that the ski school coaches educate their students to a much greater extent through the open dialogue between coach and trainee than through theory lessons. This by having individual assessment interview, which the coach informs in a deeper way what alcohol intake has consequences on athletic performance, thus coaches are trying to create an environment where students themselves take the decision to refrain alcohol. Conclusions The results showed that all RIG-ski school in Sweden is working to educate their adepts in alcohol matters through theory lessons, but mostly in the open dialogue between student and coach. Theory lessons are something that exists in the curriculum for special sports and effects of alcohol on performance. In the open dialogue coaches educates students in a deeper way about alcohol, for example, through individual assessment interview.

  • 72.
    Dent, Jessica R.
    et al.
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand.;Auckland Univ Technol, Sch Sport & Recreat, SPRINZ, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Edge, Johann A.
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Dept Sport & Exercise Sci, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Hawke, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    McMahon, Christopher
    AgResearch Ltd, Ruakura Res Ctr, Hamilton, New Zealand..
    Muendel, Toby
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Sex differences in acute translational repressor 4E-BP1 activity and sprint performance in response to repeated-sprint exercise in team sport athletes2015In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 730-736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The physiological requirements underlying soccer-specific exercise are incomplete and sex-based comparisons are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a repeated-sprint protocol on the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and sprint performance in male and female soccer players.

    Design: Cross-over design involving eight female and seven male university soccer players.

    Methods: Participants performed four bouts of 6x 30-m maximal sprints spread equally over 40 min. Heart rate, sprint time and sprint decrement were measured for each sprint and during the course of each bout. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken at rest, at 15 min and 2 h post-exercise. R

    esults: While males maintained a faster mean sprint time for each bout (P < 0.05) females exhibited a greater decrement in sprint performance for each bout (P < 0.05), indicating a superior maintenance of sprint performance in males, with no sex differences for heart rate or lactate. Muscle analyses revealed sex differences in resting total (P< 0.05) and phosphorylated (P< 0.05) 4E-BP1 Thr37/46, and 15 min post-exercise the 4E-BP1 Thr37/46 ratio decreased below resting levels in males only (P < 0.05), indicative of a decreased translation initiation following repeated sprints.

    Conclusions: We show that females have a larger sprint decrement indicating that males have a superior ability to recover sprint performance. Sex differences in resting 4E-BP1 Thr37/46 suggest diversity in the training-induced phenotype of the muscle of males and females competing in equivalent levels of team-sport competition.

  • 73.
    Engström, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Vem når eliten?: Talanglag och relativ ålderseffekt inom svenskelitdamfotboll2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AimThe aim of this study was to investigate how many of the elite women's soccer players inSweden who have belonged to a Swedish talent-team when they were younger and also see ifthere is a presence of relative age effect (RAE).MethodA post-survey was sent together with a letter with information of the study and a replyenvelope to 26 teams in Elitettan and Damallsvenskan. A total of 538 players participated inthe study and 218 of them were included. The received responses were processed and codedbefore they got analysed in the analysis program SPSS.ResultsThe results showed that about 96 % of the players had belonged to a regional-team when theywere between 13-17 years and about 75 % of the players had belonged to the team at least 4years. About 50 % of the players who had belonged to a regional-team had also belonged to anational youth team. These in turn represent about half of the players from the respectivequarter. Among all players, 50 % had participated at both the elite-camp in Halmstad and anational- camp/gathering and 21 % had never participated at some of the camps. Both amongthe players who had belonged to a regional-team, national youth team and within all the eliteplayerstogether there was a presence of RAE, while most of the players were born at the firstquartile (January-March).ConclusionsThis study shows that nearly all players have belonged to a regional-team and also half ofthese players have belonged to a national youth team. Based on this we can see that earlyselection increases your opportunity to reach an elite level. This study also suggests that thereis a presence of RAE in the Swedish elite women's soccer. Early selection can be a problemfor coaches then it´s hard to distinguish between physical maturation and talent.

