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  • 51.
    Hanses, Axel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Brossberg, Klas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Infästningsmetoder för prefabricerade fasadelement2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It was approximately 50 years ago since the houses from the miljonprogram era

    were built. Today many of these houses are in need of renovation. The energy

    usages in these buildings are very high, and many changes need to happen for

    them to meet the modern standards of energy useage in buildings.

    One way to decrease the energy usage is to attach prefabricated facades

    to buildings, to lower the building envelopes heat transmission coefficient.

    This study’s purpose is to find suitable attachment methods for Dalahus

    prefabricated facade elements.

    The study started with researching common multi-family residential

    buildings from the miljonprogram era. After reviewing constructional drawings over

    the chosen buildings, it became apparent that it would be complicated to attach

    the elements without doing any preparatory work on the building, something that

    BioInnovation wants to avoid.

    The study then continued with researching past projects, with prefabricated

    facade renovations, to see what kind of methods were used. Three different kinds

    of attachment methods that met BioInnovations standards were developed. Using

    a method which requires as little preparatory work as possible.

    The foundation method uses Lecablocks placed in the ground, as a

    foundation for the elements. The second technique uses L-profiles that are

    attached to the walls, whereas the third method uses a rail where the elements

    hang on.

    Calculations were made to see if the methods worked and could handle the

    forces from the elements. The result of this study shows that lamellarhouses with

    L-profiles are the most suitable attachment method

  • 52.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bergdahl, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Börjesson, Petter
    Energiexpertis.
    Paketrenovering i småhus med BELOK Totalmetodik: Resultat som beslutsunderlag vid finansiering med energilån?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att illustrera en metod för att hjälpa ägare av mindre fastigheter att nå en högre energieffektiviseringsgrad vid renovering genom paketering av åtgärder. Metoden som används, BELOK Totalprojekt, utvecklades ursprungligen för användning ilokaler och kommersiella byggnader, men vår ambition i Dalarna är att visa metodens tillämpning även för mindre fastigheter som småhus. Det som avgör fastighetsägarensbeslut om åtgärdspaket är ofta dels osäkerheten kring vad som är rätt åtgärder men också kring kostnaden och lönsamheten med investerat kapital. Metoden som visas i denna rapport kan avsevärt minska dessa osäkerheter och på så vis även underlätta vid kreditgivares bedömning när eventuella lån ska beviljas.

    I den här studien har fyra typiska småhus av olika ålderskategori genomgått en energianalys för att identifiera tekniskt möjliga åtgärder för att minska energianvändningen. Dessa åtgärder har sedan satts samman till ett antal åtgärdspaket för att slutligen lönsamhetsberäknas med hjälp av BELOK Totalverktyg. Resultaten presenteras i form av internräntediagram, vilket ger ett mått på paketets lönsamhet, årsbehov av köpt energi och primärenergi före och efter åtgärderna samt slutligen årlig energikostnad för varje paket.

    Resultatet visar att det går att göra lönsamma åtgärdspaket som når en halvering av energianvändningen (både köpt energi och primärenergi) i 2 av 4 studerade hus. De två hus som klarar av att lönsamt halvera energianvändningen är båda uppvärmda med el utan värmepump eller energiåtervinning på ventilationen. Det ena huset där en lönsam halvering inte är möjlig är uppvärmt med fjärrvärme och det andra är ett nyare hus som är utrustat med värmeåtervinning på ventilationsluften. Om man har ett relativt billigt uppvärmningssätt (fjärrvärme kontra el) eller om byggnaden redan har en låg energianvändning är det svårt att nå en lönsam halvering. Det går dock att hitta mindre åtgärdspaket som är lönsamma och samtidigt innebär en betydande energieffektivisering.

    En annan slutsats från resultaten är att det är relativt enkelt att göra stora besparingar i både köpt energi och primärenergi i ett eluppvärmt hus genom att installera någon form av värmepump. Att installera en värmepump i ett hus uppvärmt med fjärrvärme kan ge en stor besparing i köpt energi, men ger enbart en måttlig besparing i primärenergi. Att byta från el till förnyelsebar energikälla (pellets i detta fall) ger i ett av exemplen en nästan oförändrad användning av köpt energi medan man når en halvering av primärenergianvändningen. Det är alltså viktigt att poängtera att en kostnadseffektivisering med de metoder som används i rapporten inte nödvändigtvis leder till en energieffektivisering i ett större sammanhang, där primärenergi vägs in.

    Denna rapport är resultatet från Lågan-projektet 2014:12 ”BELOK S – exempel påtillämpning i befintliga småhus”. Projektet är finansierat av Lågan (och därmed indirekt av Energimyndigheten), ByggDialog Dalarna samt Högskolan Dalarna genom Energi- och miljökompetenscentrum, EMC. Även tre banker har bidragit med egen tid i form av deltagande i intervjuer samt synpunkter och dessa är Swedbank Falun, Länsförsäkringar bank Dalarna samt Leksands sparbank.

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  • 53.
    Hellström, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Maleki, Benjamin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kondensrisk i frånluftsfläkt för behovsstyrd ventilation: En experimentell undersökning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden it is very common for villas and small houses to have an uninsulated

    attic, a so called cold attic. Installing a demand-controlled ventilation system is a

    way to increase energy efficiency in both old and newly built houses. To be able

    to place an exhaust fan in a cold attic in a nordic climate, where temperatures

    reaches twenty degrees below zero, some type of insulation is not uncommonly

    required to prevent condensation from forming inside the unit. The purpose of

    this study has been to investigate how thick the insulation needs to be around

    the fan to prevent from condensation, depending on temperature. The

    investigation have been done in the climate chamber at the university of

    Dalarna. To ensure the right climate an exhaust fan with insulated conduits was

    installed to create one damp indoor- and one colder outdoor environment to

    conducted tests at different temperatures with different levels of insulation. The

    study shows that insulation is required, at what temperatures and what levels of

    insulation we can expect condensation to form and what is required to prevent

    condensation from forming. The results from these tests could aid in preventing

    moisture problems that could occur when installing a demand-controlled

    ventilation system.

  • 54.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Mårtenskog, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Linköpings universitet.
    Sociala perspektiv på termisk komfort vid renovering av Tjärna Ängar.2019In: Hållbar renovering ur ett helhetsperspektiv.: En antologi från forskningsmiljön SIRen. / [ed] Olander, S., Mjörnell, K., Fermenias, P. Helsing, E., Wellentén, P., Lund: Lunds universitet , 2019, 1, p. 41-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    1960- och 70-talens ”miljonprogram” gav upphov till en snabb tillväxt av nya hyreshus och förortsområden. Idag är de flesta av dessa bostadsområden i stort behov av renovering, och olika insatser görs för att få byggnaderna mer energieffektiva. Ett av de områden som just nu genomgår sådan renovering och energieffektivisering är Tjärna Ängar i Borlänge. Renoveringsarbetet studeras av ett flervetenskapligt forskningsteam vid Högskolan Dalarna, och artikeln utgår från intervjuer och mätningar som genomförts före respektive efter renovering av tre testhus. Resultaten bygger framförallt på intervjuer med representanter för bostadsbolaget och intervjuer med män och kvinnor boende i ett av dessa flerbostadshus. Artikeln diskuterar de boendes negativa upplevelse av termisk komfort, en faktor som inte var så tydlig vid mätningarna, men som blev mycket framträdande i intervjuresultaten. Vi menar att upplevelser av dålig termisk komfort innebär att även renoveringens sociala hållbarhet skulle kunna ses som bristfällig. Utgångspunkten för detta påstående är en definition av social hållbarhet som framförts av Liu, Dijst, Geertman and Cui (2017). Dessa författare har, utifrån en litteraturöversikt av hur begreppet ”social hållbarhet” hittills definierats inom olika discipliner, föreslagit ett begreppsmässigt ramverk för social hållbarhet som består av två kontextualiserade komponenter: välbefinnande och social rättvisa. Bristande termisk komfort bland de boende visade sig i vår studie ha stora kopplingar till både bristande välbefinnande och social rättvisa. Men problematiken har även viktiga kopplingar till möjligheten att spara energi i samband med renovering av miljonprogramområden. Artikeln inleds med några ord om hur den termiska komforten sett ut i byggnaden före respektive efter renoveringen. Därefter påtalas vikten av att se olikheter i upplevelsen av termisk komfort, dels i form av en genusskillnad, dels som en särskild sårbarhet i vissa situationer, liksom olikheter i målsättning och strategier hos bostadsbolag respektive boende. Därefter följer en diskussion om möjligheter och svårigheter i att kombinera energibesparing med välbefinnande och rättvisa. Slutligen dras slutsatsen att varje renovering måste betraktas som unik.  

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    Sociala perspektiv på termisk komfort
  • 55.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Sattari, Amir
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Evaluating thermal comfort in a Swedish block of flats: A methodological comparison2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methodological approaches have been used to investigate thermal comfort amongoccupants in a Swedish block of flats; measurements and thermal comfort standards on the onehand, and qualitative interviews on the other. The purpose with this paper is to present, compareand discuss results from these two radically different methods. The results coincide concerningvariations of thermal comfort throughout the day, but are much less in accord in results whereoccupants express, or are presumed to complain of, thermal discomfort. The interviews showthat female occupants tend to suffer more from thermal discomfort than male occupants, a resultwhich is absent in the measurement methodology. The results give support to suggestions thatgender aspects should be taken more into account when determining and controlling thermalcomfort. The differing results also point at the importance of complementing standardizedthermal comfort measurements with surveys or qualitative interviews.

