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  • 51.
    Funk, Minéa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Representing Bergslagen for tourism – a post-feminist approach: Androcentric representations of the industrial heritage in central Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marketing material used in promotion of industrial heritage sites for tourism creates representations of said cultural heritage. In order to increase the touristic value of the historical industrial sites marketers can create or make a place attractive through careful selection of images and texts. It is believed that simplifying the image can make it comprehensible and thus more attractive to potential visitors. However, simplifying images of heritage can result in creation of stereotypical representations.

    This research aimed to analyse what representations of the industrial heritage of Bergslagen, in the middle of Sweden, could be found in marketing material of tourism destinations today. Post-feminist theory was applied as a tool for analysis of the content as a contextual and critical perspective in order to interpret what meanings these representations found were conveying. By understanding the data in relation to androcentric discourse and the context of Bergslagen as a patriarchal system representations of continued polarization of gender was found. By conducting a content analysis of three destinations, Långban, Engelsbergs bruk and Axmar Bruk, four dominating themes of their representations in visual and textual promotional material were found. The narratives in the re-imagination and reproduction of the sites and their industrial heritage were also discovered during the analysis. The findings thus indicated that the marketing perpetuated stereotypes of the inherent gender roles that have existed in the past but were accentuated even through the modern mediums. As tourism is a tool for rejuvenation of industrial heritage sites it is important to note that, the need for increasing the attractiveness by consciously or unconsciously deciding which narratives should be told, marketers act as facilitators of generic ideas and impositions.

    When trying to simplify something as complex as a heritage, meaning can become lost in translation. The representations can become distorted, which they have in Bergslagen, according to the findings of this research. Representations can thus inform us of what is being marginalized. The understanding and interpretations of the representations can therefore become a resource in the marketing the real and genuine heritage.

  • 52.
    Félix Baker, Caitlin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Relationship between 4-Wheel Drive Tourism and Heritage Preservation in Remote Areas: A Case Study of Al Jabal Al Akhdar in the Sultanate of Oman2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to examine the role, and understand the effects of, 4-Wheel-

    Drive (4WD) tourism in the preservation of heritage in remote areas of the Al Jabal Al

    Akhdar Mountain in the Sultanate of Oman, and how the communities of this remote region

    can be helped to preserve their heritage. This region can only be reached using 4WD

    vehicles, and visitors either drive themselves or join tours to become acquainted with the

    area, its abandoned mud-brick villages, its oasis farming on terraces using the ancient falaj

    irrigation system, and in particular the traditional rose water distillation process. In examining

    how communities in Al Jabal Al Akhdar can best be helped to develop new sources of

    income in order to encourage young local people to stay in the villages while at the same time

    preserving their traditions, different perspectives were sought, although a local perspective

    was the focus. For this, fieldwork was undertaken consisting of participation in guided tours

    and personal meetings held with a number of local inhabitants. Some background information

    was provided by the Omani Ministry of Tourism, but so far very little research has been done

    into heritage preservation in the region, the focus so far being on developing four and five

    star hotels to attract visitors, with little or no consultation with locals. Through the

    observations and interactions that took place, it was found that these tourist developments do

    not increase income for those who live on the mountain; rather, they take away from the

    area’s sources of income. The conclusion reached was that locals desire to be involved in

    promoting and preserving their heritage through the development of initiatives such as

    guidebooks and using local guides in order to communicate correctly. All of this could be

    developed by establishing socio-cultural initiatives that allow locals to create their own ideas

    on how to generate income through community-based tourism. Local communities must be

    actively involved in tourism projects from the initial planning stages, and eventually share the

    benefits of the projects in their areas. Hopefully this can come to fruition before the

    mountain’s traditions are lost.

  • 53.
    Grohmann, Maik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    A ‘Taste of Dalarna’: Members motives and expectations towards Loca lFood Tourism-Marketing Networks2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Local food and drink, as well as its variety of connected experiences, have

    become a driving factor for tourists to choose a destination. As a result,

    members of

    a destination’s local food supply chain increasingly try to create

    touristic products such as guided tours, cooking courses, tastings or

    corporate events. Thereby local food places want to attract tourists and serve

    their desire to not only taste but also learn a bit more about the culinary

    products. A destination’s manageme

    nt organization has a central role in the

    marketing of these offers between tourists and the supply side. In this

    connection, a local food tourism-marketing network appears to be a platform

    to facilitate this commitment.