  • 74.
    Enlund, John
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Mattsson, Petter
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Fysiologiska skillnader mellan dominant och icke-dominant ben vid motviktad enbenscykling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    Counterweighted single-leg cycling is a new training method that can be used to increase intensity. Studies have shown differences between dominant and non-dominant leg during normal cycling. The purpose of this study was to analyse physiological assymetries during counterweighted single-leg cycling. Method: Eight volunteers (age 24,1 ± 4,2 years, height 177,0 ± 5,5 cm , weight 74,6 ± 9,0 kg, vo2max 69,0 ± 6,4 ml/kg/min) participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups (dominant or non-dominant). Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire was used to decide participants dominant leg. The dominant group used their dominant leg in the first interval at the second test, and the non-dominant group used their non-dominant leg in the first interval. At the first test a standarized incremental cycling test was performed until exhaustion. The second test , >48 hours later, consisted of four ten-minute intervals of counterweighted single-leg cycling, alternating legs.The second test was blinded. Results: Differences were observed, but no significant differences. Tendencies showed a higher power-output with the dominant leg (dominant leg 168 ±18,9 W, non-dominant leg 162 ±18,1W), but a higher cadence with the non-dominant leg (dominant leg 93 ± 12,7 rpm, non-dominant leg 95 ± 10,3 rpm). Conclusion: Differences exist between dominant and non-dominant leg in counterweighted single-legged cycling, but no significant differences. Our conclusion is that the learning effect affected the results in this study. To counteract this in future studies concerning counterweighted single-legged cycling the studies should include a learning period with the training method.

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  • 75.
    Eriksson, Vendela
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Att mäta häsa bland vårdpersonal - en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 76. Fernstrom, M.
    et al.
    Bakkman, L.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Shabalina, I.
    Rozhdestvenskaya, Z.
    Mattson, C
    Enqvist, J.
    Ekblom, B.
    Sahlin, K.
    Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24 hours ultra-endurance exercise2007In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 1844-1849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that ultraendurance exercise influences muscle mitochondrial function has been investigated. Athletes in ultraendurance performance performed running, kayaking, and cycling at 60% of their peak O2 consumption for 24 h. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise (Pre-Ex), postexercise (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P < 0.05) when related to mitochondrial protein and to electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex but was lower than Pre-Ex at Rec (P < 0.05 vs. Pre-Ex). Mitochondrial efficiency [amount of added ADP divided by oxygen consumed during state 3 (P/O ratio)] decreased Post-Ex by 9 and 6% (P < 0.05) with PC and PC + Pyr, respectively. P/O ratio remained reduced at Rec. Muscle uncoupling protein 3, measured with Western blotting, was not changed Post-Ex but tended to decrease at Rec (P = 0.07 vs. Pre-Ex). In conclusion, extreme endurance exercise decreases mitochondrial efficiency. This will increase oxygen demand and may partly explain the observed elevation in whole body oxygen consumption during standardized exercise (+13%). The increased mitochondrial capacity for PC oxidation indicates plasticity in substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, which may be of advantage during prolonged exercise.

  • 77. Fernstrom, M.
    et al.
    Shabalina, I.
    Bakkman, L.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Mattsson, M. C.
    Enqvist, J. K.
    Ekblom, B.
    Sahlin, K.
    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and ROS production in response to extreme endurance exercise in athletes2006In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, p. 413-414Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Flingmark, Victor
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Brofjärd, Jesper
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Uppfattningar om stretching vid långdistanslöpning: Ett perspektiv från såväl tränare som elitlöpare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    As of right now there is research that provides a foundation for evidence regarding stretching

    and its effects on performance as well as injury prevention. There is however few studies

    showing how running coaches and runners perceive stretching. The purpose of this study was

    therefore to describe how running coaches and elite runners perceive stretching and its

    potential effects on performance as well as injury prevention.

    Method

    The survey included four running coaches (men in the ages 30-60 years old) and four elite

    runners (two women and two men in their twenties) selected through a convenience survey.

    They participated in a semi-structured interview with primary questions and additional

    questions according to an organized interview protocol created by the project managers. Each

    interview was recorded, transcribed and analyzed with phenomenografic analyze method.

    Results

    The running coaches and the elite runners perceptions about stretching was positive regarding

    mobility as well as injury prevention. The participants had different perceptions regarding

    effects on performance, two runners and one coach suggested that stretching provides positive

    effects while the remaining participants perceived that stretching did not produce any effect.

    Conclusion

    The running coaches and the elite runners had an overall positive perception regarding

    stretching in relation to injury prevention which is completely opposite to the current

    evidence. The participants perceived mobility as something important for long-distance

    running which has not yet been proven in research studies. Positive effects on performance

    were perceived differently which also indicates a lack of knowledge regarding stretching and

    performance. There is a clear knowledge gap regarding stretching despite a high level of

    coaching education.