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  • 56.
    Hersvall, Jacob
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tillämpning av Tekla Structura lDesigner: Enstudie med fokus på integration med Tekla Structural Designer som dimensioneringsverktyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, several 3D-Cad programs are used based on BIM application where detailed designs can be modeled to produce construction documents and manufacturing drawings around the engineering offices in Sweden. However, many of these programs are not compatible with 3D design and analysis software, but unnecessary work is required to draw a model several times to make the necessary calculations. The purpose of this degree project was to focus on the compatibility between Tekla Structural Designer and Tekla Structures, which also explored the ease of use of Tekla Structural Designer. The implementation was divided into two case studies, with the first focusing on the compatibility of a finished project model created in Tekla Structures as well as a separate model made in Tekla Structural Designer. In the second case study, the user-friendliness of the program was investigated in which the report describes how the user can utilize the most common features of the program. Based on case studies, they resulted in the compatibility between Tekla Structures and Tekla Structural Designer in both directions, although there are some limitations. An important conclusion from the work is that a model should preferably be projected with regard to being analytically correct before exporting from Tekla Structures. This in order to reduce hand laying at a later stage when the construction is to be analyzed. The application of Tekla Structural designs could lead to a more efficient working methodology within the projects. It could also lead to a closer relationship between projectors and those who perform the calculation when the projectors modeling models also have to think that the model should be analytically correct and be able to determine how elements etc. should be attached fixed or pinned. Furthermore, the program is considered useful in both modeling and analysis of a construction. Integration with several BIM software such as Autodesk Revit means that the application can be applied in several different projects

  • 57.
    Hesaraki, Arefeh
    et al.
    KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Influence of different ventilation levels on indoor air quality and energy savings: a case study of a single-family house2015In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 19, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of different ventilation levels on indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy savings were studied experimentally and analytically in a single-family house occupied by two adults and one infant, situated in Borlänge, Sweden. The building studied had an exhaust ventilation system with a range of air flow rate settings. In order to find appropriate ventilation rates regarding CO2, relative humidity (RH) and temperature as indicators of IAQ, four ventilation levels were considered, as follows: (I) A very low ventilation rate of 0.10 L s-1 m-2; (II) A low ventilation rate of 0.20 L s-1 m-2; (III) A normal ventilation rate of 0.35 L s-1 m-2; (IV) A high ventilation rate of 0.70 L s-1 m-2. In all cases, the sensor was positioned in the exhaust duct exiting from habitable spaces. Measurements showed that, for case I, the CO2 concentration reached over 1300 ppm, which was higher than the commonly referenced threshold for ventilation control, i.e. 1000 ppm, showing unacceptable IAQ. In case II, the CO2 level was always below 950 ppm, indicating that 0.20 L s-1 m-2 is a sufficient ventilation rate for the reference building. The case III showed that the ventilation rate of 0.35 L s-1 m-2 caused a maximum CO2 level of 725 ppm; showing the level recommended by Swedish regulations was high with respect to CO2 level. In addition, measurements showed that the RH and temperature were within acceptable ranges in all cases. An energy savings calculation showed that, in case II, the comparative savings of the combined energy requirement for ventilation fan and ventilation heating were 43% compared with case III.

  • 58.
    Holmberg, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Roberg, Amanda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    En hållbar villa år 2030: En framtidsspåning förankrat i Fiskarhedenvillan AB´s produktion2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet behandlar på begäran av Fiskarhedenvillan AB hur hållbar arkitektur och byggteknik kan tillämpas i ett småhus om 10 år samt om hållbarhetskrav då kan ha förändrat villautformningen. Arbetet avgränsades och syftade till att behandla fem områden: framtida byggkrav med synpunkt på tillämpning av LCA, energieffektiva installationer och tekniska lösningar, kretslopp, materialval samt inomhusklimatets påverkan på människan. Metoden baserades på en kvalitativ studie där datainsamling genomfördes med dokumentinsamlingsmetodik i form av fallstudier från litteratur, semistrukturerade intervjuer med öppna frågor, avhandlingar, tidskrifter, data från utförda undersökningar samt databaser. Informationen sammanställdes i rapporten utifrån en subjektiv bedömning. Studien resulterade i ett konkret förslag på en villautformning samt påvisade att det idag tas alltför liten hänsyn till jordens ekologiska system vid konsumtionen av dess ändliga råvaror. Människan måste förändra sin livsstil. Med avseende på det har frågor och medvetenhet kring byggnaders energianvändning och miljöanpassning på senare år ökat. Den ökade medvetenheten gör att allt fler väljer att miljöcertifiera sina byggnader. Det finns olika miljöcertifieringar exempelvis Svanencertifiering, men indikatorerna bygger på samma grundtanke, att skapa en hållbar byggnad som inte påverkar miljön mer än nödvändigt. Ett mindre utforskat område är den totala klimatpåverkan en byggnad utgör under hela dess livslängd och här behöver aktörer inom byggsektorn öka sin kunskap. Något som kan göras genom användande av livscykelanalyser och klimatdeklarationer i projekteringsfasen. Enligt Boverket kommer regeringen även inom kort att ställa högre krav på tillämpning av just dessa verktyg vid uppförande av nybyggnation. För att minska energibehov samt skapa en behaglig och trivsam inomhusmiljö i energieffektiva byggnader behöver kunskapen för de installationstekniska delarna höjas inom byggsektorn.

  • 59.
    Huang, Pei
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Copertaro, Benedetta
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Löfgren, Isabelle
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Fahlen, Jan
    Andersson, Dan
    Svanfeldt, Mikael
    A review of data centers as prosumers in district energy systems: Renewable energy integration and waste heat reuse for district heating2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 258, article id 114109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As large energy prosumers in district energy systems, on the one hand, data centers consume a large amount of electricity to ensure the Information Technologies (IT) facilities, ancillary power supply and cooling systems work properly; on the other hand, data centers produce a large quantity of waste heat due to the high heat dissipation rates of the IT facilities. To date, a systematic review of data centers from the perspective of energy prosumers, which considers both integration of the upstream green energy supply and downstream waste heat reuse, is still lacking. As a result, the potentials for improving data centers’ performances are limited due to a lack of global optimization of the upstream renewable energy integration and downstream waste heat utilization. This study is intended to fill in this gap and provides such a review. In this regard, the advancements in different cooling techniques, integration of renewable energy and advanced controls, waste heat utilization and connections for district heating, real projects, performance metrics and economic, energy and environmental analyses are reviewed. Based on the enormous amount of research on data centers in district energy systems, it has been found that: (1) global controls, which can manage the upstream renewable production, data centers’ operation and waste heat generation and downstream waste heat utilization are still lacking; (2) regional climate studies represent an effective way to find the optimal integration of renewable energy and waste heat recovery technologies for improving the data centers’ energy efficiency; (3) the development of global energy metrics will help to appropriately quantify the data center performances.

  • 60.
    Husanov, Fuad
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kunskap hos privatpersoner om termisk komfort inomhus: En fallstudie av kunskapen om termisk komfort2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal comfort indoors is a big factor in how you feel comfortable in your home. It is important to know how individuals are experiencing their thermal comfort indoors. To get there you must also find out how much knowledge they have for thermal climate, as this may affect the way they behave to control their experience of the thermal climate in their homes.

    The aim is answered on the following issues

    • How much

    knowledge individuals have about thermal comfort

    • What are the problem areas that might arise based on measurements taken of each home

    • Is there a connection between how much knowledge they have on their residence and higher risk of

    poor thermal comfort

    • The proportion of satisfied / dissatisfied with their thermal comfort

    and to compare measurements to results of the interview.

    The individuals were found to have thorough knowledge of the thermal climate and differed between the different home. In total 13 people are in interviewed which includes 5 houses. Homeowners were found to have more knowledge than those who lived in apartment. But no one knew which factors influence thermal environment other than trim level and the temperature of the air. There were two residents that had problems and higher risk of illness. You could also see a link between low knowledge of the thermal climate and the higher risk of poor thermal climate. It turned out that the majority were satisfied with the thermal climate in their homes. What was interesting, however, was that those who had too warm indoors were still satisfied while those who had it a bit too chilly were dissatisfied. According PMV index that I got was that both parties should be dissatisfied. One possible explanation for this not being the case could be that when you have it too warm in the winter indoors then you have a greater opportunity to cool down the house by lighter clothing, reducing the temperature of the radiator or open the balcony door so that it comes in fresh air while also cooling the house. All this are free from charge.

    While for those who has a bit too chilly can not control the temperature free of charge during winter.

    According to measurements, the carbon dioxide content are normal in all houses except the above mentioned which had too high levels. The house with high carbon dioxide content also had slightly higher relative humidity, which was 41.5% which is higher than others, in comparison. The temperature was within reasonable levels but some had air temperature below 20C

    0. After looking at the house, I found a possible cause of high carbon dioxide content. They had closed the air ducts that sat across the windows in the belief that it would lead to warmer housing. Although house 1, which had the air temperature of about 20.3C0, they felt cool at home. The cause of that was long curtains that hung and covered the radiator, which could rub the heat circulation and the distribution of heat. Although house 1 who had air temperature about 20.3C0, felt chilly at home. Sick Building Syndrome house was also investigated and a very likely cause were found in house ventilation system.

