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  • 51.
    Andersson, Christoffer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Årsredovisningens relevans:: Privata aktiesparares attityder2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    International research has shown that annual reports are not an obvious source of information för private investors and their investment decisions. In Sweden there is a limited amount of empirical data that shows how this is represented in the swedish stock market. Because of this there is also a lack of empirical data that shows if there is a correlation betweeen the use of and opinion on the relevance of annual reports and the individuals background within economy or business

    A survey was made to gather answers to these questions using members of Sveriges Aktiesparares Riksförbund and the local branch Falun/Borlänge. The results show that annual reports neither can be categorized as important or unimportant withing this group. The respondants in this survey seem to prefer to use more than one source of information when it comes to investment decisions. The results indicate that annual reports can be considered a relatively important part of this bigger context as one of many sources of information. In addition to this, it seems that a person that either have a relevant education or occupational experience value annual reports as more important than those without this background.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Ellinor
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Wessberger, Fredrika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Dataskyddsförordningens påverkan på företags marknadsföringsarbete: Nya regler för företag som hanterar personuppgifter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    : It has become increasingly difficult to protect personal data due to the rapidly evolving technological development. Personal data flow between countries to a large extent, which requires more coherent data protection within the European Union. In May 25th 2018, a new EU regulation will come into force. The regulation will apply in all EU member states and is called GDPR, the General Data Protection Regulation. The regulation will contribute to an increasingly rigorous handling and processing of personal data and hence strengthen the individual's integrity. How the change of law will affect business's marketing efforts is a matter that has emerged.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to gain knowledge of how companies adapt to the change that GDPR entails and whether changes need to be made in corporate marketing efforts due to GDPR.

    Method:

    The bachelor thesis is inductive and the empirical material is collected using qualitative interviews. A total of nine interviews have been conducted, three mail interviews and six telephone interviews. The companies that have participated in this study works with marketing and handles personal data.

    Results:

    The interviewed companies in the study do not believe that their marketing will be significantly affected. Some companies have and will change certain parts of the communication to the customer, such as changing member terms, clearing personal information, and changes in email and newsletters. In order to get GDPR compliant, most companies educate their employees and clean and enhance their registers.

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  • 53.
    Andersson, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Krishantering Scandic Hotell2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
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  • 54.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Pettersson, Jon
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Samhällsansvar – utveckling mot en sundare spelmarknad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility is a diffuse concept. The term has been successively developing for a long time but has only experienced a significant boost in just the last few decades. The internet has been a contributing factor and because of the advancement of it, has made it easier for companies (generally) to display their responsibility to society.

    The Swedish state is trying to gain control of the Swedish gambling market, as the number of so-called unregulated companies is increasing. The unregulated gambling companies are companies based abroad but also target the Swedish gambling market and the regulated gambling companies are companies that are responsible before the Swedish state. The unregulated gambling companies are not restricted by the laws and regulations that apply to the regulated gambling companies and may therefore circumvent them. This fact means that consumer protection cannot fully be guaranteed and it is therefore appropriate for gambling companies to ensure that consumers are assured of a sound market. Then both the communication of corporate social responsibility and the actions towards corporate social responsibility can play an important part.

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the contemporary Swedish gambling market affects the regulated and the unregulated gambling companies´ approach to corporate social responsibility and their communication of corporate social responsibility (as well as the legitimacy that follows). A quantitative survey has been conducted, sending out mails to a whole population of the regulated gambling companies and a selection of the unregulated gambling companies.

    The study showed that both the regulated and the unregulated gambling companies have a positive view of corporate social responsibility and both the regulated gambling companies as well as the unregulated gambling companies believe that the abolition of the gambling monopoly would contribute to a better gambling market.

    Corporate social responsibility plays an important role of both the regulated and the unregulated companies, but if the gambling monopoly is abolished, the general approach to corporate social responsibility will improve as unserious gambling companies disappear from the market.

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  • 55.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Weiderstål, Robin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Varumärkesstärkande samhällsansvar: En studie om hur CSR påverkar konsumenters attityder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) have progressed from a focus on ethics to performance and thus working as a strategic tool for differentiation and it is today well recognized for companies to use CSR with the assumption that this will generate a competitive advantage. While CSR has been proved to create added value to the brand of a company there is also demands from consumers that companies should engage in Corporate Social Responsibility. However, the lack of awareness from consumers about companies CSR-initiatives have been observed, which can be considered as problematic due to companies’ investments in CSR and if these initiatives thus are taken into consideration while evaluating companies. The purpose of the study is to explain whether and how CSR influence consumers’ attitudes towards the brand of a company and if this implies added value. To achieve the purpose a quantitative method were used and surveys were sent to students of Dalarna University and 682 respondents fulfilled the survey. The findings demonstrate a low degree of awareness, but worth noticing is that consumers with a higher degree of awareness present more favorable attitudes towards the company. These attitudes proves to generate intangible values for companies engaging in CSR and which is theoretically explained to imply brand equity. In conclusion the study reveals that CSR can be used by companies in branding purposes, still consumers’ lack of awareness about companies’ CSR-initiatives is found as a limiting factor.

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  • 56.
    Andersson, Nathalie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Konsumenters motiv till att följa detaljhandelsföretag på sociala medier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze why consumers follow retail companies on social media i.e. which consumer motives are the most common.

    Method: The study has conducted a deductive approach and a quantitative method for both data collection and analyzes.

    Findings: The findings show that the most frequent consumer motives for following retail companies on social media are to "find discount codes / offers", "find information about the company and its products", "find news and information about product launches" and "get inspiration from what companies posts online”. No significant differences in motives could be found between different sectors or demographic variables among consumers. The four mentioned motives above were the most common ones among the respondents regardless of gender, age or company sector.

    Suggestions for further research: proposals for further research could be to perform a qualitative study with the same purpose and research questions as this one. That could contribute to the gain of deeper information and knowledge in this area and could be a complement to the results from this study.

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  • 57.
    Andersson, Nils
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Nordahl, Per
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Faktorer som påverkar den frivilliga redovisningen i länsförsäkringsbolagens årsredovisningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 58.
    Andersson, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Sociala medier på industriella marknader: En kvalitativ studie om hur svenska industriföretag kan använda sociala medier för marknadsföring2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media have for a long time been perceived as irrelevant as a marketing tool in industrial markets. One reason is the perception that customers are not available on social media, and therefore there is no reason for industrial companies to market through these channels. The growth of the Internet has however changed this, and social media have become a crucial tool in industrial marketing. Even though the usage of social media is growing in industrial markets, it is still uncertain how industrial companies can use social media in marketing.

    The purpose of this study is to explain how industrial companies can use social media. The study is defined to how eight swedish industrial companies use social media, including users, target groups and platforms. Eight interviews have been conducted with representatives from eight industrial companies, all of which are responsible for handling the social media.