    The main aim of this study is to understand which motives local food

    enterprises have to become a part of such a network and furthermore to

    investigate, what expectations these members have towards the DMO as the

    initiator and operator.

    Primary data collection in this thesis was conducted by applying a qualitative

    research method via semi-structured interviews. Participants of the study

    were members of the local food tourism-

    marketing network “Taste of

    Dalarna”

    that has been initiated and is operated by the Destination

    Management Organization

    “Visit Dalarna” in the historic province of central

    Sweden.

    The findings indicate that members have diverse motives to join the network

    and expectations towards the DMO within the network vary in certain

    themes. It was concluded that their expectations in this network up to the

    moment of data collection have not been met to their complete satisfaction,

    predominantly due to a short existence of the network since 2015.

  • 54.
    Guðmundsdóttir, Sunna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kammerland, Emeli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Assessing Staff Turnover: A View from Hotel Workers in Reykjavík: Causes and Impacts2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Staff turnover is an endemic issue in the hospitality industry, worldwide. Voluntary staff

    turnover has been the focus of many studies in the past decades and many researchers have

    constantly intended to connect a number of variables to it. This study deals with a human

    perspective of staff turnover and the aim was to add to the understanding of staff turnover

    within the hospitality industry. This was achieved by conducting in-depth interviews with

    hotel workers in three and four-star hotels in Reykjavík, Iceland. The causes and impacts of

    the turnover was examined with qualitative method. Investigation of the factors influencing

    employees’ intention to leave their current organization and the impact staff turnover causes

    to the remaining staff was carried out. The results revealed that professional advancement is a

    critical predictor for the employees to leave, along with factors such as work content,

    personal reasons, organizational factors and the nature of the tourism industry. Furthermore,

    the impact staff turnover causes on the staff are factors such as social connections, increased

    responsibilities and time and energy consumption.

  • 55.
    Hagarová, Dominika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The relationships between tourism stakeholders within the destination: A case study of the rural destination Zuberec, Slovakia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the development of tourism destination and provide successful marketing and management, destination management organizations are generally accepted as the leaders. Although their role in tourism destinations is significant, the created cooperation is not always successful. Seeing that a lot of different actors are involved in tourism destinations, in order to create a cooperation between them it is first necessary to understand their expectations and relations. Majority of previous researches focus on formal interactions between stakeholders whereas less is written about their connections to interpersonal relations that can have an important role in the cooperation creation.

    For the purpose of better understand the role of relations between stakeholders in a destination, this research investigates approaches of stakeholders from rural destination Zuberec located in Slovakia. It explores why the created cooperation was not effective from the stakeholders point of view as there was a low involvement of local stakeholders. First of all the key stakeholders in the destination were identified and thereafter six in depth interviews were conducted. The research investigated that the destination faces several problems that constrain from cooperation and that the interpersonal relationships between tourism actors also play a significant role. The research also showed that cooperation is desired by several stakeholders and its lack has an influence on the destination's development. Identification of weaknesses and strengths of relationships between stakeholders throughout the research could be a useful tool for the strategy creation in future planning and development of destination.

  • 56.
    Hay, Nicole
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Photographic Representation of Culture & Identity in Destination Marketing Material: A case study of Jamaica2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 57.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourism development in the Russian Arctic: Reproducing or challenging the hegemonic masculinities of the frontier2018In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The image of the Arctic can be understood as a part of a larger discourse of the north as an uncivilized, untamed frontier, not suitable or accessible for modern, urban people, but a place for strong adventurers, hunters, and explorers. In this study, we seek to understand how hegemonic masculinities of the north both inform and are challenged by tourism and its representations and practices in the Russian Arctic, in particular the Nenets Autonomous District (NAD). The study is based on the analysis of data collected during several field trips to the region during the period of 2012-2013 and 2014, including semistructured interviews with key stakeholders and observations of tourism practices, as well as content analysis of promotional images of selected tourism companies. Tourism in the NAD is typically adventure based: snowmobile safaris, fishing, hunting, and white-water rafting. There are also different types of indigenous tourism, such as living with reindeer herders for a period of time. The tourism industry covered herein consisted of microfirms and small businesses. The entrepreneurs were all middle-aged Russian men and the tourists were predominantly male middle class Russians from metropolitan regions, traveling as groups of friends or colleagues. The results show that despite the willingness of the tourism entrepreneurs to broaden their customer groups and offerings, the products reproduce the destination as a playground for (male) "hook and bullet" tourists. However, there are also examples of how tourism may challenge or reconstruct the understandings of typically masculine or feminine duties or roles in some specific local contexts.