    In this theses it has shown that the majority is satisfied with their thermic comfort, but the minority is over 30 %.

    This investigation is clearly showing problem areas with thermal climate which can occur and the need of informing house owners of thermal climate to avoid any problem caused by them.

  • 61.
    Håkansson, Hannes
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lindvall, Jakob
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Livscykelanalys på våtrum: Riktvärden för miljömässig belastning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Global warming is a fact and the construction industry is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce this impact, the government intends to introduce climate declaration requirements when a new building is to be erected from 1 January 2022. More than 100,000 water damage occurs every year in Sweden which making it the most common type of damage in housing. Bath and shower rooms and kitchens contribute to the most water damage in buildings and today constitute a major environmental burden. Carbon dioxide emissions when handling a single water damage are on average 300 kg. Water damage is not only a major environmental burden, but also involves large costs for insurance companies and property owners.

    The purpose of this work is to carry out, on the basis of a fictitious model, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in a bathroom based on the development of environmental values from wet rooms and its structural parts which in turn can be linked to the environmental impact of water damage for example. The purpose is also to examine which materials are preferred in terms of environmental impact and to examine the industry rules that apply today when building wet rooms. A literature study has formed the basis for the work in which current building rules and industry rules were mapped and studied regarding views on the design of wet rooms. The literature study is followed by a case study in which a fictitious model of a bathroom has been established to enable a Life Cycle Assessment. Bathrooms with two different surface layers in the form of ceramics and plastic mats have been studied as well as different materials in tap water pipes, wastewater pipes and underfloor heating systems. The program One Click LCA has provided a basis in the work for assessing the environmental impact of bathrooms that occur at various stages during a 100-year period.

    The result shows that bathrooms with plastic mats as a surface layer have a higher environmental impact than bathrooms with ceramics seen for global warming during an entire life cycle. In the fictional model the bathroom with plastic mat contributes with 1588 kg CO2e compared to bathroom with ceramics with 1464 kg CO2e. Beam flooring is the structural part of a wet room with ceramic or plastic mat that affects global warming most followed by exterior wall and then interior wall as seen in kg CO2e/m2 . In the bathroom with plastic mat the beam flooring has an impact with 38 kg CO2e/m2 , the outer wall 18 kg CO2e/m2 and the inner wall 11.5 kg CO2e/m2 . The distribution looks similar in bathroom with ceramics but is slightly lower on the floor and slightly higher on the exterior wall and interior wall. The report shows that the most contributing type of resource during the stage A1-A3 Material production is the stone wool insulation with 113 kg CO2e and throughout the life cycle it is the resource type of gypsum, mortar and cement with 470 kg CO2e for bathroom with ceramics and the resource type plastic mat with 650 kg CO2e for bathroom with plastic mat. Of bathroom installations, tap water pipes regardless of material contribute less to global warming than wastewater pipes do to kg CO2e/m. Tap water pipes in copper have an impact of 1.46 kg CO2e/m seen in the entire life cycle compared to the material PEX which is slightly higher at 1.81 kg CO2e/m. Wastewater pipes in cast iron have an impact of 24.18 kg CO2e/m in the entire life cycle compared to the material PP of 12.28 kg CO2e/m. The result also shows that copper is the material in the underfloor heating system that overall contributes most to global warming with just over 88 kg CO2e/m2 floor area. Then the material PEX of about 37 kg CO2e/m2 floor area and then PP of about 30 kg CO2e/m2 floor area.

    The report confirms that global warming in the construction industry can to some extent be linked to wet rooms and water damage. Building waterproof wet rooms is a complex task but fully feasible based on current industry rules. The work has shown that a Life Cycle Assessment is necessary to create a fair overall picture of a material or a structural part for example. Although the stage A1-A3 Material production and the stage B1-B5 Maintenance, replacement and renovation have the greatest impact on the entire life cycle. This shows in turn the importance of making long-term and wise decisions at an early stage when the potential for influence is greatest there. The result can be used as guideline values for the environmental impact of the various design parts of the wet room, as well as guidance when it comes to material selection and design in future projects. The same guide values also give an idea of how much environmental impact a water damage would entail in a structural part for example.

  • 62.
    Janols, Henrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Wik, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Nulägesanalys av passivhusbyggande i Sverige 20102012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn slukar årligen ca 40 % av Sveriges totala energiförbrukning. Nya normer kräver energieffektivare bostäder. Normerna idag fokuserar enbart på driftkostnader och tar inte alls hänsyn till energiförbrukningen och koldioxidavtrycket som själva byggprocessen alstrar. Med höga driftvärden blir energiförbrukningen i byggskedet en liten procent men för passivhus, och ännu högre grad för plusenergihus, som förbrukar ytterst lite energi, blir tillverkningsenergin den avgörande miljöbelastningen. Ny teknik för att uppnå de nya kraven finns i viss utsträckning, men kännedom och kunskap om dem saknas då de fått otillräcklig spridning. En del tekniska lösningar befinner sig fortfarande i en utvecklingsprocess och är inte färdigutvecklade för en större produktion. Ambitionen med denna nulägesanalys och därtill lika inventeringsarbete har varit att fånga in de lösningar och tester som gjorts och ta del av utvärderingarna så att vi kan dra nytta utav dessa i vårt arbete. Denna sammanställning grundar sig på muntlig information vi tagit del av under studiebesöken, ritningar, beskrivningar, protokoll samt rapporter vi samlat in.

    Syfte

    Syftet med vår resa till nedanstående objekt var att ta reda på hur flerfamiljshus med passivhus standard är byggda. Vilka stomval har gjorts och av vilken anledning. Vi ville också ta reda på hur man klarat av täthetskraven i de olika projekten samt hur detta mätts. I många fall verkar det som om utformning och arkitektur glöms bort när man ska bygga passivhus som om passivhuskravet vore så betungande att god utformning inte är förening med det. Därför ville vi också bedöma byggnaderna från arkitektoniska aspekter då dessa är av stor vikt för en bra miljö.

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  • 63.
    Jansson, Tom
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utvärdering av terrester laserskanning i framställandet av en 3D-modell: Baserat på underlag från ritning och terrester laserskanning av en fackverksbro2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the implementation of building information modeling (BIM) in the Swedish civil engineering industry has increased. This is due to directives from the government stating that the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), in greater occurrence, will benefit from the digital possibilities with the BIM concept. Trafikverket is the government agency responsible for the long-term planning and management of public roads, construction in the infrastructure such as tunnels and bridges, and has great influence in the Swedish civil engineering industry. They claim that the key to enhance the use and development of BIM is to raise their demands towards the rest of the industry. Transitioning from a drawing-based to an object-based approach will affect the entire industry. The idea is to be able to handle all the information in 3D-data and the BIM concept throughout the entire life cycle of the construction. To reach that ambition, the already-built constructions need to be represented as 3D-models in terms of being a part of the BIM concept.

    Terrestrial laser scanning is a method of measurement that is being used worldwide for 3D-documentation of complex objects and environments. The result of a scan is comprehensive with low uncertainty of measurement; therefore the method is well suited to assist in the creation of 3D-models.

    The primary aim of the study is to examine the differences between 3D-models, depending on the measurement method that was used to create them.

    An analysis of the current situation in these fields-of-study was made by a literature study to place this thesis in its proper context. Although the two 3D-models were the same exact object, they were created using two different methods of measurement. The models were compared to identify the differences between them.

    The study unveils that the choice of measurement method influences the results of the 3D-model, where the terrestrial laser scanning method could help to improve the quality of the final product. On the other hand, there were areas where the two methods of measurement could complement each other for even better results.

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  • 64.
    Janérs, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kommunikation mellan arbetsledning och yrkesarbetare: En kartläggning över informationsflödet på arbetsplatsen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inadequate communication has for a long time, cost both time and money for the construction industry. Large savings can be made by the construction companies by improving the communication. Improvements can be made both internally, by the organization, and externally between the client and the contractor.

    Purpose: The main purpose of the study is to make a survey of the information flow between project management and professional workers and to locate the weaknesses related to the communication. Those studies and results will give additional grounds to improve the communication within NCC.

    Restrictions: The study was limited to only be done within NCC:s department Infrastructure in Dalarna and manage three ongoing projects. Restrictions were also made to only manage the internal communication between project management and professional workers in the projects.

    Method: In the start phase, a survey of how the information is spread internally within NCC today, what information channels are used and how communication is conducted between project management and professional workers. This by: review follow-ups on projects, participate in meetings and join the professional workers on site.

    Interviews were made with the project management and professional workers. Finally, the shortcomings of the results are presented. The identified problems can later form the basis of a development model in communication, for both project management and professional workers at NCC.

    Result: Shows that some are happy with the communication in the projects while others are not entirely satisfied with the way the communication is handled in the workplace.

    Conclusion: Some of the conclusions obtained from the thesis work are as follows:

    o For a project to be a successful project, both in cost and time, it is necessary to clarify who will participate in the project from start to finish.

    o Closer cooperation and daily communication between professional workers and project management not only lead to less misunderstandings but also to effective and innovative solutions to both execution as a whole and the problems that arise along the way.