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  • 79.
    Fritz, Isak
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Motionärers användning av träningsrelaterade mål: En deskriptiv enkätundersökning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 80.
    Gabrielsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Jönsson, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Utveckling av träning inom svensk längdskidåkning 1970-1999. En sammanställning av träningsdagböcker från aktiva inom svenska herrlandslaget.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 81.
    Gillerås, Jesper
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Uppmärksamhetsfokus. En studie som undersöker om en fotbollstränare använder sig av extern eller intern uppmärksamhetsfokus till sina adepter via verbala instruktioner vid träning av tekniska färdigheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 82. Gullstrand, Lennart
    et al.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Eriksson, Martin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Measurements of vertical displacement in running, a methodological comparison2009In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was (1) to evaluate measurements of vertical displacements (V(disp)) of a single point on sacrum as an estimate of the whole body centre of mass (CoM) V(disp) during treadmill running and (2) to compare three methods for measuring this single point. These methods were based on a position transducer (PT), accelerometers (AMs) and an optoelectronic motion capture system. Criterion method was V(disp) of the whole body CoM measured with the motion capture system. Thirteen subjects ran at 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 22kmh(-1) with synchronous recordings with the three methods. Four measurements of the (V(disp)) were derived: (1) V(disp) of CoM calculated from a segment model consisting of 13 segments tracked with 36 reflective markers, (2) V(disp) of the sacrum recorded with the PT, (3) V(disp) of the sacrum calculated from the AM, and (4) V(disp) of the sacrum calculated as the mid point of two reflective markers (sacrum marker, SM) attached at the level of the sacral bone. The systematic discrepancy between the measurements of sacrum V(disp) and CoM V(disp) varied between 0 and 1.5mm and decreased with increasing running velocity and decreasing step duration. PT and SM measurements showed strong correlation, whereas the AM showed a variability increasing with velocity. The random discrepancy within each subject was 7mm for all three methods. In conclusion single-point recordings of the sacrum V(disp) may be used to monitor changes in V(disp) of CoM during treadmill running.

  • 83.
    Gustafsson, Gabriella
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies.
    Hur arbetar svensk innebandy med talangutveckling och därmed ungdomsutveckling?: En fallstudie om en svensk innebandyförenings flickverksamhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84.
    Gustafsson, Nathalie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Skadeförebyggande  arbete bland yrkesverksamma personliga tränare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85.
    Gustafzzon, Linn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Gröndahl, Antonia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Musikens påverkan fysiskt och psykiskt på elitidrottare under högintensiv träning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether music has an ergogenic effect physically and mentally on elite athletes during high intensity training. The study included nine participant, five women and four men. Test participants were all elite active in cycling or triathlon, the average age was 25.7 and the standard deviation of the age was 3.2. The test was performed on SRM cycling ergometer which measured maximum power, average power, mean cadence and maximum heart rate. The test consisted of four two minutes high intensity intervals with six minutes rest between each interval. Every second interval, the test participant had music in there ears and every other interval was performed in silence. The data was filed and analyzed in SRMX programs. The results did not showed any significant difference, but a tendency for music had an ergogenic effect during fatigue. Nine out of ten of the test participants had a positive experience from the intervals of music.

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  • 86.
    Gut, Mikael
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlberg, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Stillasittande hos högskoleanställda lärare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study was to map the sedentary behavior of college-faculty teachers during the working day. Furthermore, the study aimed at investigating factors that contributed to being sedentary. Method The study used a mixed method approach. Data collection was conducted through 4 individual interviews and a questionnaire with 49 teachers at Högskolan Dalarna. Results The average of the participants' sedentary time per working day was 6,62 (±1.97) hours. The number of interruptions from being sedentary was in average 1,6 (±0.89) per hour. There was no statistically significant difference in sedentary time (p= 0,22) or number of interruptions (p= 0,21) during the working day between men and women. Relationship value (r= -0,34) indicated that there was a weak relationship that showed that participants who were more sedentary also made fewer interruptions in their sitting time. The main reason for being sedentary was that sitting improved the ability to concentrate on tasks requiring a lot of focus. Other prominent factors that affected the intake of sedentary behavior were time pressure and high workload. The individual himself was said to be the biggest obstacle to reducing his own sedentary behavior, where the habitual behavior of sitting when doing certain tasks in the workplace had a major impact. Participants' knowledge of sedentary behavior and consequences was inadequate, and it was not a discussion topic that was discussed in greater detail at the workplace. Conclusions Higher education teachers are a risk group for negative health effects caused by sedentary behavior. Engagement and increased knowledge at individual, interpersonal and organizational levels are required to achieve changes in sedentary behavior.