  • 58.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hinnerth, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The quest for snow: Adaptation strategies of alpine skiing destinations in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of climate change is considered one of the major challenges that the winter sport tourism industry faces today. Sälen, one of the major skiing destinations in Sweden, is situated in the southernmost part of the Swedish mountain range and is therefore one of the most vulnerable destinations when it comes to the effects of climate change. The aim of this paper is to examine and discuss adaptation strategies to climate change that have been implemented in Sälen, with a special focus on increased snowmaking. We discuss snowmaking in relation to alternative adaptation strategies such as increased summer tourism, and relate the adaptation strategies encountered in Sälen to how destinations in the Austrian Alps, which have warmer temperatures, have approached the situation. Those that we interpret as adaptation strategies are mainly focused on maintaining the mass touristic character of winter sports destinations and even extending the production of downhill skiing. These strategies of adaptation and development demand continued intensive snowmaking and an even accentuated quest for snow. However, Sälen is trying to overcome its dependence on downhill skiing as its sole and dominant activity. The strategy of developing summer tourism is problematic, however, not least in relation to the parallel advance in increased snowmaking. 

  • 59.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Duncan, Tara
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Career paths and mobility in the Swedish hospitality sector.2017In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 29-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How career paths are interpreted and conceptualised by hospitality workers and industry representatives remains underexplored in current literature. In this paper, we highlight and discuss sector-specific and contextual factors that influence the possibility of establishing a career within the Swedish hospitality sector. The paper uses interviews with hotel managers, who describe and discuss motivations and choices made throughout their own careers and interviews with young (former) seasonal hospitality workers who describe and reflect on their future plans and work-life experience. Additional data are derived through observations at national seminars and meetings for representatives from the Swedish tourism and hospitality industry, where issues of competence and careers were discussed. The findings indicate that the shaping of career paths within the hospitality sector is influenced by two normative and discursively produced ‘truths’ about career paths in the hospitality sector: the importance of internal knowledge transfer and the importance of high mobility. These narratives impose expectations on individuals to be mobile, to change jobs frequently and to work their way from the bottom-up within the industry, and are based on a presumption of a diversified and dense local hospitality labour market. However, since the conditions are different due to contextual, geographical features of labour market size and structure, attractiveness of places, etc., these expectations are difficult to fulfil in places other than in larger urban areas. These normative assumptions of what a successful hospitality career is also have consequences for the development of the hospitality sector as external influences of competence from other sectors and higher education are not seen as valuable, which makes the sector self-contained and not open to external, potentially innovative knowledge.

  • 60.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    National and regional economic effects of the horse industry in Sweden Estimations from a BI-model for 2016: Estimations from a BI-model for 20162018In: Human-horse relationships in work and play: Interspecies encounters inbusiness, tourism and beyond, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first results from a newly developed BI (business intelligence) model for the Swedish horse industry. Compared to previous studies of the impact from the horse industry we are able to present both figures for the national level as well as a decomposition to regional levels.

    The size of the horse industry in Sweden for 2016, is measured departing from the expenditure approach, i.e. summing the final use of horse related goods and services. One implication of the approach is that results are comparable with overall GDP figures for a country and with other subsectors of an economy, e.g. the tourism industry or the car producing industry. The model has two main inputs. Firstly, estimates of the geographical position of all Sweden’s 355.500 horses of different type and use, based on JBVs statistics and postal codes from horse associations. Secondly, estimates of the horse owner’s consumption pattern related to their leisure or professional use. Other horse related activities like riding schools, education, race tracks, betting etc. is treated separately, measured and added to the overall calculation.

    The preliminary results indicate that the horse industry in Sweden amounts to somewhere in the interval of 26-32 Billion SEK corresponding to approximately 0,5-0,6 percentage of Swedish GDP. Looking at regional variations, the region of Skåne has most horses and consistently also the region with largest share of the horse industry.