  • 65.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse mellan energiberäkning med TMF Energi och IDA ICE -fallstudie för ett småhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For each newly produced house, an energy calculation will be made in the production state and after the building has started to be used, a measurement will form the basis for the energy declaration. This is done to make demands on the energy consumption of the house, in order to reach the targets by 2020 and 2050. There are many different methods for calculating energy consumption. In this report, two energy calculation programs will be compared and look at how the energy usage responds to the solar radiation in the different methods. A hand calculation will be made to validate if the energy usage level is reasonable. The two programs are TMF Energy and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). The calculations are made on a standard house from the house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan. The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in the different methods, so that the results can be compared and see how they differ from one another. The house will be placed differently to see how the orientation affects the energy consumption. The results for the simulations are close to each other and the hand calculation differs from the programs. Even if solar factors change in the different computer programs, results can be matched to form a pattern. The same patterns can be seen in the hand calculation, but with a greater deviation.

  • 66.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse mellan energiberäkning med TMF Energi och IDA ICE -fallstudie för ett småhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For each newly produced house, an energy calculation will be made in the production state and after the building has started to be used, a measurement will form the basis for the energy declaration. This is done to make demands on the energy consumption of the house, in order to reach the targets by 2020 and 2050. There are many different methods for calculating energy consumption.

    In this report, two energy calculation programs will be compared and look at how the energy usage responds to the solar radiation in the different methods. A hand calculation will be made to validate if the energy usage level is reasonable.

    The two programs are TMF Energy and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). The calculations are made on a standard house from the house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan.

    The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in the different methods, so that the results can be compared and see how they differ from one another. The house will be placed differently to see how the orientation affects the energy consumption.

    The results for the simulations are close to each other and the hand calculation differs from the programs. Even if solar factors change in the different computer programs, results can be matched to form a pattern.

    The same patterns can be seen in the hand calculation, but with a greater deviation.

  • 67.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse mellan energiberäkningmed TMF Energi och IDA ICE-fallstudie för ett småhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For each newly produced house, an energy calculation will be made inthe production state and after the building has started to be used, ameasurement will form the basis for the energy declaration. This isdone to make demands on the energy consumption of the house, inorder to reach the targets by 2020 and 2050.There are many different methods for calculating energy consumption.In this report, two energy calculation programs will be compared andlook at how the energy usage responds to the solar radiation in thedifferent methods. A hand calculation will be made to validate if theenergy usage level is reasonable.The two programs are TMF Energy and IDA Indoor Climate andEnergy (IDA ICE). The calculations are made on a standard housefrom the house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan.The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in thedifferent methods, so that the results can be compared and see howthey differ from one another. The house will be placed differently tosee how the orientation affects the energy consumption.The results for the simulations are close to each other and the handcalculation differs from the programs. Even if solar factors change inthe different computer programs, results can be matched to form apattern. The same patterns can be seen in the hand calculation, but witha greater deviation.

  • 68.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bo i Byn: Utformning av seniorbostad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when an elderly person wants to sell the property and move on to somethingthat is easier to handle? Are there opportunities for older people to live in the same city asbefore? What opportunities are there for elderly people who want to move to a smallerresidence? Can a concept be drawn up just for this assignment?This degree project will address the problem of how elderly people face a challenge to get toa simpler accommodation that is more suited to the elderly for functional and maintenancepurposes. The thesis is based on an ongoing project that takes place in Norr Amsberg, a smalltown three kilometer north of Borlänge.In this degree project, a qualitative method will be used which means no calculations isneeded. Thus, facts will be gathered from interviews, research articles and statistics.Six people have been interviewed during this project. Those who have been interviewed aretwo scientists who are stationed in Falun, three older people who have passed sixty-five yearsof ages and finally the enthusiast who started whole project in Norr Amsberg. This provides abroad ground for the conclusions drawn in the report.A concept house has been drawn up during this time, taking account of the wishes of theinterviewees as appearance, functional requirements and location. The house has allaccessibility requirements that a modern home will have. The building that is produced is aconcept and not the finished product.Important conclusions that have been made during this study are how important the housingdesign is and how it affects the elderly significantly more than is generally believed and thatthe need will increase significantly in terms of custom housing in the future. The importanceof housing design and how it affects older people are some major key factors that allmunicipalities learn to address when planning a type of "senior housing" for elderly people.

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  • 69.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bo i Byn: Utformning av seniorbostad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What happens when an elderly person wants to sell the property and move on to something

    that is easier to handle? Are there opportunities for older people to live in the same city as

    before? What opportunities are there for elderly people who want to move to a smaller

    residence? Can a concept be drawn up just for this assignment?

    This degree project will address the problem of how elderly people face a challenge to get to

    a simpler accommodation that is more suited to the elderly for functional and maintenance

    purposes. The thesis is based on an ongoing project that takes place in Norr Amsberg, a small

    town three kilometer north of Borlänge.

    In this degree project, a qualitative method will be used which means no calculations is

    needed. Thus, facts will be gathered from interviews, research articles and statistics.

    Six people have been interviewed during this project. Those who have been interviewed are

    two scientists who are stationed in Falun, three older people who have passed sixty-five years

    of ages and finally the enthusiast who started whole project in Norr Amsberg. This provides a

    broad ground for the conclusions drawn in the report.

    A concept house has been drawn up during this time, taking account of the wishes of the

    interviewees as appearance, functional requirements and location. The house has all

    accessibility requirements that a modern home will have. The building that is produced is a

    concept and not the finished product.

    Important conclusions that have been made during this study are how important the housing

    design is and how it affects the elderly significantly more than is generally believed and that

    the need will increase significantly in terms of custom housing in the future. The importance

    of housing design and how it affects older people are some major key factors that all

    municipalities learn to address when planning a type of "senior housing" for elderly people.

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  • 70.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Intervjustudie av oskyddade trafikanters situation på 13 m mötesseparerad landsväg2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I kölvattnet av Nollvisionen uppstår problem för oskyddade trafikanter. Vid mittseparering av 13-metersvägar blir utrymmet för dessa trafikantgrupper otillräckligt och nya lösningar måste till. Detta examensarbete syftar till att förbättra framkomligheten och trafiksäkerheten för oskyddade trafikanter på s k MLV (Mötesseparerad LandsVäg). Målet med examensarbetet har varit att inventera problem, identifiera förbättringsområden, finna bra lösningar samt att beräkna vilka kostnader som dessa lösningar orsakar. Som ett resultat av arbetet har framkommit att det saknas en nationell samstämmighet i synen på hur oskyddade trafikanter på MLV, skall behandlas. Vidare existerar det en stor fokusering i centrala direktiv, kanske mest inofficiella, på bilisters och transportörers behov vid utformningen av MLV. Som en konsekvens av detta har de oskyddade trafikanterna blivit undanträngda, både bildligt och fysiskt talat, från dessa vägtyper och därmed begränsas deras förflyttnings-möjligheter. Ytterligare resultat är att det behövs mer utredning kring hänvisning för de oskyddade trafikanterna på MLV, detta för att i möjligaste mån separera trafikantgrupperna. I arbetet har också utförts en kostnadsberäkning av en GCM-lösning (GCM står för Gång, Cykel och Moped) på en vägsträcka, riksväg 80 mellan Falun och Hofors. Kostnaden blev 1,1 - 2,2 mn kr, vilket motsvarar en projektfördyring med 4,4 - 11 %, beroende på alternativ. De viktigaste slutsatserna i arbetet är att man bör anstränga sig till det yttersta för att erbjuda ett alternativ till en MLV, och att man då också måste förbättra skyltningen, för att undvika att oskyddade trafikanter irrar sig in på MLV:n, trots acceptabla alternativvägar. För detta har ett förslag till ett nytt vägmärke framtagits, Alternativ GCM-väg längs MLV, se Bilaga 5.

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  • 71.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effectiveness of trigger speed of vehicle-activated signs on mean and standard deviation of speed2016In: Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, ISSN 1943-9962, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 293-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive or inappropriate speeds are a key factor in traffic fatalities and crashes. Vehicle-activated signs (VASs) are therefore being extensively used to reduce speeding to increase traffic safety. A VAS is triggered by an individual vehicle when the driver exceeds a speed threshold, otherwise known as trigger speed (TS). The TS is usually set to a constant, normally proportional to the speed limit on the particular segment of road. Decisions concerning the TS largely depend on the local traffic authorities. The primary objective of this article is to help authorities determine the TS that gives an optimal effect on the Mean and Standard Deviation of speed. The data were systematically collected using radar technology whilst varying the TS. The results show that when the applied TS was set near the speed limit, the standard deviation was high. However, the Standard Deviation decreased substantially when the threshold was set to the 85th percentile. This decrease occurred without a significant increase in the mean speed. It is concluded that the optimal threshold speed should approximate the 85th percentile, though VASs should ideally be individually calibrated to the traffic conditions at each site.

  • 72.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effectiveness of vehicle activated signs on mean speed and standard deviation of vehicle speed2014Report (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Data based Calibration System for Radar used by Vehicle Activated Signs2014In: Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing, ISSN 2327-7203, no 2, p. 11p. 106-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accurate measurement of a vehicle’s velocity is an essential feature in adaptive vehicle activated sign systems. Since the velocities of the vehicles are acquired from a continuous wave Doppler radar, the data collection becomes challenging. Data accuracy is sensitive to the calibration of the radar on the road. However, clear methodologies for in-field calibration have not been carefully established. The signs are often installed by subjective judgment which results in measurement errors. This paper develops a calibration method based on mining the data collected and matching individual vehicles travelling between two radars. The data was cleaned and prepared in two ways: cleaning and reconstructing. The results showed that the proposed correction factor derived from the cleaned data corresponded well with the experimental factor done on site. In addition, this proposed factor showed superior performance to the one derived from the reconstructed data.