    The results from the interviews show that industrial companies can use social media for lots of purposes, and not only marketing for customers. The collected data shows a huge variation in the different kinds of users that the companies use on social media, and also a variation in areas of use, platforms and target groups. The study also indicates that the traditional marketing could have a positive impact on the response in social media. This could mean that social media can be successfully used in combination with the traditional marketing. In all of the interviews it is clear that social media will have an increased importance for industrial marketing in the future.

  • 59.
    Andersson, Terhi
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Weiberth, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Företagens val mellan K2 och K3: Vilka faktorer är det som påverkar? Författare: Terhi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background & problem: For the financial year of 2014 companies are forced to implement one of BFN’s new accounting regulations. These accounting regulations are: K1, K2, K3 and K4. We have chosen to focus on the mid-sized companies that fall within the framework of K2. These may choose to report either in accordance with K2 or in accordance with K3. The primary difference between these regulations is that K2 is rulesbased while K3 is principlesbased. A principlesbased framework is built on individual interpretations and assessments while the rulesbased framwork is covered by detailed rules. We have, because of this reason, submitted the following questions:

     What are the determinants that have influenced the choice between K2 and K3?

     What choice has Sweden’s medium-sized companies made with regards to K2 and K3?

    Purpose: To explain which determinants that affects the choice between K2 and K3.

    Method: In an attempt to try and answer the problem the authors have used a quantitative method with a deductive approach and secondary data from corporate financial annual reports have been gathered. We did hypothesis tests with the help of confidence intervals to see if the variables firm size, debt ratio, the amount of long-term debt and the industry affiliation was able to explain the choice between K2 and K3.

    Result & conclusion: The results of our study show that the factor that affects the accounting choice is industry affiliation. The outcome of the survey was not as we had expected when only one of our four hypotheses could be accepted. We think that a reason for this might be the limited sample of the study. The study has focused only on the variables of corporate annual reports. One can imagine that there are additional factors that influence companies' choices such as bonus plans.

  • 60.
    Andersson Weinez, Linnéa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Impulsköp: En studie om vilka faktorer som kan påverka när svenska kvinnor utför impulsköp2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Retail business is expected to face a major challenge in the coming years. This is because digitalization is growing rapidly, and e-commerce is increasingly competing against traditional stores. It requires innovative thinking of companies to be competitive.

    To meet the challenge, I mean that impulse purchases can be used as a competitive advantage for retail companies. This study has therefore taken its starting point in the phenomenon impulse purchases.

    The study focuses on a female perspective since women are more inclined to execute impulse purchases.

    The purpose was to contribute to increased knowledge of the factors that may be crucial when Swedish women do impulse purchases. The study's empirical gathering consisted of a group interview and three individual interviews. These interviews were based on an analysis model developed by the study's literature review.

    In summary, three factors from the study's analysis model that could be shown to be influential in impulse purchases

    . These are shopping environments, offers and companies while shopping. Even additional sale and age have been shown to be significant for impulse purchases.

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  • 61.
    Andrée, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Lennartsson, Lucas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Revisorns rekommendation till mindre företag i valet mellan K2 och K32018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: January 1st 2014 a new accounting framework was introduced, known as “K-regelverket”. The framework contains four categories, K1, K2, K3, and K4. Small companies can choose to follow either the K2 or the K3 framework. When choosing between K2 and K3, small companies often request advice from auditors.Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand and to explain what factors that are influencing the auditor´s recommendations to small companies in their choices between K2 and K3, and to explore and describe the auditor´s role in these choices.Method: The qualitative method of semi-structured interviews has been applied with auditors from PwC, Grant Thornton and LR revision. The study has had a deductive approach.Results: The study shows that the auditor plays a decisive role in the choice between K2 and K3 for small companies. The auditor’s recommendation to small companies in the choice between K2 and K3 is influenced by several factors. The factors identified are the company’s balance sheet items, company’s size, stakeholders, line of business and phase. The company’s balance sheet items and size has the greatest impact on the auditor’s recommendation.

  • 62.
    Anrog, Oscar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    El Malla, Rodi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Relationen mellan sportagent och fotbollsspelare ur en fotbollsspelares perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how the relationship between a football player and a sports agent function and look like in Sweden and how it possibly could be improved. The relationship between a football player and a sports agent is a central and important part in the world of football, a part which does not get the right amount of attention. Previous research in this field is also difficult to access, which is why this study is made. The study is of a qualitative nature in which semi-structured interviews were designed to obtain empirical data material. The relationship between said parties is based on a mutual trust where the sports agent’s purpose is to handle the administrative matters as contract negotiations, while the football player’s main focus is to perform in his sport/football games. The power in the relationship is relatively evenly distributed. The sports agent has a central role regarding the administrative matters, on the other hand it is the football player who makes the final decision because it can have an impact on his life and career.  Conflicts of interest are something that can arise in the relationship between the football player and the sports agent, a conflict of interest which could be based on various reasons, such as financial conflicts or conflicts based on a lack of time and availability for their client (football player) because of the number of clients that the sports agent represents. In order to possibly improve the relationship between the football player and the sports agent, relationship marketing and its basic concept can be applicable. A concept that implies that one party involves the other and has the other partner in mind in the event of situations and where it’s an even distribution of the decision making in the relationship.

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  • 63.
    Arpi Ekblom, Björn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Göransson, Ulla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Standardisation of the Selling Process in Franchising: A Take on Sales Funnel Management2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the two opposing extremes of standardisation in franchising and the

    dynamics of sales in search of a juncture point in order to reduce franchisees’ uncertainties in

    sales and improve sales performance. A conceptual framework is developed based on both

    theory and practice in order to investigate the sales process of a specific franchise network. The

    research is conducted over a period of six weeks in form of a customised sales report

    considering the sales funnel concept and performance indicators along the sales process. The

    received quantitative data is analysed through descriptive statistics and logistic regressions in

    respect to what variations in the sales process can be discovered and what practices yield higher

    performance. The results indicate an advantage of a prioritisation guideline regarding the

    activities and choices to make as a salesperson over strict standardisation. Defining the sales

    funnel plus engaging in the process of monitoring sales in itself has proven to be a way of

    reducing uncertainty as the franchisor and franchisees alike inherently gain a greater

    understanding of the process. The extended knowledge gained from this research allowed for

    both practical as well as theoretical implications and expands the knowledge on standardisation

    of sales and the appropriateness of the sales funnel and its management for dealing with the

    dilemma between standardisation and flexibility of sales in franchising contexts.

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  • 64.
    Arvidsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Arvidsson, Anton
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Effekter av influencer marketing: ur ett företagsperspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in the digital world have created a significant increase in the use of social media platforms. Being connected to social media is a part of most individuals lives. This is allowing companies to use social media platforms for their marketing purposes. One very common thing is to use influencers as a marketing tool to reach out to a wider audience of customers. This strategy is called influencer marketing. The questions answered in this study shows how companies can work to achieve their goals by using influencer marketing.