  • 61.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Andersson, Hans
    SLU.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter av hästnäringen: Skattningar baserat på en B.I. – modell av hästnäringen för 20162018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar skattningar av den svenska hästnäringens samhällsekonomiska effekter på nationell och regional nivå. År 2016 uppskattades hästnäringen i Sverige generera en direkt omsättning på 31,3 miljarder kronor motsvarande en sysselsättning om ca 16 900 helårsarbetskrafter. Skattningarna bygger på en modell för hästnäringens samhällsekonomi som har sin utgångspunkt i summering av total konsumtion av hästrelaterade varor och tjänster i Sverige under ett år. Rapporten presenterar även den Business Intelligence (BI) lösning som ligger till grund samt hur bakgrundsdata har samlats in, lagrats och paketerats för att slutligen presenteras med hjälp av ett BI-verktyg (https://hastnaringen-i-siffror.se).

  • 62.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Peace & Love 2011: Uppskattning av festivalens ekonomiska betydelse via segmenteringsansatsen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att kartlägga samt värdera och presentera ekonomiska effekterkopplade till Peace & Love festivalen 2011 genom att tillämpa segmenteringsansatsen.Utgångspunkten är en uppdelning av festivalbesökarna i olika kategorier (segment) som därefteranvänds för att skatta den direkta ekonomiska effekten av festivalen. Uppskattningen av deekonomiska effekter som presenteras är baserade på enkätsvar från 1036 festivalbesökare samt1540 intervjuer vid entréerna.

    Resultatet från studien pekar på att den traditionella metoden med uppskattning av effekter via enuppdelning av konsumtion mellan turister och icke turister överskattar den totala effekten jämförtmed uppskattning via boendesegmentering med ca 10 procent. Den totala effekten viaboendesegmentering uppskattas till dryga 185 Mkr. Besökarnas konsumtion i samband medPeace & Love festivalen kan omräknas till 61,85 helårsverken. Peace & Love festivalen beräknasskapa drygt 22 helårsverken inom restaurang och handel i Borlängeregionen utöver de 23helårsverken som festivalorganisationen skapar.

  • 63.
    Henaien, Moncef
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sinha, Shalvi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    International conference site selection criteria: And a case study of Stockholm as an international conference city2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the destination site selection criteria for internationalconferences from the perspectives of the three main players of the conference industry,conference buyers (organizers and delegates) and suppliers. Additionally, the researchidentifies the strengths and weaknesses of the congress cities of Stockholm and Vienna.Through a comparison with Vienna, the top city for hosting international conferences, a roadmap for Stockholm has been designed, to strengthen its congress tourism opportunities, thus,obtaining a higher status as an international congress city. This qualitative research hascombined both primary and secondary data methods, through semi-standardized expertinterviews and secondary studies respectively, to fulfil the study’s aim. The data have beenanalysed by applying the techniques of qualitative content analysis; the secondary dataadopting an inductive approach according to Mayring (2003) while the expert interviewsusing a deductive approach according to Meuser & Nagel (2009). The conclusions of thesecondary data have been further compared and contrasted with the outcomes of the primarydata, to propose fresh discoveries, clarifications, and concepts related to the site selectioncriteria for international conferences, and for the congress tourism industry of Stockholm. Theresearch discusses the discoveries of the site selection criteria, the implications of thestrengths and weaknesses of Stockholm in comparison to Vienna, recommendations forStockholm via a road map, and future research areas in detail. The findings andrecommendation, not only provide specific steps and inceptions that Stockholm as aninternational conference city can apply, but also propose findings, which can aid conferencebuyers and suppliers to cooperate, to strengthen their marketing strategies and developsuccessful international conferences and destinations to help achieve a greater competitiveadvantage.

  • 64.
    Hernemark, Veronika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Ubaidi Karlsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Comparative Analysis of Destination Image: Example from Visit Dalarna’s Webpage and User Generated Content2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media is a relatively recent destination marketing tool that can shape destination images (DI). Mostly, DI are formed by destination marketing organisations (DMO), although through social media users’ images another extent of DI is formed. This research examines the projected and perceived DI, established through DMO content and user generated content (UGC) in the study area of Dalarna, Sweden. As projected DI may differ from perceived in an organisational view compared to social media’s users view of a destination, the attributes and characteristics of the images are of interest. A background through social media and the UGC utilisation by DMOs provided a framework for the research.