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  • 74.
    Jäderbrink, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Isaksson, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kostnadseffektivisering av ett lågenergikoncept: En komponentjämförelse för småhus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this degree thesis is to investigate and establish how the choice of components such as windows, entrance doors and HRV-units affect the energy demand and operating cost of a detached house.

    The Swedish company Fiskarhedenvillan currently offers two different concepts for detached houses; conventional houses and passive houses which comply with the German Passive House Institute (PHI).   The passive house concept (as set by PHI) puts high emphasis on not just low energy consumption but also on high comfort. With high demands come high investment costs. Fiskarhedenvillan wishes for the concept of the passive house to be modified to a nearly zero-energy building by replacing certified components with non-certified ditto with the intention to lower the investment costs.   The objective of this thesis degree is to develop a more cost efficient low-energy concept compared to the passive house according to PHI and this by making different choices concerning components. Two question formulations were made:

    • By what amount can the investment costs be reduced by changing components and how will the modification affect the energy demand?
    • Is it possible to develop a more cost efficient low-energy concept?

    The comparison research was made by using a control sample, projected to meet the demands set by PHI, as a reference.  A comparison was made by using the planning tool Passive House Planning Package together with data from the control sample. The variation in result between the control sample and the new alternatives was due only to choice of components. 

    The study resulted in two equally cost efficient combinations of components with regard to technical lifespan. Both combinations consist of non-certified windows and entrance doors but have the certified HRV-unit used in the controlled sample. Thus, the most cost efficient alternative consists of both certified and non-certified components.

    Conclusions:

    • The investment cost can be reduced by up to 59,1 % for components or 6,7 % for building kit with new components included. The energy demand increased by11 kWh/m². 
    • It is fully possible to develop a concept that is more cost efficient than Fiskarhedenvillan’s existing low-energy concept.
  • 75.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    HiG.
    Sattari, Amir
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Linden, Elisabet
    HiG.
    Wigö, Hans
    HiG.
    Sandberg, Mats
    HiG.
    Experimental study on contaminant entrainment in air distribution systems with free jets2017Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 76.
    Kamaludin, Abdulkani
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ahmed, Abdurahman
    Omräkningsfaktor för jämförelse av investeringskostnader vid nyproduktion av olika lägenhetstyper: Fallstudie på Hyttkammaren, ett fler bostadshus i Falun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nybyggnation av bostäder är en av de viktigaste uppgifterna i

    dagens samhälle. Bostadsbolag bygger varje år nya lägenheter för

    mycket stora pengar och för att det ska vara ekonomiskt lönsamt

    är det viktigt att det byggs lägenheter som drar ned på kostnaderna

    så mycket som möjligt.

    Genom många års lägenhetsbyggande har bostadsbolag samlat på

    sig erfarenheter som bekräftar att små lägenheter är dyrare att

    bygga än större lägenheter per kvadratmeter.

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att ta reda på hur mycket

    dyrare små lägenheter är i förhållande till de större lägenheterna

    samt vad det är som drar upp kostnaderna för de små lägenheterna.

    Bakgrunden till det här arbetet är att Kopparstaden, ett

    bostadsbolag som ägs av Falu Kommun, har märkt att

    bostadsbyggande är olika dyrt på olika platser i landet och vill ta

    reda på vad orsaken till detta är. De har inlett en undersökning där

    de jämför ett dussin bostadsprojekt utspridda över Dalarna och

    jämför deras projektkostnader för att ta reda på vilka som är dyrast

    och vad som orsakar deras skillnader. För att kunna göra en rättvis

    jämförelse mellan projekten måste justeringar göras efter faktorer

    som byggtid, storlek, standard samt tomt- och fastighetskostnad.

    Syftet i den här studien är att ta fram de procentuella

    kostnadsskillnaderna mellan olika lägenhetsstorlekar för ett

    testobjekt som Kopparstaden sedan kan använda till att göra

    storleksjusteringar mellan olika byggnadsprojekt

  • 77.
    Karlsson, Nicklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dimensionering av okänd olyckslast med avseende på sammanhållning och duktilitet av prefabricerade betongelement: Praktisk jämförelse mellan EKS 10 och EKS 112019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to prevent a progressive collapse of different types of accidents, like a collision including a car and pillar or an internal explosion, the building has to be robust. Historically when building structures were dimensioned with a rule of thumb, they got a form of robustness of itself. Since buildings today are not designed as they were before robustness has to be considered early in the process of dimensioning.  EN 1991-1-7 (2006) which treats accidental loads, lists several methods to achieve the minimum requirements of robustness regarding building structures. One of the methods is to mechanically tie all the different load and non-load bearing parts to each other in purpose to prevent a progressive collapse. In Eurocode EN 1992-1-1 (2005) similar requirements can be found regarding tying the structure together, both codes are treated in this work.  The purpose with this work is to examine the changes in EKS 11 regarding accidental loads and especially dimensioning with the indirect method and what those changes mean for the structure itself. The purpose is also to examine if the standards are clearer than before considered that earlier research has shown that the standard have been hard to interpret. A comparison between EKS 10 and EKS 11 are made throughout the entire report and a literature study are followed by a case study which treats two fictitious buildings, created to be able to compare both standards practically and different types of building frames. Dimensioning is made according to prescribed codes regarding accidental loads and tying of load and non-load bearing parts and calculations are presented in relation to the different EKS-versions.   The requirements in EKS 11 have generally been reduced and to some extent the codes are clearer than before. The work shows that there is still lack of guidance in EN 1991-1-7 (2006) where the length of a load bearing concrete wall has to be clarified together with how tie connections in non-bearing wall should be provided. The results also show that a building frame with bearing concrete walls are more affected by the changes than building frames with pillar and beams.  The indirect method in EN 1991-1-7 (2006), which can be used to prevent a progressive collapse, complete EN 1992-1-1 (2005) with EKS 11 better than before. EN 1991-1-7 (2006) still leaves some question marks and some clarification has to be made in the standard to prevent working engineers doing different interpretations. The work also shows that robustness is complicated, time consuming and requires much experience.

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  • 78.
    Karlsson, Samuel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Husgrunders miljöpåverkan: Jämförelse av grundläggningsmetoder för ett småhus2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings affect the environment and climate in many ways, not only during the

    operating stage, but also during production. While buildings are constructed to

    be more energy-effective, a greater share of the buildings total energy demand

    will depend on how the building is produced. Previous studies show that

    buildings with a frame made of wood has substantially lower energy demand and

    greenhouse gas emissions due to production than building frames made of

    concrete. The aim with this report is to investigate the environmental effects due

    to different methods for foundation of a detached house. The main focus is to

    calculate the energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents

    from production of materials. Three different constructions are compared;

    foundation with cellular glass (The Koljern-method), a concrete slab, and a post

    and pier foundation with a wood-based floor. By designing the three

    constructions to be equal in terms of ability to carry the load from a two story

    house 8X12m, and with equal U-values, the comparison is made out of the

    required use of materials. Data for use of energy and CO2e-emissions” from

    cradle to gate” has been taken from declarations on the building products,the

    ICE database and EPD-documents for the various materials. Thereafter, the

    total use of energy and emissions of CO2e has been calculated. Assessments

    from the SundaHus database is also studied to get a more detailed picture of the

    environmental impact and health aspects of the materials.

    The result shows that the post and pier foundation has the lowest use of energy

    in production of the materials and a negative release of greenhouse gas due to

    sequestration. The foundation made of cellular glass has the highest demand of

    energy for producing the materials for the foundation, and a concrete slab has

    the highest emissions of greenhouse gas.

    From estimations made by SundaHus, no further conclusions could be made

    due to the use of environmentally and health restricted materiel. The deduction

    is that the post and pier foundation can be an interesting alternative to reduce

    the carbon footprint from the production of building foundation, but to get a better

    overview a total lifecycle analysis has to be made.

  • 79.
    Karlsson, Sara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ljungkvist, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ytterväggars värmegenomgångskoefficient och förmåga att lagra värme: En jämförande studie av två ytterväggskonstruktioner gjord genom mätningar i klimatkammare och en datorsimulering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted in order to investigate wheater the u-value of an outer wall

    construction can be improved by changing isolation- and board material. The negative

    impact the emissions of greenhouse gases has on the environment require development of

    new approches to make our buildings more energy efficient. A new wall that is thinner with

    equivalent or better u-value and with a better heat storage capacity will make the building

    more energy efficient and the indoor environment more pleasant without large temperature

    changes that can occur with a wooden framework.

    A new exterior wall was made and compared with Bra Hus existing wall by doing

    measurements on both of them in a climate chamber and build them in WUFI Pro, a

    computer simulation program. The material was changed from mineral wool and a regular

    gypsum board to cellulose insulation and PCM Comfortboard, a gypsum board with cells

    of a special vax mixture which has a heat storage capacity. The measurements in the climate

    chamber were made to calculate the u-value and analyze how fast the temperature dropped

    with and without the PCM Comfortboard.

    The measurements showed that the wall with the new material had better u-value than the

    existing one, but theoretical calculations indicated that the existing wall should be better.

    A conclusion of this is that PCM Comfortboard is the element effecting the u-value the

    most because the isolation material have equal thermal resistance. With a great heat storage

    capacity and ability to contribute to a more even indoor temperature the PCM

    Comfortboard makes an excellent board to use with intension of reducing the energy need

    for heating.