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  • 87.
    Hall, Didrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Holmgren, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hur personliga tränare skapar förutsättningar för att hjälpa sina adepter att uppnå mental tuffhet: En kvalitativ studie på yrkesgruppen personliga tränare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity is a factor to achieve good health. Although to achieve good health it is considered favorable to achieve harmony between mind and body. Mental skills training can improve performance in physical training as well as the daily life. Mental skills training is a tool to increase mental toughness. Personal training (PT) as a profession is about helping people feel good as a whole. PT usually help people with different kinds of physical activity,

    but it’s also interesting to look at how they work with mental skills training. The purpose of this study was to describe how PT apply mental skills training and how they provide conditions for their adepts to achieve mental toughness. The method used in this study was of a qualitative approach. An open questionnaire was the basis of the study which consisted of 16 participants. The study found that the PT are trying to provide the conditions for their adept at achieving mental toughness through mental skills training. The participants experience that mental skills training has a positive effect on their adepts, since the adepts experience contact in their muscles, reduced stress levels, increased motivation and increased their self-esteem.

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  • 88.
    Halvorsen, Kjartan
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Eriksson, Martin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Gullstrand, Lennart
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Laboratoriet för biomekanik och motorisk kontroll (BMC).
    Minimal marker set for center of mass estimation in running2009In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 552-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to study the validity of a recently proposed method [Forsell C, Halvorsen K. A method for determining minimal sets of markers for the estimation of center of mass, linear and angular momentum. Journal of Biomechanics 2009;42(3):361-5] for estimating the trajectory of the whole-body center of mass (CoM) in the case of running at velocities ranging from 10 to 22 kmh(-1). The method gives an approximation to the CoM using the position of fewer markers on the body than the standard method of tracking each segment of the body. Fourteen male athletes participated. A standard method for determining the CoM from a model of 13 segments and using the position of 36 markers was used as reference method. Leave-one-out cross-validation revealed errors that decreased with increasing number of markers used in the approximative method. Starting from four markers, the error in absolute position of the CoM decreased from 15mm to 3mm in each direction. For the velocity of the CoM the estimation bias was neglectable, and the random error decreased from 0.15 to 0.05 ms(-1). The inter-subject and intra-subject variability in the estimated model parameters increased with increasing number of markers. The method worked well also when applied to running at velocities outside the range of velocities in the data used to determine the model parameters. The results indicate that a model using 10 markers represents a good trade-off between simplicity and accuracy, but users must take into account requirements of their specific applications.

  • 89.
    Hammarbäck, Adam
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anton
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    En kombination av sagittala-och frontala hoppövningar ger en signifikant ökning på vertikal hoppförmåga: En vetenskaplig evidensundersökning gällande plyometriska övningar i det frontala planet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plyometrics is a popular training modality for developing vertical jumping ability, mostly performed in

    the sagittal plane. However, many complex teamsports require movement in various directional

    planes. This study investigates previous research to establish the amount of scientific evidence to

    justify a change of training modalities.

    Purpose

    To investigate scientific evidence regarding the effects of frontal plane plyometrics on vertical

    jumping ability and power.

    Method

    The study used a systematic litterature review of previously published research through databases

    related to the scientific area.

    Results

    The systematic review showed that a combination of sagittal and frontal jumps created a

    significant increase in vertical jumping height. However, frontal plane plyometrics without

    the combination of sagittal plane plyometrics did not show any significant increase. The

    included studies that did not show a significant increase in jumping ability used poor

    methodology and study design.

    Conclusion

    This systematic review of previously conducted research concluded that a combined training

    modality of sagittal and frontal plane plyometrics has some effect on vertical jumping ability

    and power. A combination of frontal and sagittal plyometrics provide additional benefits

    outside of increased jumping ability and should be included in training programs for vertical

    jumping ability. The effects of frontal plane plyometrics as an exclusive training modality

    needs additional research.