    The study has been based on a qualitative method to be able to analyze patterns, connections, and similarities between obtained empirics and theory. Empirics has been collected through written conversations and consists of three respondents, all with different experiences of influencer marketing.

    Above all, the results show that transparent and active work is essential to have positive effects on influencer marketing. It is also evident that some marketing literature does not match the collected empirics. Based on this, the study contributes to an enlarged understanding of the importance of the company's working method in influencer marketing while explaining how a company can work to accomplish positive effects of influencer marketing.

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  • 65.
    Aspeskog, -
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Cederberg, -
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    En studie om företags mål och motiv att sponsra en individuell idrottare.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to be a professional athlete in Sweden today, resources are needed and therefore sponsorship from companies has come to mean a large part for many individual athletes' careers. However, it is quite uncertain what is required of an individual athlete for companies to want to cooperate with them and with sponsorship comes risks for the company. The purpose of the study is to investigate which goals and motives companies have to sponsor an individual athlete and why they choose to sponsor them. Why the essay focuses on an individual athlete is because previous research has shown that it is more difficult for individual athletes than team athletes to live as professionals because of scarce resources.    The study has applied a qualitative method in which six interviews have been conducted with companies that sponsor individual athletes. Following the completion of the study, we can explain the companies' goal of sponsoring individual athletes as follows: Increase sales, develop and strengthen the company's brand and image and increase brand awareness. Even association and exposure are two more goals that have been identified. Corporate motives to sponsor individual athletes can be explained by the study with the image of sport.

  • 66.
    Aspling, Josefin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Glad, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    För mycket av det goda? – multiplamotivationsfaktorers påverkan på motivationsnivån: En litteraturstudie av motivationsfaktorer och deras påverkanpå individens motivation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation level is not constant but varies with organizational changes. During the90th century significant changes such as new organizations and job roles emerged.Because of this there is a need for research on motivation. The purpose of thispaper is to conduct a discussion around what the research results show on multiplemotivation factors impact on an individual's motivation. The purpose has been metthrough literature studies, which in turn has been done through the acquisition ofvarious scientific articles dealing with factors of motivation and their impact onindividuals. This material has then been critically examined and analyzed. Theanalysis of the collected material shows that there is no single answer to when andhow multiple factors of motivation are the most productive for the individual. Theessay has shown that multiple factors of motivation can reinforce each other andhave a positive impact on the individual's performance. At the same time,however, it has also been shown that multiple factors of motivation can workcounterproductive and instead worsen the individual's performance. This can inturn lead to the individual experiencing stress and a deterioration of satisfaction. Amodel has been presented in this paper, highlighting how multiple factors ofmotivation can relate to each other. The model is originated in goal-framingtheory, a theory that describes the image of a painting. In the main frame theindividual positions the main motivating factor. In the background frames isplaced less important factors. How factors in the main frame interact with thefactors in the background frames depends, according to the model, on the situationand the kind of factor that is in the main frame. In some cases there is a successfulcombination of factors, which will enhance motivation. In other situations, theremay be less successful combinations that have a negative effect on the motivationlevel. The conclusion of the essay, therefore, is that there is a need of moreresearch on motivational factors to determine how they interact with each other.

  • 67.
    Asplund, Astrid
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Ett detaljhandelsperspektiv på kundupplevelser i fysiska butiker: Ett exempel från Dalarna2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-commerce is challenging the traditional trade in physical stores. Sales growth in the consumer goods trade has stopped while e-commerce continues to grow. Companies can use customer experience strategies in response to the challenge of remining profitable and avoiding a so-called store death. From a retail perspective, this study investigated how companies use customer experiences in physical stores. The study has identified several customer experience strategies applied by the companies but also why they chose to apply these strategies. It appears that the staff has a significant importance in the store and is likely to be an important factor as to why customers continues to buy their fashion goods in physical stores.

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  • 68.
    Augustine, Tumwebaze
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Augusto-Swerup, Paula
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Local Communities’ Social Needs Assessment and Adaptability by Multinational Companies Venturing into African Market: a Case Study of Epiroc AB2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the ways multinational companies implement CSR initiatives adapted to the social needs of local communities in African countries. The paper will highlight local communities’ social needs and the appropriateness of CSR initiatives to respond to them, performed by multinational companies, using Epiroc AB as a case study.

    Methodology - This research was conducted using a qualitative research approach, applying a case study strategy, and empirically inquiring, seeking new insights for a deeper understanding of phenomena. The authors carried out three formal semi-structured interviews, two conducted to relevant CSR employees, and one from a community member. The authors also used secondary data by reviewing published documents containing information on local communities’ social needs in Africa.

    Findings – Most demanding areas of CSR to be considered by the MCN are related to poverty alleviation (food, health, and shelter) but, to avoid dependency, these need to be coupled with a capacity-building (education/training) and/or access to infrastructure (drinkable water, electricity, communications). The MNC uses specific mechanisms to assess LCSN, called systematic assessments and on-sight assessments. MNCs tend to adopt locallydriven, globally-driven, or trend-driven CSR initiatives in its subsidiary African countries to build a long term business sustainability and create a balance amongst stakeholders in the host country.

    Originality – An assessment of local communities' social needs and adaptability by Multinational Companies venturing into the African Market is introduced and developed by the authors.

    Paper type – Qualitative/Exploratory paper.

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  • 69.
    Axelsson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Salminen, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    CSR inom inköp - att välja leverantör: En kvalitativ studie om faktorer som påverkar tillverkande företags val av leverantörer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our world faces a number of challenges today, such as climate changes and the lack of human

    rights. As a result of this, the trust towards companies and the engagement of Corporate

    Social Responsibility, CSR, have become an increasingly central department for most companies.

    This is a way for companies to contribute to a better world. By developing business

    solutions in such a way, that the needs of the current world population, are met without compromising

    the conditions for meeting future generations needs. Studies point out that manufacturing

    companies are a key source of the depletion of the world's resources.

    The purpose of this study is to identify which factors affect the choice of the companies suppliers,

    when choosing to work with CSR. The interviews were conducted with four manufacturing

    companies within the Dalarna region.

    The results revealed that CSR is primarily linked to corporate applications of certifications. It

    was found that companies are affected by internal and external factors when choosing a supplier.

    We have identified the company's

    "financial prerequisites" and "image" as two key

    factors that affect the company's choice of supplier when choosing to work with CSR.

  • 70.
    Axelsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Engman, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Aktivering av sponsorskap – ur ett föreningsperspektiv: Går föreningar i herrarnas fotbollsallsvenska utöver sponsoravtalen?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The sports in Sweden and the associations in the league Allsvenskan annually generates millions and millions in sponsorship revenues, in some cases the association capitalize even more than its sponsors. Previous research on sponsorship activation through the perspective of associations is very limited and almost absent. This study is therefore based on previous research from the sponsors perspective and is applied on the perspective of the associations.