    Another conclusion is that cellulose insulation is equal to mineral wool and can be used

    instead as an environmentally friendly choice.

  • 80.
    Khadra, Alaa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Gävle University.
    Hugosson, M.
    Akander, J.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Development of a weight factor method for sustainability decisions in building renovation. Case study using renobuild2020In: Sustainability (Switzerland), E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 17, article id 7194Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 81.
    Khadra, Alaa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Gävle University.
    Hugosson, M.
    Akander, J.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Economic performance assessment of three renovated multi-family buildings with different HVAC systems2020In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 224, article id 110275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Kifle, Eyob
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Fart, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Luftläckningens inverkan på energiåtgången i byggnader med väggar av massivträ utan fuktspärr2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the training to become building engineers the writers of this essay have been committed to the development of energy and climate smart houses. In several courses there have been discussions on how to save nature's resources by decreasing the consumption of energy. In order to achieve this, houses which are air tight so that the warmth is prevented from leaking out of the building, are being built. An example of such a house is a "Passive House".

    Högskolan Dalarna has since 2013 carried out a research project where a building with the measurement 15 m2, named the "Test Cube", has been erected as a Passive House with a frame of massive wood without a plastic based moisture barrier. Measurements of the air tightness have been performed regularly over 24 months and the result of these measurements indicates a systematic variety of the air tightness over the year.

    In this essay the authors are examining how the yearly variety of a building's air tightness affects the energy need in a building without a plastic based moisture barrier. Furthermore are the authors examining the energy performance as well as how the measured air tightness in the "Test Cube" theoretically will change if a corresponding building system will be used in a 120 m2 fictitious building. This is done with the help of the measurements done over the 24 months in the "Test Cube".

    The result of these investigations is that the yearly variety of air tightness barely affects the energy performance of the fictitious building despite the air tightness varying between 0,15-0,20 l/sm2.

  • 83.
    Knutz, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energibehovsanalys av passiva massivträhus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a project which created a test building designed to advance and improve passive houses. The so-called “test building” can help to evaluate different scenarios for moisture transport and tightness. The test building has advanced HVAC systems to control temperature and moisture levels, which makes the test building a good tool to check if theoretical energy calculation formulas match reality.

    The aim of this thesis was partly to investigate how different energy calculation programs match reality and each other, as well as to investigate if the test building fulfills its goal of being classified as a passive house. The method used was based on energy calculations made by hand as well as four different energy calculation programs on the computer. These were compared with each other and with real energy measurements from the test building.

    From the results of the energy calculations the following conclusions could be made; the comparison between the programs shows a difference of up to 12 kWh/m2, yr or 8 % between the highest and lowest results. The electricity consumption of the household and the habits of the inhabitants has a large influence on the result. The comparison between measured energy usage and calculated energy usage is < 15%. Here there is an uncertainty between the weather data used in the calculations and the real weather data. The test building cannot fulfill the claim of a passive house at 150m2 that have a central heating system installed today.

  • 84.
    Lassbo, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lindholm, Rikard
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hållfasthetsegenskaper hos gammalt konstruktionsvirke: Jämförelse med nytt konstruktionsvirke med avseende på böjhållfasthet och tryck vinkelrätt mot fibrerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there are many older buildings with old wood that need renovation and remodeled to adapt to today's living standards . To be able to renovate and change the houses correctly, it is important to know how the materials in the houses change. This study investigates how the strength properties of old construction timber relate to new construction timber. Data collection has been done by testing the strength properties of construction timber older than 80 years. The tests performed are the compression perpendicular to the grain to obtain the elastic modulus perpendicular to the grain (E

    c,90), and the bending strength to obtain the elastic modulus parallel to the grain (Em). Both tests have been implemented according to EN 408: 2003 with some exceptions. The result of compression perpendicular to the grain shows that the timber is in good quality according to current requirements, the average is in the class C18. For bending strength, the timber keeps a good quality according to today's requirements and the average is in class C18. It indicates that old construction timber retains a large proportion of its strength properties and keeps a good quality in relation to new construction timber.

  • 85.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Umeå universitet.
    Trygg, L.
    Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1719-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the differences in primary energy (PE) use of a multi-family building refurbished with different refurbishment packages situated in different district heating systems (DHS). Four models of typical DHS are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. The refurbishment packages are chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency of a representative multi-family building in Sweden. The study was made from a broad system perspective, including valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in PE savings for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of DHS. Also, the package giving the lowest specific energy use per m2 was not the one which saved the most PE. © 2017 The Authors.

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  • 86.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Umeå universitet.
    Ödlund, L
    Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, no SI, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

  • 87.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction. Umeå universitet.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings Universitet.
    System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 106, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration.

    This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases.

    The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used.

    When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures.

  • 88.
    Lindberg, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelsestudie avseende stomsystem: Ramverk eller fackverk/balk/pelar-system2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project included a comparison study on frame systems. The study investigated framework and truss/beam/column-system and was conducted independently with support of Ramboll AB 's office in Falun. The aim was primarily to examine what differences there are between frameworks with two joints and truss/beam/column-systems for light industrial buildings and try to determine why the truss/beam/column-system is the dominant system in Sweden because the rest of Europe has taken a different development and dominated by framework with two joints. The study examines the differences between the systems in a industrial building with predetermined dimensions in steel.Initially, a literature study was conducted to gain a broader view of the systems and to create a better understanding for the conditions for each system. After the literature study was conducted could a exampelhouse and underlay for the comparison study be developed. A survey study were also conducted and the purpose was to create a clear picture of which system the frame system designers in Sweden usually choose and why. The results of the study showed that frameworks with two joints give an increased cost compared with truss/beam/column-system in material consumption and production, and the calculations become more complicated for the framwork. Should further studies be done with these systems in buildings with other measurements, it might possible to obtain specific measures of buildings where the cost of frameworks with two joints will be the same as for a building with truss/beam/column-system and therefore become an equivalent alternative.An important conclusion of this project is that a framework with two joints is used much more rarely than truss/beam/column-system as frame systems in light industrial buildings in Sweden because the cost will be much higher with a framework with two joints and that it is a more complicated system in the computational work . The main conclusions from comparative study can be summarized as follows:

    • Framwork with two joints is more expensive to use.
    • Framework with two joints is a more complicated system computationally.
    • The tradition of using framework with two joints does not exist and it's therefore the system does not being used.
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  • 89.
    Ljungdahl, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Caroline, Norrström
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utveckling av träregelvägg anpassad förframtida energikrav2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Various proposals on wooden joist walls are presented in this report, forFiskarhedenvillan’s standard wall. Boverket has issued a new referral where the energyrequirements for houses has been intensified and become more accurate, depending tothe county and city. The climate zones have been replaced by an adjustment factor.The aim is to develop four new improved wall structures and to do moisture simulations toinvestigate how the constructions are able to be exposed to moisture. The walls should fitinto the company's system solutions.The insulation alternatives that are studied are rock wool and cellulose insulation.Tests are made in the degree thesis to see what would happen if the vapour barrier isreplaced with a thicker OSB and also if the exterior gypsum is replaced by a“Västkustskiva”. Although a thicker construction with cellulose insulation is developed.Calculations and simulations are made to see if the wall structures passed the energyrequirement, depending on house-style and geographical location.Three of Fiskarhedenvillan’s houses were investigated based on two locations, Lund andUmeå.The investigation resulted that all wall structures passed the moisture simulations andalso did the walls pass the coming energy requirements set in Boverket’s referral.Three of the walls has very similar U-value but are different in thickness and insulationmaterials.The conclusion is that the structure of cellulose insulation and OSB got the best results inall areas. The wall:

    • has the lowest U-value, which means a low energy consumption
    • manufactured from recycled materials
    • economically feasible to Fiskarhedenvillan’s customers
  • 90.
    Matsson, Kristin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Återbruk i byggbranschen: En fallstudie om klimatbesparingspotential och ekonomi2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce the carbon dioxide emissions from the construction industry and reaching the global and national environmental goals, new ways to manage building materials and recrement must be implemented. The purpose of this study is to investigate the amount of reusable material at Gylle skola by performing an inventory.Through studies of existing literature and conducted field observations, this study shows differences in climate burden and economics between using reused materials and new materials. Previous studies suggest that a large amount of construction materials that are being disposed of have not yet reached the end of its expected lifespan. By doing an inventory of potential reusable materials in the early stages of a demolition project, the material can be located and plans for continued use in other projects can be made. By doing so, the burden on the climate from the construction industry can be reduced.There are many obstacles of reusing existing materials. Some include difficulties in guaranteeing quality and the additional cost of gentle demolition. The results of this study suggest that the additional cost related to reusing material can be mitigated by as much as 80 % as the cost of disposal is removed. Other findings include the importance of conducting an inventory of potential reusable material in an early stage as well as the existence of financial incentives for reusing materials. The material available for reuse amounts to 32,6 tons. The potential for climate savings from reusing material compared using new material is equivalent to 21,7 tons CO2ekv and the value of the reusable material is 275 510 SEK.In addition, the need for further financial incentives and demands from authorities and other parties in order to increase the supply of and access to reusable material is discussed.