  • 90.
    Hardarson, Hallgrimur Thor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Parkours utveckling: Tränares relation till den ursprungliga filosofin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 91.
    Hawke, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Edge, J
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Dent, J
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Mundel, T
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Short, M
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    McMahon, C
    Ag Research, Ruakura, New Zealand.
    Coffey, V
    RMIT, Australia.
    The effects of sex and repeated-sprints on muscle protein signalling2009In: Book of Abstracts of the 14th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway, June 2009. Sport Sciences: Nature, Nuture and Culture / [ed] Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E., European College of Sport Science, 2009, p. 351-352Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Hawke, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Sahlin, K
    GIH, Sweden.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Does six-weeks of high-intensity cycle training with induced changes in acid-base balance lead to mitochondrial adaptations?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Hawke, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Sahlin, Kent
    GIH, Sweden.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Effects of induced changes in acid-base balance on mitochondrial adaptations to training2014In: Book of Abstracts of the 19th annual congress of the European College of Sport Science – ECSS Amsterdam 2014, European College of Sport Science, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Endurance training leads to an improved ability of muscle to utilize oxygen. This is related to an increased density and function of mitochondria. The biogenesis and adaptation of mitochondria is a complex process mediated by various signalling pathways and seems to be highly sensitive to the type of exercise and the local environment in the muscle. Changes in the muslce environment in terms of altered metabolism and substrate accumulation are affected by changes in acid/base balance in response to exercise. Recent studies have shown that changes in acid/base balance may affect the regulation of mitochondrial adaptation to acute exercise; however, how this responds to training and relates to performance adaptations in humans is unclear. Similarly, the effect of acid/base balance on mechanisms underlying mitochondrial biogenesis is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between acid/base balance, mitochondrial biogenesis and adaptation.

    Methods

    Nineteen recreationally active men undertook a six-week periodised high-intensity interval training programme, a protocol known to produce increases in mitochondrial biogenesis. Participants were matched for aerobic fitness and randomly assigned to one of two different training groups. One group ingested sodium bicarbonate (alkaline) and the other group ingested a placebo prior to each training session. Performance test results, blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected before and after the six week training period and assessed for changes in aerobic fitness, blood metabolites and muscle markers of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Changes in gene expression associated with mitochondrial biogenesis were also examined. 

    Results

    After the training period, there were significant (P < 0.05) improvements in TTF, Wmax and LT in both groups, citrate synthase activity in the alkaline group and VO2peak in the placebo group. Improvements were also seen in citrate synthase activity in the placebo group and VO2peak in the alkaline group, however these did not reach significance (P = 0.089 and 0.066 respectively).Despite these significant changes within groups in response to training, there were no significant differences between groups.

    Discussion

    Both training groups showed substantial changes in performance and physiological measures following the training period, however, suppressing exercise-induced acidosis during training did not significantly improve mitochondrial adaptations or performance in comparison to the placebo condition. However, there was a large degree of individual variation in the response and there were trends towards greater adaptations when exercise-induced acidosis was attenuated.

  • 94.
    Hedlund, Anja
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Träningsanläggningars arbete med att inkluderahörselskadade och döva i verksamheternasgruppträning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AimThe purpose of this study was to investigate whether training facilities require that the group leaders had some form of education directed towards the disabled, hearing impaired and deaf. The aim was also to investigate whether, and if so, how training centers worked to include the hearing impaired and deaf in business classes.MethodThe study was based on a quantitative survey questionnaire procedure with both open and closed questions. Of the 33 training centers who were included in the study, questionnaire was sent out to 20 pieces, of these 14 participants answered the questionnaire. Polls was created in Google Forms and sent by email to 20 training facilities officers in Central Sweden. Before the questionnaire was sent out to the participants, a pilot study with five people who were asked to answer the questionnaire and read the information letter, was conducted. Processing and analysis of the collected data was done in Microsoft Excel 2013. The results of the closed questions was presented in the chart while the open questions answers have been read through, categorized and then reported in the running text.ResultsThe results of the study showed that six out of 14 participants believed that the group training at their center is designed for hearing-impaired and deaf people's participation. When the result of the aids/adaptations used in group training result was that six plants do not use any adjustments/aids at all. No facility uses audio loop or interpreter. One center used sign language, seven centers used mirrors where participants could see the group leader, two facilities used flashing lights and four plants cruised in response option (Other). The results showed that one out of 14 centers used vibrations through the floor to illustrate music's pace, and six out of 14 responded that all adaptations were used in all workouts.ConclusionsThe results showed that only one of the respondents fitness facilities require group leaders to have an education directed to the disabled, while none of the facilities require group leaders to have an education directed to the hearing-impaired and deaf. The results also showed that some of the training facilities had adaptations/aids so hearing impaired and deaf people can more easily participate in group training. The study's results suggest that more could be doneto facilitate participation in group training sessions and through the training of the group leaders, and by using various adaptations and aids.