    Based on this we have shaped the purpose of the study, which was to get an insight into whether associations in Allsvenskan goes beyond the agreement with activities that can benefit the sponsorship and if so, why. The study has been conducted with a qualitative approach and we have done telephone interviews with respondents from associations in Allsvenskan.

    The result of the study showed that there are indications that associations in Allsvenskan choose to go beyond the agreements and activate the sponsorship. But, the extent of the association´s activation is smaller compared to what extent research suggest that the sponsor should activate. The main reason why the associations choose to activate and go beyond the agreement was to create good and long relationships with their sponsors. In addition to this, we could assume an underlying reason in terms of strengthening the association's own organization and therefore offering a more attractive product on the market.

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  • 71.
    Ayertey, Bliss
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Asrat, Getnet Mengesha
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Legitimation Strategies in the reporting of Negative CSR Aspects2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The survival of organizations is dependent upon their legitimacy since legitimacy provides them with access to valuable resources. Organizations do not possess legitimacy, but rather it is ascribed to them by the society they are in when their actions meet societal expectations. Fulfillment of these societal expectations requires the moral and practical obligations of organizations which we call Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). To show their CSR performance, organizations have increasingly adopted the practice of CSR reporting. In CSR reporting, organizations are expected by their stakeholders to disclose both positive and negative aspects. Although disclosing negative aspects can pose a threat to organization’s legitimacy, a third party reporting them may cause more severe damages to the legitimacy of the organization. Therefore, organizations are motivated to legitimize their negative aspects by using legitimation strategies.

    Using the typology of Coombs and Holladay (1996), in combination with the legitimation strategies by Hahn and Lülfs (2014) as our frameworks, and the non-financial reports of the top ten German chemical companies as our illustrative cases, we investigate and interpret the choice of legitimation strategies used by organizations to report different types of negative aspects in CSR reports. Our findings show that there is a clear pattern in the use of corrective action as a legitimation strategy for all types of negative aspects. Furthermore, we identified instances, where a new type of legitimation strategy, which we called shifting blame legitimation strategy was used. We interpreted our findings using analytical reasoning and theoretical framework such as the concept of symbolic and substantive approach to interpret our findings. Based on the findings, we concluded that the dominant pattern identified falls under the substantive approach, theoretically known for helping companies retain their legitimacy.

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  • 72.
    Aziz, Lanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Wagenius, Gisela
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Relationsmarknadsföring – framtiden för Kupolen?: En studie om hur köpcentret Kupolen och deras butiker arbetar med relationsmarknadsföring2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Shopping centers are facing a growing competition today from the e-commerce. Since the e-commerce was introduced the whole retail has been restructured - from physical stores to online stores. Shopping centers and their retail stores therefore need to be flexible and be able to make rapid changes to adapt to new market trends in order to remain competitive now and in the future. One way this can be done is to work with relationship marketing to continue to have loyal and satisfied customers.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how the shopping center Kupolen in Borlänge, Sweden works with relationship marketing to maintain the retail stores' physical stores as competition from the e-commerce grows.

    Method: A qualitative method has been used in this study where empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews with five respondents from the Kupolen shopping center. A deductive approach has been used as the basis for this thesis, where the study's purpose and interview questions were designed based on the theoretical framework. The theoretical framework was designed as follows: relationship marketing, collaboration, competition from ecommerce, marketing and experience. These perspectives form the basis for the collected empirical material and the results of the study.

    Conclusion: The growing competition from e-commerce contributes to fierce competition against the shopping center Kupolen and their retail stores as ecommerce can offer more competitive prices, a greater range of different products and services, as well as more flexibility regarding different offers, opening hours and payment methods, etc. The results of this study show that the shopping center Kupolen and their retail stores apply relationship marketing in a variety of ways. The study shows that there are improvements that need to be made to be able to have full effect of all the benefits of relationship marketing and thus increase Kupolen’s competitiveness towards e-commerce. These improvements involve increased cooperation between Kupolen’s managment and the stores, with a shared and common focus on creating a good buying experience for the customers during their stay inside the shopping center Kupolen.

  • 73.
    Baboš, Pavol
    et al.
    Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Klimplová, Lenka
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Systematically uncoordinated? The Czech Republic and Slovakia in the view of varieties of capitalism2013In: Contemporary European Studies, ISSN 1802-4289, no 1, p. 71-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict or coordination are the most frequently used words describing the industrial relations in developed economies. What is the relationship between the biggest industrial actors in the former Czechoslovakia and is there any coordination? This paper tries to answer this question focusing on the coordination in the main economic spheres in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The research is based on the analysis of statistical data and a survey in which a group of experts completed a questionnaire stemming from the Varieties of Capitalism approach. Almost 30 experts representing employers, trade unions and the state from both countries provided insight into the amount of coordination that exists among the main economic actors. Our findings not only undermine the recent classifications of the Central Europe in the Varieties of Capitalism literature, but also show a slightly different institutional setting of the industrial relations in these two post-communist countries. The main results of our research shows that there is an emerging pattern of ‘systematic un-coordination’ among the key spheres of the national economy as defined by Varieties of Capitalism. The authors conclude this article with a discussion regarding the results and limitations of their research.

  • 74.
    Badakhova, Arina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Virza, Reinis
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Knowledge sharing between different generations in engineering field2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of particular study is to explore individuals’ perceptions of knowledge sharing and its obstacles in a multigenerational engineering company. This study focuses on two groups of individuals: employees and managers. The perception of knowledge sharing and how differently generations perceive it is covered in this study. The obstacles which could occur during knowledge sharing between different generations in the engineering field are explored. The role of management in knowledge sharing processes is also covered.

    Methodology: To explore individuals’ perceptions of knowledge sharing and its obstacles in a multigenerational engineering company. A qualitative research approach was applied, using single company case study strategy. The case company is one of the leading construction engineering companies in Latvia. The primary data was gathered by conducting 12 semi-structured interviews, 3 interviews per every generation (Millennial, Generation X and Baby boomer) and 3 interviews with managers. The secondary data was obtained from the company, which included internal documents covering the general information about the company, guidelines and policies. By the usage of primary and secondary data triangulation of the study was reached.

    Findings: The thesis provides analysis of knowledge sharing and its obstacles within the multigenerational workforce of a construction engineering company. The perceptions of three generational cohorts such as Baby Boomers, Generation X and Millennials are presented. The conceptual framework for the study was built on the basis of three dimensions such as organizational. individual and technological obstacles. Based on the conceptual framework, authors brought up several propositions which supported the analysis process. The analysis showed that there are differences in perception of knowledge sharing and obstacles connected with it between engineers of different generations.