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  • 91.
    Morin, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Abrahamsson, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Analys av klimatpåverkan från renoveringsåtgärderav ett flerbostadshus: Fallstudie av Kornstigen 25 på Tjärna Ängar i Borlänge kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The total climate impact from the construction processes in Sweden is estimated at 10 million tons carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions per year. This corresponds to almost all of the emissions from all cars in Sweden. A common perception has been that the management phase accounted for 85 % of the climate impact and the production phase for 15 %. Therefore, a lot of effort has been made for energy efficiency of buildings which has resulted in a drastically reduction of the climate impact of the management phase. For the production phase, climate impact has rarely been taken into account which has resulted in stagnation. Dalarna University is a part of a project aiming a cautious energy-efficient renovation of “miljonprogramsområdet” Tjärna Ängar in Borlänge. One ambition of the project is that the climate impact will not increase as a result of the renovation. To assess the climate impact of buildings, Life Cycle Assessment has become more and more common.The study aims to demonstrate and critically examine the potential of using Life Cycle Assessment to support decisions for improved environmental performance in renovation. It also aims to identify the most beneficial of two alternative renovation options from a climate perspective. What distinguished the renovation options was mainly the ventilation system; one had FTX ventilation, while the other exhaust air heat pump. The climate impact from the production phase could then be compared and put in relation to the expected climate impact for the management phase of the building throughout its life cycle.A literature review was made where the existing knowledge of the subject was identified. A case study of climate impact in the form of greenhouse gas emissions as a result of the energy renovation was made. Data on climate impact from material and products were collected from Bidcon Klimatmodul, different reports on life cycle assessment, databases and environmental product declarations and were reported as carbon dioxide equivalents. Calculation of climate impact from transports has been done using NTM, the Network for Transport and Environment.For the 30-year analysis period, the production phase of the two renovation options accounts for about 20% of the overall climate impact compared to the climate impact from energy use during management. According to the result, the renovation option with FTX gives a slightly bigger climate impact than the FVP alternative. This is mainly due to the fact that the incoming products are mainly the same in both options and that all the components and materials that gave the most impact on the climate were common to both of the renovation options. The result also shows that transports represents a very small part of the climate impact in this case study.The main conclusion from the study is that climate impact is not increased as a result of the renovation, neither for alternative FTX or FVP. Not doing any renovation at all results in a larger climate impact during the analysis period.

  • 92.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Heier, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    The perception of Swedish housing owner’s on the strategies to increase the rate of energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings2020In: Intelligent Buildings International, ISSN 1750-8975, E-ISSN 1756-6932, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the energy performance of existing buildings is crucial for reaching both EU and national climate and energy targets. The main objective of this study was to map challenges that Swedish housing owners perceive when making energy-efficiency refurbishments. A secondary objective was to compare how well these challenges relate to national strategies. The study applied a combined methods approach with audience response meters and in-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. The housing owners express the view that they have sufficient knowledge of national ambitions to improve the energy performance of buildings and welcome the new building regulations. Despite this supposed knowledge and the current economic situation with beneficial loans, the refurbishment rate still remains low. The housing owners explain that they are concerned about the ‘performance gap’ and request more accurate energy performance predictions. They are also waiting for proof that all sustainability goals can be reached in reality. Probably, too few projects fulfilling ambitions in all categories: economically, socially and energy-wise have been followed up and demonstrated nationally. The new national information centre on refurbishment of buildings may help to spread information about such projects, raise awareness and thus increase the refurbishment rate.

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  • 93.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Holmberg, Sture
    Performance evaluation of ventilation radiators2013In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 51, no 1-2, p. 315-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ventilation radiator is a combined ventilation and heat emission unit currently of interest due to its potential for increasing energy efficiency in exhaust ventilated buildings with warm water heating. This paper presents results of performance tests of several ventilation radiator models conducted under controlled laboratory conditions.

     

    The purpose of the study was to validate results achieved by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in an earlier study and indentify possible improvements in the performance of such systems. The main focus was on heat transfer from internal convection fins, but comfort and health aspects related to ventilation rates and air temperatures were also considered.

      The general results from the CFD simulations were confirmed; the heat output of ventilation radiators may be improved by at least 20 % without sacrificing ventilation efficiency or thermal comfort.

     

    Improved thermal efficiency of ventilation radiators allows a lower supply water temperature and energy savings both for heating up and distribution of warm water in heat pumps or district heating systems. A secondary benefit is that a high ventilation rate can be maintained all year around without risk for cold draught.

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  • 94.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bergdahl, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lågtemperaturuppvärmning med tilluftsradiatorer och värmeåtervinning i frånluft: en varsam renovering av flerbostadshus för energieffektivisering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att nå reella sänkningar av energianvändningen i hela byggnadsbeståndet krävs tillgång till kostnadseffektiva renoveringspaket med energieffektiva systemlösningar där samspel mellan installationssystem och byggnad beaktas.

    Denna förstudie belyser möjligheter med alternativa renoveringspaket med lågtemperatur-tilluftsradiatorer och värmeåtervinning i frånluften (FX). Systemkombinationer och jämförelser har gjorts med mera etablerade lösningar med traditionella radiatorer, balanserad mekanisk ventilation (FTX) och solvärme. Mindre prövade lösningar såsom frånluftsmoduler (VBX) kopplat till befintliga värmepumpar och behovsstyrd ventilation undersöktes också.

    Energianvändning och kostnadseffektivitet med de undersökta åtgärdspaketen prövades för två äldre bostadshus med vardera specifika restriktioner: den ena inom fjärrvärmenätet och det andra ett K-märkt hus utanför fjärrvärmenätet. Samtidigt reflekterades det över vilka tekniska lösningar som samtidigt är gynnsammast ur hållbarhetssynpunkt. För flertalet befintliga byggnader behöver såväl metoder som komponenter utvecklas på ett varsamt sätt som uppfyller båda ägarens krav som övergripande mål baserat på systemförutsättning och kostnadseffektivitet.

    Förstudien visar att:

     lågtemperatur-tilluftsradiatorer är en systemkomponent som möjliggör ökad komfort via förvärmning och filtrering av inkommande ventilationsluft, effektivare värmeproduktion och minskning av värmeförluster i distribution av varmvatten. Renovering med installation av FX-system i kombination med lågtemperatur-tilluftradiatorer är ett alternativ till FTX system som begränsar byggåtgärderna i byggnaden och ger lägre livscykelkostnad

     Byggnadsskalets täthet blir avgörande för energinyttan båda med FX- och FTX-system. Förstudien visar att FX-system är fördelaktig i byggnader med dålig lufttäthet

     I byggnader med befintligt frånluftssystem kan behovsstyrning av ventilationen vara ett enkelt och kostnadseffektivt sätt att sänka ventilationsförlusterna och spara energi som alternativ till att installera återvinningssystem

    Förstudien visar klart att energieffektiv renovering kan åstadkommas med val av varsamma metoder som också åstadkommer ökad komfort och systemnytta, utanför såväl som inom fjärrvärmenätet. Samtidigt kan ägarens krav på kostandsnytta nås och byggnaders bevarandekrav uppfyllas.

    Nu krävs det demonstrationsprojekt för att inte minst sprida kunskap i branschen men också applicering på större bostadsområden.

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  • 95.
    Nilsson, Lars-Bertil
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Från olycka till säker väg: En granskning av den svenska trafikolycksstatistiken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for all road safety work in Sweden is based on a decision taken by the government in 1997. The decision included strategic long-term work, with the ethical approach that no one would have to die or be seriously injured in traffic. The focus was shifted to traffic accidents, but that the consequences for personal injuries would be reduced. The Swedish Transport Administration, which is responsible for approximately 100 000 kilometers of state roads, has developed a systematic way of working in order to realize the vision of the injury level in traffic accidents. By setting sub-goals, cooperation with other actors, developed indicators and annual analyzes, a method is created to monitor the results of different road safety measures. An important part of road safety work is the traffic accident statistics collected from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (Strada). The reporting to Strada is carried out by police and emergency care. The Transport Agency, which is responsible for Strada and Transport Administration, which is one of the users of traffic accident statistics, has highlighted the importance of this information in road safety work. Both actors have also stated that there are problems with reporting to Strada. In this degree project the problem is divided into two categories: loss and deviations. Loss is meant traffic accidents that are never registered in Strada. Deviations refer to incorrect information, based on the actual event, which is registered to Strada. The purpose of the thesis work is to study these two categories of problems, focusing on the police's reporting, and how they affect the Swedish Transport Administration's road safety work, primarily from a construction engineering perspective. The method of the investigative part has been divided into two parts. The first part is an interview study. People who are well-informed in the chain of events "From Accident to Safe Road" have been interviewed. Through the interviews, the problems and how they affect road safety work can be better explained. The second part consisted of a survey. The target group was the police who report traffic accidents on a daily basis. Deviations were identified by the survey. The study showed that there is a loss in police reporting to Strada, and there are different types of loss. The police in Dalarna report about 98 percent of the traffic accidents that are the responsibility of the police. Other loss is caught to some extent by the healthcare industry. There are deviations in the police's reporting. By other supplementary sources of information, these deviations are corrected to a certain extent. The problems do not primarily affect the Swedish Transport Administration's construction engineering aspects. The building engineering aspects are based on standard road construction with the functional objective as a first step. On the other hand, research on the basis of standardized roads can be affected. The priority for which roads should be addressed can also be influenced by loss and deviations.