  • 95.
    Helander, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Förebyggande åtgärder för att undvika kramp i samband med fysisk aktivitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 96.
    Hellberg, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Förekomsten av viktminskning inom SvenskaJudolandslaget2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeExamine the prevalence of weight loss in the Swedish judo national team and which weight loss strategy is most frequently used, rapid or gradual.MethodA quantitative method theory was used. Data were collected through a web based questionnaire containing 10 structured questions that were sent by e-mail to the athletes in the Swedish judo national team. The targeted population consisted of the national teams three age groups; U18, U21 and senior which made a total of 45 individuals, therefore a total survey was elected in the selection.ResultsOf 45 surveyed participants 35 respondents answered the questionnaire which made a response rate of 77,0%. The number om respondents who use or have used weight loss strategies was 94,3%. It was common (33,3%) that respondents fluctuated weight more than 10 times per year and to reduce their body weight between 2-3kg (27,2%). The most common source of knowledge to weight loss was judo coaches (57,6%) and the most common weight loss method was a gradual approach (57,5%)Conclusions The results shows that weight loss was common among athletes in the Swedish judo national team, regardless of age category. The most commonly used weight loss method was gradual weigh loss Judo trainers was the most common source of knowledge about weight loss To fluctuate bodyweight was very usual There’s a need for educational programs that address the effect weight loss can have on performance and health for the athlete.

  • 97.
    Helmersson, Stina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Förekomsten av aggressionsnivå bland utövare i sporterna simning, thaiboxning och slalom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the aggression levels differs between the sports swimming, thaiboxing and slalom skiing. There is no knowledge of aggression levels in these sports in a Swedish context.

    Method

    Quantitative method was used for data collection in the study and 66 questionnaires were distributed to men and women in swimming, thaiboxing and slalom skiing. A validated questionnaire, The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), was translated into Swedish. The factors that were investigated in the questionnaire were verbal aggression, anger, hostility and physical aggression and the questionnaire included 29 statements. In total, 65 participants answered the questionnaire and the response rate was 98 %. Descriptive statistics were used to investigate differences in aggression levels, gender, age and sport. The age of the participants was divided into three categories, under 20, from 20-29 and over 30.

    Results

    The results showed that there were significant differences in aggression levels between the different sports. The aggression levels were highest in slalom and lowest in swimming. In addition, the results showed that there is a gender difference between women and men and men had higher aggression. In total, the men in slalom had the highest levels of aggression while the women in swimming had the lowest levels. The women in thaiboxing had the highest levels of aggression among all women. Finally, the results showed that the aggression levels were lowest among those over 30 years.

    Conclusions

    This study shows that there are differences in aggression levels among sports swimming, thaiboxing and slalom, and that there are gender differences. Men in slalom skiing had the highest levels of aggression while the women in swimming had the lowest. The conclusion is that in sports with high level of aggression it is beneficial to discuss and learn how to deal with the aggression.

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  • 98.
    Hermansson, Josefine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Stolpe, Amanda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Analys av skottstatistik från de tre främsta herrfotbollsligorna i Europa: La Liga, Premier League och Serie A2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the two topteams and two bottomteams scoring statistics from the three top soccer leagues in Europe during the 2016/2017 season. From which zone are the shots taken which results in goals? From which zone are the shots taken on the goal, but do not result in goals? From which zone are the shots taken that end up outside the goal? From which zone are the shots taken that are blocked by opponents?

    Methods: A quantitative method was used where data was obtained from a website called www.squawka.com. A total of 456 matches from six top teams and six bottom teams were analyzed from the leagues Serie A, La Liga and Premier League during the 2016/2017 season. A template was used to analyze in which zones the shots was taken. The data was analyzed with Chi square crosstab post-hoc test.