    Originality: There has not been any research about knowledge sharing between different generations in Latvia nor in Northern Europe, in general. The engineering field is a knowledge intensive sector, therefore knowledge sharing is crucial. Labor force still contains three different generations, thus it is important to explore whether engineering companies in Latvia have faced knowledge sharing obstacles, as it is a rapidly developing sector in this particular country.

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  • 75.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Zhejiang University of Technology; Uppsala universitet.
    Holmström-Lind, Christine
    Johanson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Uppsala University; Mid Sweden University.
    Leveraging networks, capabilities and opportunities for international success: A study on returnee entrepreneurial ventures2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By integrating social capital theory with a capability-based view on performance, this paper aims to examine the extent to which returnee entrepreneurial ventures (REVs) gain international performance advantages from the founding entrepreneurs’ experience with international networks. Using data on 200 Chinese REVs, the paper proposes and tests a structural model with a focus on the link between individual entrepreneurs and the subsequent development of firm capabilities. The results provide evidence that it is important that the returnee entrepreneurs have an international social network for the REV to develop an international network capability, which, in turn, mediates the effects on opportunity knowledge and the international performance of the REVs. The findings highlight the concurrent effect of the role of entrepreneurs and organizational learning in internationalization, and they provide an understanding as to the importance of the returnee-specific advantages for the international performance of these firms.

  • 76.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet; Zhejiang University of Technology.
    Johanson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Uppsala universitet; Mittuniversitetet.
    International opportunity networks2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 70, p. 167-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunity seeking has become increasingly important for explaining firm internationalization, but our understanding of how opportunity is mediated within international networks is limited. This study probes the concept of network-mediated opportunities and attempts to identify what drives a firm's reception of new international opportunities. Based on the notion of opportunity in the entrepreneurship literature with the network view on internationalization, we bring together the concepts of relationships, networks, capabilities, and opportunity in a structural model, where we hypothesize that network-mediated opportunity is dependent on networking capability. This, in turn, is positively influenced by network closure and relational embeddedness. We test the model on a sample of 200 Chinese firms. The analysis partly supports the model, as we find that networking capability is a mediating factor between relational embeddedness and network-mediated opportunity, but does not mediate the relationship between network closure and network-mediated opportunity; on the other hand, we find a direct relationship between network closure and network-mediated opportunity. The paper ends with a discussion of the results and suggestions for future research.

  • 77.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Zhejiang University of Technology; Uppsala universitet.
    Johanson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Uppsala universitet.
    Martin, Oscar Martin
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Business Studies, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Publ Navarra, Dept Business Adm, Pamplona, Spain..
    Dual business relationships, opportunity knowledge, and new product development: a study on returnee young ventures2019In: Journal of International Marketing, ISSN 1069-031X, E-ISSN 1547-7215, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 26-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects on innovation of the dual embeddedness of returnee young ventures (RYVs) in both domestic and international networks of relationships and knowledge contexts are important for value creation, growth, and success of these firms and embody a unique research opportunity. Drawing on a framework combining a business relationship perspective and the knowledge-based view, the authors propose that RYVs take advantage of business relationships and opportunity knowledge from both international and domestic markets to nurture their innovation. They test their model on a sample of 200 RYVs in China. The findings reveal that business relationships are essential for acquiring knowledge about technological and business opportunities, though only international opportunity knowledge and domestic business relationships positively influence new product development. In addition, the interaction between international and domestic business relationships constrains firms' capacity for obtaining international opportunity knowledge. This study offers insights into how the trade-offs between dual relationships and subsequently sourced knowledge contribute to new product development in emerging markets, and it extends the discussion on the paradox view of business relationships with geographically dispersed actors.

  • 78.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Zhejiang University of Technology; Uppsala University.
    Liu, R.
    Zhou, L.
    Enhancing the learning advantages of newness: The role of internal social capital in the international performance of young entrepreneurial firms2020In: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, article id 100733Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Barcik, Robert
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Arpi Ekblom, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Complex Development Approach: For Software-As-A-Service Start-Ups2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our work builds on the knowledge that vast majority of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

    vendors are unable to survive or leave Start-Up Phase. This paper intends to find out how SaaS

    vendors can develop their venture to reduce the probability of failure. There is vast amounts of

    knowledge on entrepreneurship in SaaS Start-Up but it is locked within the field in the minds of

    said entrepreneurs. Our research is of exploratory character aiming for a practical solution by

    attempting to unlock this knowledge. To answer the question of what is causing high failure rates

    and how to stop it, we need a deeper insight in the field and we gain it by interviewing and

    collecting data from experts connected to it. As a result, we propose a new model. The Complex

    Development Approach is a tool for SaaS vendors that encompasses a holistic yet simplistic view

    for allocating resources and managing processes.

  • 80.
    Barzan, Tavan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Användande av styrmedel i småföretag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Regarding financial control, there are significant differences in the use of financial control depending on the size of the company. What distinguishes small businesses from large are its strategies. Financial control is based on the companies' designed strategies. Large companies have more complex strategies while small companies have simple strategic goals and therefore do not have as much need for financial control.  Aim: The study aims to explain how financial control is used in small businesses and to what extent by interviewing four companies Method: The study uses a qualitative method that consists of four semi-structured interviews with respondents from small companies.  Result: The study's collected and processed empirical data are presented in the study's results section under the following themes: Financial control, Budget and Calculation and Key figures.  Conclusion: Broadly speaking, financial control is a tool for business development. The respondents in the study highlighted that they work closely with the entire organization due to their size. Continuous follow-ups are made on the economic strategy where different focus is placed on budget, calculation and key figures.

  • 81.
    Basören, Berkan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Olugunna, Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Influential Factors of Foreign Market Entry Modes: A case of Swedish MNCs into the Chinese Market2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has reduced the significance of geographical boundaries. Companies that successfully establish themselves in foreign markets experience many benefits. One of the key decisions in the process of foreign market entry is selecting market entry modes since selection of entry modes is a significant determiner in the success of company. Entry mode selection is influenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, company has to consider external and internal factors and choose the most appropriate entry mode which will maximize its chance to succeed in the chosen foreign market. The purpose of this thesis is to identify the factors that influence entry mode decisions of Swedish MNCs when entering the Chinese market. A research question regarding influencing factors in entry mode decisions is formulated. Root’s theory and Hollensen’s work on entry modes are presented in theoretical framework which is followed by conceptual framework where the theory and literatures used are summarized to provide clearer picture to the readers.

    This research is a qualitative one and uses case study approach. Data regarding to entry modes and influencing factors is collected from three Swedish MNCs Electrolux, Sandvik and Ericsson through interviews. Our findings show that, in order to be able to control their products and business activities, the three Swedish MNCs investigated in this study used direct export and direct investment. However, joint venture is an alternative while the MNCs are spreading their business activities in China, as the Chinese government protects local businesses. Market size and the growth potential of the market inspired companies to enter China. Internal and external factors jointly influence the selection of entry mode into China. Among them, internal factors are less effective than external factors. Factors that influenced Swedish MNCs decisions in the selection of entry modes into China are mostly related to external factors: Chinese market factors; Chinese production factors and environmental factors are most influential ones.