    Followingly, the research aims to display the DI from the projected and perceived content from DMO and UGC, and their respectively cognitive and affective dimensions towards the destination. To be able to fulfil the aim a qualitative visual content analysis was used to compare the data from the DMO Visit Dalarna and UGC from #VisitDalarna. The results suggest more cognitive than affective dimensions present in the DIs. Additionally, the DMO displayed a more varied DI than UGC, since they almost exclusively were concentrated on one category. In conclusion, the perceived DI has an influence on the information search process, as well as the perceived DI is influenced by the projected DI, and together the two DI create an comprehensive DI.

  • 65.
    Hladkikh, Volha
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Branding of a Private Tourism Business in Sweden towards Foreign Markets: The Case of Främby Udde Resort in Falun, Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research investigates branding of a private tourism business in Sweden towards foreign markets based on the example of Främby Udde resort in Falun. The main concepts are brand image and brand identity in tourism. The study examines how the brand identity created on the website of Främby Udde aligns with the actual brand image that the visitors acquire after they experience their stay. Content analysis of the website and of guest reviews is used to explore the brand identity and brand image of the resort. Analysis of the results provides feedback on how Främby Udde aligns its brand identity with the existing brand image and gives suggestions on how to improve branding of the resort towards foreign markets.

  • 66. Hopkins, D.
    et al.
    Higham, J.
    Orchiston, C.
    Duncan, Tara
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Practising academic mobilities: Bodies, networks and institutional rhythms2019In: Geographical Journal, ISSN 0016-7398, E-ISSN 1475-4959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of what a successful academic should be doing – researching, publishing, teaching, serving the academic community – are often dependent upon particular practices of corporeal mobilities. These practices discursively and materially connect historically situated academic mobilities with the “modern,” globalised university system. At the same time, there is increasing attention being paid to the “hypocrisy of hypermobile academics” – often reliant on high-carbon aeromobilities – in light of the unprecedented and urgent need to decarbonise transport to limit warming to 1.5°C. Using qualitative material gathered from one academic institution in Aotearoa New Zealand, we pay attention to the politics of academic mobilities at multiple scales, from the academic body, to social/family networks, and institutional rhythms. We contribute to the growing body of work that reflects on academic practice, and argue that detailed understandings of these processes are required to overcome the so-called “climate hypocrisy” of high-carbon academic work-related travel.

  • 67.
    Husmann, Ann-Christin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Brand Identity in Horse-based Tourism: A Case Study of Iceland2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of tourism destination branding, so far research has focused more on the demand-side perspective meaning the brand image. Over the last years researchers also emphasize the supply-side perspective that is the brand identity, however up to date few papers have been published. Hence, this study focuses on brand identity in tourism by making use of Icelandic horse-based tourism as a case study. As such, the emphasis is placed on the communicated brand identities of Icelandic horse-based tourism providers and the main messages and elements found within their promotion material. A content analysis of the supplier's websites is used and based on it can be said that more than one communicated brand identities exists. Moreover, throughout the promotional material distributed to potential customers, some of the brand identities are communicated not only differently but occasionally stand in conflict to each other, whereas the main messages the materials strive to deliver only display few variations. As such in general this study contributes to brand identity research in tourism while more particularly to tourism analysis of Iceland.

  • 68.
    Hussein Martinez, Juan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kolobov, Kirill
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The effects of managing multinational based staff: The case study of the ski resort Romme Alpin, Sweden Degree2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managers operating within the multinational environments face the challenge of dealing with a group formed by local and international employees with different backgrounds and experiences. The success of the management relies within the managerial skills of the group leader. In the case of Sweden, the political and economic stability of the country in addition to opened borders with its policies and regulations, created the multinationalism within the local population. Consequently it has affected the local labor market. This paper aims to investigate from the managerial point of view the positive and negative aspects of managing multinational based staff for the service delivery based on the ski resort Romme Alpin, Dalarna, Sweden. It was previously researched the importance of recruiting, maintaining and improving the working labor, as well as importance of human resource performance in service delivery affecting competitive advantage of the organization. Therefore, authors are focused to contribute the knowledge in creation and management of the multinational based staff. SERVQUAL model and its five dimensions were used to analyze from the managerial point of view the quality of service delivered by the multinational employees. Thus the INSQPLUS model were used as a tool to present the service delivery gap and analyze the internal characteristics of multinational teams and their effects for the service delivery. The qualitative method throughout in-depth semi-structured interviews was used in this research, in order to investigate manager’s perceptions about the effects of multinational environments for the quality of service delivery. From the conducted interviews it was observed that personal characteristics of the international employees differ from the domestic workers. Apart the economic benefits that are entailed from immigration of the labor force, service mindedness within the international employees was marked throughout the research. However, some challenges and obstacles might be seen within the employment of multinational based staff, which can influence the manager's decision and reject the international worker. Therefore the adequate management of the employees is essential for the service delivery and is researched throughout this paper involving multinational environment.