    Results: Both groups scored the most goals from shots taken within the penalty area. These zones also saw the highest rate of shots on goal, but did not result in goals were taken. At shots that ended up outside the goal, both the top teams and the bottom teams took the most shots centrally, outside the penalty area, where the top team also took a large part of the shooting center inside the penalty area. At a shot blocked by opponents, both the top teams and the bottom teams took most shots centrally outside the penalty area, where a large proportion was taken within the penalty area.

    Conclusions: The study revealed major similarities between the top and bottom teams during the 2016/2017 season, where it was shown that the top team took more total shots over the season and the highest number of shots that resulted in goals. Both groups mostly took the shot at the center of the plane, where the zones within the penalty area are proved to be the most effective zone for goal creation. Through this knowledge of the top team and the bottom team's shot statistics, important attack patterns emerge which may be used for coaches in the higher leagues. Trainers can tactically draw their own players to take shots from the effective zones to increase the chances of scoring goals. The statistics may also be used by teams to plan effective defense-stategies.

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  • 99.
    Hildensjö, Maya
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Örtlund, Emelie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Seniorers motivation till den fysiskaaktivitetsformen styrketräning: En kvalitativ studie om seniorers motivationsfaktorer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    The purpose with this essay is to study the different factors that affect older adults motivation to perform the physical activity strength training.

    Method:

    In the study interviews where used as method to collect data. There was a total of 10 people with 6 where men and 4 women. The interviews where recorded with a smartphone and transcribed. The transcripts become the material for the results and basis for the study. Time and date for the interviews was chosen by the participants and both the writers was present in every interview. Analysis work was performed with help of the model for interpretive phenomenological analysis. (IPA)

    Results:

    The results show that several motivational factors work together to make seniors perform the physical activity form strenght training regularly. The factors which is considered important for older adults is lifestyle, physically well-being, self determination and social interactions. An unexpected aspect was that appearance represented a large part of older adults motivation. Social interactions mainly affected the individuals to get to the fitness center and not the actual training session. Motivation is individual, several factors work together to maintain motivation for regulary activity.

    Conclusion:

    Older adults motivation for the physical activity strength training are affected by several different factors. The motivations factors that emerge may change over time but can

    also be permanent. Several different factors work together to maintain a persons individual motivation. What is interesting with the study is that participants mentions appearance and the surroundings positive reactions as a contributing factor for increased motivation. It is also difficult to demonstrate how social interactions can increase the effects of the workout, but this factor seems to be contributing to the participants visiting the training facility. Social interactions are also not particularly relevant during the workout, but are primarily before and after as this factor appears to be contributing for the motivation. The participants in this study seems well-informed in the positive effects of strenght training and concerns research on the subject. It is discussed how the cognitive abilities can be influenced by an active lifestyle, suggesting that participants experience health effects of this form of exercise.

  • 100.
    Hjalmarsson, Clara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Roligs, Caroline
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Gymaktivas inställning till sin egen träning i förhållande till olika motivationsfaktorer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka gymaktiva kvinnors motivationsfaktorer och om dessa kan

    vara mer eller mindre positiv för enskilda individer. De motivationsfaktorer studien inriktade

    sig på är tre olika kroppsideal, det utseendemässiga kroppsidealet, funktionella kroppsidealet

    eller hälsomässiga kroppsidealet, som tidigare forskning beskrivit är dessa vanliga

    anledningar till att personer tränar.

    Metoden i studien är en kvalitativ innehållsanalys baserad på individuella intervjuer av 9

    kvinnor i åldrarna 20-30.

    Studiens resultat visade på att de främsta motivationsfaktorerna var att träna för hälsan eller

    för utseendet. Endast en respondent visade sig träna för att få en funktionellt bättre fungerande

    kropp. Vidare framkom att alla motivationsfaktorerna hade positiv inverkan på måendet, dock

    visade det sig också att de som tränade för det utseendemässiga kroppsidealet kände en del

    negativa aspekter som t.ex. mer press än vad de som tränade för det hälsomässiga

    kroppsidealet gjorde. Samtliga respondenter kände att motivationen gick i perioder vilket

    tyder på att motivationsfaktorn inte verkar ha en inverkan på motivationsgraden

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