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  • 82.
    Bauducco, Emelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Gyllensvaan, Carin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Konsumenters uppfattning och kännedom om hållbar produktion och konsumtion: Teknologiska produkter och mobiltelefoner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The connection between consumption and climate change is becoming clearer and the fact that the Earth's natural resources are being depleted can be assigned to human behavior. To solve this crisis, consumer behavior has to change, consumers need to choose more sustainable products. Overconsumption today is a major threat to sustainable development and Swedish consumers as a group are quick to consume the latest products on the market. In particular, the consumption of technology products such as mobile phones, computers and televisions has increased sharply during the past 20 years as these products are used by consumers on a daily basis. New models of mobile phones are constantly coming onto the market and are one of the technology products where consumption has increased.

    The purpose of this paper has been to examine consumers’ perception and awareness about sustainable production and consumption of technological products. Mobile phones were selected as the object of study. We choose a qualitative method with semi-structured interviews to fulfil the purpose. The interviews were conducted with ten students studying varying educational programs at Dalarna University.

    The result of the thesis showed that consumers had little awareness or understanding of sustainable production and consumption. Our respondents did have a certain amount of awareness of sustainability issues but all respondents had never previously thought about this in association with production and consumption of mobile phones. The understanding among the respondents was that production and consumption does have an effect on sustainable development.

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  • 83.
    Bengtsson, Andréa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Pros, Roxanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Att mäta mänskliga resurser: Ur offentliga organisationers perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 84.
    Berg, Hanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Johnsson, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hyckleri i förvaltningsberättelser?: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys om hur förvaltningsberättelser kan vara konstruerade för ett legitimitetssökande syfte2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By using annual reports, companies can mediate essential information to the stakeholders. According to the Swedish law an administration report within annual report should include a fair overview of the development of the company’s operations, position and results for the previous financial year. It should also include a future forecast. Research have found that organizations tend to use rhetorical manipulation as a powerful tool for obtaining legitimacy. However, companies can choose what information they want to communicate and apply organizational hypocrisy, a gap between talk and actions. Through the administration report, the company can construct the presentation of their position on the market, both today and for the future.  The purpose of this study was to analyze whether the content of administration reports could be constructed for a legitimacy-seeking purpose. The method of the study was a qualitative content analysis and included thirty administration reports from three different retail companies. The result shows tendencies that the company’s construct the content in their administration reports through a rhetorical optimism: the companies highlight the positive results but rarely the negative aspects. Instead, the negative results are justified by the rhetorical optimism. However, the result shows that there is a desire, through the company’s rhetoric, to become a company that is adaptable and can face the society’s changing demands and norms. The results show tendencies for using organizational hypocrisy.

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  • 85.
    Bergdahl, Hanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Sandin, Hannah
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Revision i små aktiebolag: En kvalitativ studie om varför små aktiebolag väljer att revidera sina räkenskaper trots att de inte omfattas av revisionsplikten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Audit requirement was abolished November 1, 2010 in Sweden . This meant that about 250,000 small companies no longer had to audit their financial statements. Today it's been over five years since the decision was taken to abolish the audit requirement. Despite this some small companies choose to audit their accounting.

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of small companies decision to request the voluntary audit.

    Method

    We have used a qualitative approach and conducted semi-structured interviews with representatives of seven small companies. The empirical material was analyzed with a content analysis.

    Results and conclusion

    Our study shows that small companies dempand voluntary audit primarily by four reasons. These are:

     Dispersed ownership

     Assurance that the intern accounting is correct

     Rountinely of management with experience from other companies with audit requirements.

     The desire to be perceived as legitimate

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  • 86.
    Bergkvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Eriksson, Elvira
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Varumärkets betydelse för unga konsumenter: En kvalitativ studie om unga konsumenters val av varumärke inom livsmedel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The sales of grocery stores' private label brands have increased and there is competition between private label brands and national brands. For grocery, there are several different brands in different product categories to choose from where the products are contentually the same. It is therefore important that companies create a value to the consumer through the brand in order for the consumer to choose that brand in front of competing brands. The study deals with young consumers belonging to Generation Y, which are born in the 1980s or 1990s, and are individuals who are characterized of being a consuming generation who considers that the brand is important and has a meaning in their buying process. The study therefore aims to explain why young consumers chooses a specific brand when buying grocery. In order to answer the purpose, a qualitative method has been applied. We assumed a theory of consumer-based brand equity and its five dimensions of awareness, loyalty, perceived quality, association/image and uniqueness. This theory was used to analyze the empirical data to get a result. The empirical data was collected using focus group interviews to get acquainted with young consumers different opinions to gain an understanding of the brand's significance in the purchase of food. The conclusion is that the brand is important to young consumers when selecting a food brand. They choose the brand that is in line with their preferences where knowledge of the brand, the design of the package, the price and ustainability are crucial.

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  • 87.
    Bergman, Robin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Husberg, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Avskaffandet av revisionsplikten: Ränteeffekter på företag inom fastighetsbranschen efter avskaffandet av revisionsplikten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2010, the audit requirement was abolished for smaller companies in Sweden.

    The reason for the removal was to reduce costs for smaller companies. Previous researches

    have concluded that companies that opted out accountant receives higher credit costs when

    they take bank loans. Previous researches argue that this may be due to banks and other credit

    institutions consider that the unaudited financial statements have a lesser quality than the

    revised reports leading to a higher risk for creditors. This paper will examine whether there is

    any difference in the interest rate on loans between companies that have chosen to use an

    auditor and the companies that not use an auditor.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, compare and analyse loan rate of smaller

    companies in the real estate industry that are allowed to have voluntary audit.

    Method: Quantitative method, multiple regression analysis.

    Results: The results of this study shows that the companies who use auditors have a lower

    interest rate on average compared to companies without an auditor. We have also concluded

    that audit has a negative impact on the company's interest rate, but this result is not

    significant. Therefore, we cannot say that auditing has a negative impact on companies

    interest rate, although previous researches has shown that.

    Conclusion: The companies choice to use an auditor or not is not the main thing for creditors

    when it comes to the interest rate that companies get on their bank loans. There are other

    factors that have a major impact on the interest rate. In this study, the companies size and the

    proportion of tangible assets in relation to total assets has the greatest negative impact on the

    companies interest rate. This indicates that banks and other credit institutions see these

    companies as a lower risk.

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  • 88.
    Bertilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Nylander, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Kvotering i bolagsstyrelser: Finns det en påverkan på bolagens lönsamhet?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose is to investigate whether mandatory quotas will have an effect on ROA and growth for Swedish companies listed on Large Cap.

    Method: The study method is quantitative and has a deductive approach. The authors have performed multiple regression analyzes in the statistical program Stata.