  • 96.
    Norin, Joakim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Israelsson, Calle
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelseanalys av källarkonstruktioner: Studie med avseende på fuktbelastning, bärighet, värmeisolering, ekonomi och miljöpåverkan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fiskarhedenvillan har för avsikt att kunna rekommendera och tillhandahålla erforderliga konstruktionsritningar över en lämplig källarkonstruktionslösning som är integrerbar med deras byggsystem. Dagens rekommenderade konstruktionslösning anses ha utrymme för utveckling vilket ligger till grund för denna rapport.

    Syftet med denna rapport var att utvärdera och analysera fyra olika källarkonstruktioner med hänsyn till utvalda parametrar, där den mest fördelaktiga konstruktionen presenteras. Dessa parametrar omfattade fuktbelastning, bärighet, värmeisolering, ekonomi och miljöpåverkan.

    Studien utfördes främst genom en litteraturstudie samt att data som framkom av genomförda mätningar och beräkningar utvärderades och analyserades för respektive konstruktion och parameter. Resultaten jämfördes sedan mot övriga utvalda konstruktionslösningar.

    Efter jämförelseanalysen kunde Jackon Thermomur 350 rekommenderas och presenteras som den mest fördelaktiga lösningen. Konstruktionen valdes främst ut för att den inte påvisar några direkta negativa egenskaper samt att den redovisar det bästa U-värdet. En betydande fördel är även enkelheten till integration med Fiskarhedenvillans befintliga byggsystem.

    En av de viktigaste slutsatserna från arbetet är att det krävs stor noggrannhet vid uppförande av en källarkonstruktion med avseende på den fuktbelastning som konstruktionen utsätts för. Därför bör stor vikt läggas på säkerställande av tillräcklig och tillförlitlig dränering.

    En intressant reflektion var att Leca® som är ett av de mest populära byggmaterialen vid byggnation av källare och som beskrivs som fuktsäkert påvisade tendenser att öka det totala fuktinnehållet vid icke motfylld suterrängkonstruktion. Vidare kan det även diskuteras vilken egenskap som efterfrågas vid uppförande av en källarkonstruktion, något som möjliggör att valet av konstruktion kan variera.

  • 97.
    Norman, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Klimatkalkyl för flerbostadshus: Klimatbelastande poster i tidigt skede2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a fact. The amplified greenhouse effect threatens to destroy both plant- and animal life if no actions are made. One of the main matters in the Paris agreement is to keep the global warming under 2 degree Celsius but with the ambition to keep it under 1, 5 degree Celsius. To make this possible requires actions and methods to ensure a reductions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Carbon footprint calculation is a tool that can be used to see the total emissions from a project, but also to see specific materials emissions.

    The intention with this thesis is to establish a carbon footprint calculation for a apartment building in Borlänge county. By using the carbon footprint calculations identify the projects total emissions and compare the top two emission materials with other materials. The comparison is made in the product stage (A1-A3). The results shows that 38 % of the total emissions comes from concreate and 11% from reinforcing bars. Together they make up 49 % of the total emissions from the project. The concreate was compared with Skanskas Green concreate and the reinforcing bars was compared with bars from Celsa Steel Service. To exchange both concreate and reinforcing bars to more climate friendly materials would mean a lowering of the emissions with 1% in the product stage.

    By exchange some of the cement to dross, in the concreate, the emissions of greenhouse gases from it can be cut in half. Even after a significant increase of the concreates solidity it could be established that the green concreate still had less emissions of greenhouse gases than the original concreate. Together with the reinforcing bars, which are made of junk and renewably energy, it is possible to contribute to a lowering of greenhouse gases by the constructionand real estate sector. The instrument ECO2, which was used to establish the carbon footprint calculation, is a good tool to identify materials with high emissions in the early stage. This grant a possibility to locate and change these materials with high emissions of greenhouse gases.

    This thesis has contributed to creating a understanding for what crucial factors the handling of materials and the manufacturing of materials to lower the emissions of greenhouse gases. The conclusion of the thesis proves the importance of being aware in the early stage of which materials have the most emissions and if they can be replaced by something better. By replacing one or two materials it is possible to lower the emissions of greenhouse gases considerably which had contributed in the quest to reach climate neutrality by 2045.

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  • 98.
    Olars, Ricky
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Individuell mätning och debitering av tappvarmvatten i flerbostadshus2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Parliament and the European Council require, trough Article 9 in the Energy Efficiency Directive, the member countries to apply individual monitoring and debiting (IMD) of hot tap water in multiple dwelling units (MDU's). The (Swedish) government directed Boverket (National Board of Housing) to investigate causes to implement individual monitoring of heating, comfort cooling and hot tap water in MDU's. Boverket's conclusion after the investigation is that IMD of hot tap water is, in many cases, an unprofitable investment and should not be urged in any instance.

    The government has, based on Boverket's reports and European Comission requirements, added five new sections in the regulation (2014:348) of energy monitoring in buildings where IMD of hot tap water is required in the event of reconstruction.

    The intention of the case study was to analyze cost efficiency of implementing IMD of hot tap water during replumbing in a MDU in Borlänge, Dalarna county. The study was conducted using two different models of measuring equipment in two separate main cases and two different sub cases. The actual volume of heated water is uncertain and assumptions of hot water volume differs between the two main cases. Tariffs for water, sewage and district heating from Karlskoga Energi och Miljö (Karlskoga Energy and Environment) and Mörbylånga Kommun (municipality) were used in the sub cases.

    Payments and disbursements as consequences of implementing IMD were managed using Risk Metrics. A sensitivity analysis was conducted, where every uncertain variable was tested within it's uncertainty range, to investigate how changes in variables affect the profitability of the investments. The result presented only negative values except in one case. A profitable investment result could only be achieved by using measuring system 2, the highest tariffs, highest volumes of hot water consumption, and, adjusting either one of the following parameters: Reduce installation cost for the cheapest measuring system by 15%, or lower the imputed rate of interest to 5%, or raise tariffs by 4%.

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  • 99.
    Olin, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Palm, Alexander
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energieffektivt byggande: Konkreta aspekter att beakta vid uppförandet av kommunala förskolor i Dalarna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy issue is becoming more relevant to handle and consider in the construction industry, particularly

    energy efficiency has become a rapidly growing subject. In the current situation efforts is made to improve

    energy-efficient construction. Counties choose to go in and invest in energy efficient development.

    The purpose of this report is to relate the standpoint of the underlying controlling aspects when

    establishing energy efficient preschools. Aspects covered include the application of management systems

    and communal goals. The choice of contract form and the use of new techniques and placement of the

    property.

    The task is being limited to only compare two Dala-counties establishment of preschools with energy as

    focal point the two counties compered were Leksand and Säter. Contact was made for determination of

    interviews with people responsible for the establishment of the preschools. The interviews were open for

    free answers and reasoning. The literature review was done to get a related theory and to establish the

    foundation of knowledge work based on. The information that emerged from the interviews have been

    compiled on the basis for responding to the work issue.

    The shortage of preschools have resulted in an effort to satiate the covered demand by establish building

    suited for kids. The counties involved new concepts such as new methods for floor heating when they

    established the preschools to secure energy and climate friendly standards to reach EU targets. Careful

    planning is something to take into considering when establishing buildings in this case one of the counties

    started their establishment before the planning was completed which was a reason why the project dissented

    from its planned budget.

    The conclusion from this report is that the accuracy in the planning stage of the building process is crucial

    if building projects are to achieve their goals, in this case, both achieved their local requirements. In contrast

    one of the municipalities did get a more winding road than planned. To establish and operate pilot projects

    in the construction industry, which means to test new areas resulting in a "ripple" effect. Meaning that

    resembled municipalities can choose to start their own energy efficient constructionproject. The municipal

    goals in energy-efficient construction is controlled by the municipality's own established policy documents

    and the municipality's position in energy-efficient construction. Attractiveness is something that

    municipalities among themselves competing with each other, for a municipality to appear attractive it is

    required that modernization takes place within the municipality. If the municipality choose to invest in

    energy efficiency, this appears to be positive and raises the status of the municipal energy thinking.

  • 100.
    Olsson, David
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Moen, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Luftad Badrumskonstruktion: En alternativ metod till traditionellt stambyte2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is in an extensive period of renovation of homes, bathrooms are in a special need of restoration. Buildings from the period surrounding "miljonprogrammet" stands for the majority of the major needs of renovation, where both kitchens and bathrooms are nearing the end of their lifespan. "Miljonprogrammet" lasted between 1965 and 1975 after the parliament in 1964 decided that the country had a need of one million homes in the coming 10 years. This has resulted in a big increase of homes in need of repairs and improvements.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate ventilated bathroom construction as an alternative method for changing pipe systems. The methods economic value, time aspects and material properties are in focus. The purpose was converted into the following questions:

     How profitable is renovation with ventilated bathroom construction?

     How long does it take to renovate with ventilated bathroom construction?

     Are there any quality risks in renovating with ventilated bathroom construction?

     What is the expected lifespan of a bathroom renovated with ventilated bathroom construction?

     Does renovation with ventilated bathroom construction fulfill the needs and requirements that clients are looking for?

     What are the limits when renovating with ventilated bathroom construction?

     How does renovation with ventilated bathroom construction compare to standard methods from a sustainable point of view?

    The study was limited to the use of ventilated bathroom construction in apartment blocks built under the period of "miljonprogrammet" in Sweden. All the real estate companies that were contacted are located in the region of Dalarna. The method "relining" was not included in this study.

    The method used involves foremost interviews with entrepreneurs and real estate companies, but also literature study and surveys. To be able to evaluate the method advice were given from a contact at Länsförsäkringar AB.

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