    Theoretical starting point: Public Interest Theory, Capture Theory, Coercive Isomorphism, Legitimacy Theory and Human Capital Theory.

    Result and conclusion: The study does not find that the proportion of women in corporate boards has any impact on the companies' financial performance in Swedish companies listed on Large Cap, Nasdaq Stockholm. The study finds that election on the board has a negative impact on the companies' financial performance.

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  • 89.
    Besic, Dino
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Bostadsrättsföreningars påverkan av de nya regelverken: En studie om bostadsrättsföreningar och regelverken K2 och K32015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and issue: Since 2004, the Accounting Standards Board has been working to develop new rules for all accounting entities. The regulations that were designed were rule-based method of accounting K2 and principle-based accounting method K3. Annual reports established for the financial years of 2014 are required to apply the new regulations. The regulations are created for companies, but must be applied by all accounting entities. Housing associations fall under the scope of the accounting entities since they are classified as economic associations. Since the annual reports for the financial year of 2014 are published in spring 2015 when the survey was conducted, I thought it was interesting to examine how the housing associations were affected and pinpoint it against policy-based and rule-based accounting, accounting choices and different depreciation methods within the regulations.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how the how the housing associations' choice of regulatory K2 or K3 affects the financial statements, primarily regarding depreciation and the subject of the annual report.

    Method: In order to achieve the purpose of the essay, I conducted a qualitative study in which I interviewed four people who work with housing associations. To complement the interviews, articles and literature concerning the subject have also been studied.

    Theory: The study is based on theories of accounting choices for housing associations, policy-based and rule-based accounting and different depreciation methods within the regulations.

    Research: The empirical data displays my survey consisting of interviews with four people directly deposited in economy of housing associations in the areas Dalarnas and Gävle.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the regulations had different impacts on housing associations. The framework K2 was very difficult to customize and not at all suitable for use in the housing associations annual reports according to informants. The result was generally lower using K2 because of the depreciation methods. The result shows that the housing associations that choose K3 receives greater discretion and estimates due to component distribution. Housing associations who choose K3 receives higher profit in their annual reports unlike the associations that choose K2 according to the informants.

  • 90.
    Bjelk Krasniqi, Albin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Det mänskliga kapitalet: En studie om hur humankapital redovisas i tre svenska telekomföretag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bachelor's Degree, Retail Management Programme, Dalarna Univercity, FÖ2023, VT2018Author: Albin Bjelk KrasniqiSupervisor: Bertil OlssonTitle: The capital of man – A study of human capital and its disclosure in three swedish telekom companiesBackground: The human capital account has become an increasingly important asset for companies in the service sector. Accounting human capital is nothing that previously had been regulated and usually appears as voluntary disclosure for human capital. More and more companies choose to disclose for human capital to a greater extent. This leads to a rise in the debate about human capital and the recognition of human accounting standards had become even more important. There are no clear guidelines on regulations for how companies should report their human capital, but many choose to do this qualitatively in the introductory report as a part of their annual reports, where management wants to get the total value of the company shown while achieving competitive advantages by disclosing this type of information.Purpose: The aim of the study was to gain an increased understanding of the importance of disclosing human capital in the service industry and to understand how voluntary accounting information in regard to human capital accounting has evolved over the past ten years.Method: The study was based on a comparative study for three telecom companies. These were Telia, Tele2 and Telenor. A qualitative study has been conducted with a deductive approach. The data has primarily been based on stories of the CEO letters to shareholders and can be found in the introduction of the annual reports, this in turn has been analyzed with content analysis while using coding. The study also aimed at measuring the frequency of thevarious categories of human capital through a time-series of data points between 2008 and 2016 that were obtained from annual reports.Result, conclusion: The companies that have been studied, showed that the disclosure of human capital has been reported qualitatively in their annual reports, but in different approaches and in different extent. How companies chose to disclose their human capital was based on how strategically descriptive the introductory report were and to whom the text was written. The significance of reporting human capital has proven to be more important than before and over time has become more extensive in terms of number of words. Two out of three companies also chose to report diversity as a social standard to be considered as legitimate. When companies shows awareness of how legitimacy can be achieved, they showed that legitimacy has significance as far as reporting human capital was concerned. However, the study found that accounting for human capital did not tend to be homogeneous as companies differed in their disclosures. Therefore, the study found no type of relationship between reporting human capital and isomorphism.

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  • 91.
    Bjerhammar, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Produktutvecklingssamarbete mellan detaljhandelsföretag och deras varuleverantörer2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This thesis deals with product development co-operation between retailers and their suppliers. This phenomenon is studied in the light of the increasing importance of private brands in contemporary retailing. The basic frame of reference for the study is the Interaction and Network Approach to industrial marketing. The study takes knowledge of product development co-operation in the manufacturing industries as its starting point. To this, insights concerning retail companies’ features are added and propositions are developed concerning how product development co-operation "ought" to be carried out in this new context, that is, the retail context. These propositions are then tested in a number of cases of product development co-operation between retailers and their suppliers. The case reports are based on personal interviews with a number of product managers in various retail companies. First the propositions are tested in each case. Then an analysis is carried out across all the cases. Finally, more fundamental considerations concerning the phenomenon are discussed. A proposition finds support in a case where the retailer collaborates with their suppliers in a manner which is consistent with the way manufacturing companies do it; in the other cases that proposition is not supported. Some propositions are supported in all cases, but most of them are supported in some cases but not in others. Some retailers choose for example to co-operate with only a few suppliers, an approach that manufacturing firms are assumed to apply. Both retailers and manufacturers do it this way to keep transaction costs low, and an important reason for retailers is that this increases the opportunities to communicate complex information related to the different requirements which products must meet. Other retail companies choose to co-operate with a larger number of suppliers to encourage competition between them. The study also shows, among other things, that the retailers, like manufacturers, can choose to co-operate in various ways with a supplier depending on how strategically important the product or brand in question is considered to be.

  • 92.
    Bjerhammar, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    A conceptualization of suppliers’ and buyers’ abilities in product development: Cases from the retail industry2018In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 413-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework of specified buyer and supplier abilities which may be apparent in processes when firms wish to develop products where other features than function are important.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Data were collected through personal interviews with managers at eight major Swedish retail chains. The framework has been developed from an analysis of the data. Three of the cases are presented to illustrate how the framework may be applied.

    Findings

    The framework contains the concepts specification ability and description ability, which define and specify the demand abilities of the buyer, and the concepts translation ability, interpretation ability and implementation ability, which define and specify the problem-solving abilities of the supplier.

    Originality/value

    The framework presented here contributes to the business relationship and network literature on product development processes by highlighting and conceptualizing the process between buying firms who have different abilities or even inabilities to specify and explain desired product qualities, and the suppliers who should interpret the demands of these buyers.

  • 93.
    Bjerhammar, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Dealing with a lead user's demand for product development2008In: Journal of Business Market Management, ISSN 1864-0753, E-ISSN 1864-0761, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 141-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on product development in interaction. Two types of ­product development projects demanded by a lead-user type of customer are discussed, as well as the consequences these projects have for the supplier regarding change in production processes, market risk and relationship dependencies. The discussion is illustrated by two cases. Six propositions are developed and further research suggested.

  • 94. Björheden, Rolf
    et al.
    Gullberg, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Johansson, Jerry
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Systems analyses for harvesting small trees for forest fuel in urban forestry2003In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 24, no 4-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Björling, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Lavmo, Ellinor
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Hälsofrämjande arbete på SSAB i Borlänge: Hälsofrämjande processer i arbetslivet och ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarens hälsa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The working environment is essential for human well-being. Health factors are assumed not only to strengthen the individuals’ physical and mental health, but also the company’s competitiveness and profitability. In the paper, we examine how the company SSAB in Borlänge is working with health by applying a health perspective and by applying the theory of sense of coherence (SOC). Leadership values are important for employees’ health (Hanson, 2004) and we are examining the perception a number of managers have of their roles in health promotion, and their views of the employee survey HälsoSAM, which the occupational health services at SSAB perform. Employees and managers workload is increasing due to cutbacks, while resources are decreasing (Gatu, 2003). The consequence is a greater risk of ill health and a way to reduce sick leave is health promotion (Prevent, 2001).

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is from a health perspective explain managers’ opportunities to create conditions to promote employees' health at SSAB in Borlänge.

    Method: The methodology underlying this study is based on a qualitative approach in which semi-structured interviews and literature studies are conducted to gather information.

    Analysis: Managers’ behavior affects the employees. High workload on SSAB's managers leads to lower attendance among , which in turn provides fewer opportunities for health promotion. HälsoSAM maps employees' health status. The results are indicative of the health promotion work, but overload, lack of time and lack of knowledge among managers contribute to that the follow-up does not become systematic. Well-functioning health work requires systematic work.

    Conclusion: A health-promoting process at work is created by the balance between demands and resources. The health-promoting process at SSAB in Borlänge is prevented by lack of time and lack of knowledge among managers. Reorganizations and cost savings negatively affect health promotion in the workplace and the systematic in the follow-up work suffers. Responsibility for health work is placed on occupational health, but without support from managers, the health work does not become a natural part of the business. In the current situation, it is important to see what health promotion can give in return in both financial and qualitative terms. If the managers realize this, it increases the incentives to prioritize the process of health promotion and organize the work so employees have the ability to handle, control and manage their work.

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  • 96.
    Björn, Mathilda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Kristoffersson Jakobsson, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    B2B-marknadsföring via sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om sociala medier som kommunikationsverktyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of B2B companies' use of social media.

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative deductive approach in which semistructured interviews and a review of companies social media usage have been conducted to collect data.

    Conclusion: The result of the study shows that B2B companies mainly use social media to reach out to a larger target group and to create brand awareness. There is still no active two-way communication through social media. However, social media is used as an communication tool for spreading information about the company and for creating opportunities for interaction with other companies, although this interaction mainly takes place through personal sales.

  • 97.
    Blom, Alexander
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Möjligheter och problem att få sponsring: En fallstudie i Ghana2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During a three-month period, I was privileged to be part of the organization of the honorable football club Accra Hearts of Oak in Ghana. My field study and task assignment was to help the club with its sponsorship work. This was tougher than I had expected. Even though the club has millions of supporters, they still had problems getting sponsors, which resulted in lower income. The research question I asked was: Which challenges do football clubs in Africa face when it comes to sponsorship, and how can they work to maximize the opportunities for sponsors for theiractivities? Sport has evolved to become increasingly professional and commercialized, which has resulted in the professional clubs having higher turnover. From my field study, I have examined various theories to see how they fit into a new environment with other conditions, since research on sponsorship in Africa is relatively sparse. The study shows that the power and lack of a club can get with the help of the owner's finances, separate from the non-profit sport we have in Sweden. It also indicates the importance of good relations, the importance of taking advantage of the club's strengths, and cultivating its image.

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  • 98.
    Blum, Jutta
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Henriksson, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    What it is that skilled young adults seek in their workplace2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem-

    An increasingly globalized world is a cause for highly competitive job markets, making the attraction and retention of young talents increasingly important (Wallace et al., 2014). Additionally, current studies have not been able to successfully frame possible needs and wishes of this cohort towards their future workplaces (Deal et al., 2010).

    Aim-

    Therefore, this study aims to contribute to the understanding of what these young talents, seek for from a workplace.

    Method-

    This study applies a qualitative, and inductive approach, to explore and simultaneously allow new in-depth insights into the study area. Therefore, 13 fictive stories were collected from current, and former students in Sweden. The fictive stories were used to ease the participants into the distancing of themselves from current social structures, and to express their actual needs and wants.

    Findings-

    With the findings five major dimensions could be identified, that concerns the study group when picturing a desirable workplace: Workplace structure & dynamics, Validation & acknowledgment, Acceptance and Freedom, Private & Work life balance, and Personal growth and the future. These dimensions further split into issues and seeking’s that concern equality and flat leader style, as well as an inhibited insecurity and the wish for support and acceptance.

    Limitations-

    This research is, as all qualitative studies greatly dependent on the researchers’ interpretation of the underlying material. Also, other factors as for example national culture could have possible effects on the outcomes of this study, however efforts were made to discuss the potential influences.

    Contribution-

    With the five dimension that were identified in our study, new knowledge on what it is that attracts and motivates young adults in Sweden to a certain company, could be collected. This knowledge might benefit businesses that regard these, when reaching out for new labor force.

    Also, further studies can be built upon this research, as for example an inductive testing on the applicability in other contexts, or generalizability of the model.

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  • 99.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Does the competition state undermine the long term sustainability of rural tourism?: The case of Sweden2014In: Proceedings from TTRA 2014 International Conference: Tourism and the New Global Economy / [ed] Marion Joppe, 2014, p. 171-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary competition state, many peripheral regions are in decline. Tourism is increasingly considered as a savior for regions lagging behind. The EU has launched several programs with the ambition to stimulate growth and employment in peripheral areas which are used in tourism development projects. In this paper a longitudinal analysis of changes in Swedish tourism guest nights with an attempt to assess the spatial changes that have taken place in the light of this new regional tourism policy are carried out. The aim is to investigate if tourism and tourism policy contributes to level out disparities between regions. The analysis is based on statistics on Swedish guest nights, on employees in the accommodation sector and on EU funds. Although there are exceptions, the main findings indicate that the potential for creating sustainable rural tourism growth through tourism policy seems to be much less than the popular discourse suggests.

  • 100.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Möjligheten att utveckla ett verktyg för att mäta besöksnäringens konkurrenskraft2013Report (Other academic)
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