  • 69.
    Ilesjö, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Dalarna as a Food Tourism Destination: A Qualitative Analysis of Tourism Brochures2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the great amount of research in food tourism around the world, little is known about the development of this type of tourism in Sweden. This research examined how food is represented in tourism brochures produced by destination marketing organizations in Dalarna county. The paper followed a qualitative approach using content analysis as a tool for the analysis of visual content. The analysis was divided into two steps; firstly, the identification of denotative elements in the images and secondly, the examination of connotative features. The research showed that the promotion of food tourism in Dalarna county is rather small in comparison with other types of tourism activities in the region. Out of 1595 images collected for the research, 260 had an association to food. The representations that arose from the images were divided in four themes, namely; "Culture", "Luxury/High Quality", "Relations" and "Nature".

  • 70.
    Jankauskaitė, Kristė
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourism as a support tool for wildlife conservation: Large carnivore watching tourism in Brasov County, Romania2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research focuses on a sub-sector of wildlife watching tourism which relies on non-captive non-consumptive usage of large carnivores as its main attraction. This form of wildlife watching tourism attracts visitors to experience the encounters with species in their natural habitats. The changing number of large carnivore populations in Europe has been one of the most controversial topics throughout the decades due to its conflicting character with human populations. Romania is a dominating country in Europe holding the biggest large carnivore population. After the implementation of successful management programs, Brasov is now the county which holds the biggest number of large carnivore watching tourism attractions.

    This research aims to provide a better understanding about the opinions of stakeholders on the current opportunities and pitfalls of large carnivore watching tourism in Romania and to discover the potential ways of tourism contribution to large carnivore conservation. For this purpose, six semi-structured in-depth interviews were performed with various stakeholders. The results suggest that currently, Romania is in a slow phase of large carnivore watching tourism development mainly due to the lack of promotion and local recognition of large carnivore value. Even though a shift from consumptive towards non-consumptive tourism can be noted, in the creation of observatories and revolutionary usage of hunting hides for wildlife watching tourism, the need for development programs to improve coexistence, increase financial gains and accelerate the tourism development was identified.

  • 71.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Networks as a Result of Sport Events: Exploring Relationships and Motivation within the BeyondSkiing Foundation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Events today are partly seen as a tourism strategy, a way of attracting more visitors to aspecific region. By offering visitors leisure and social opportunities, an event can raiseawareness and increase the appeal of a city, region or country through additional exposure.Event effects can be short and long-term, and if successful they can affect society in aneconomic, social and environmental in a positive context. Researchers suggest that eventeffects should be evaluated, although much academic focus lies on economic effect studies.However, since the success of events highly depend on stakeholder cooperation and thecreation of sustainable relationships, this study will focus on examining the nature of anetwork that was created as a result of the event World Ski Championships in Falun 2015. Anumber of qualitative semi-structured interviews were performed with the members of thisnetwork, the Beyond Skiing Foundation. The results show that a number of internal andexternal relationships were created amongst the members. The relationships were categorizedas business-oriented relationships, relationships for sharing knowledge/experience, andrelationships to maintain communication. The public interviewees, such as municipalitiestended to create external relationships with local companies and organisations, while privatecompanies created internal relationships with other Beyond Skiing members. The mainmotives for joining the Beyond Skiing network were exposure, business opportunities and theability to contribution to the region. Most interviewees were positive towards a continuing ofthe network, after the event was over, although the meanings differed a lot concerning whichconstellation the network would form and for which purpose. It is concluded from thefindings in this study that Beyond Skiing as a network composes of a number of relationshipsof different characteristics and comprises of members that have an extended pool ofknowledge about network and their benefits. Therefore Beyond Skiing has a great potential interms of competitive advantage in relation to other regional networks in Dalarna.

  • 72.
    Kauppinen, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The existing research on sport- and wellness tourism: A meta-review2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past years, there have been an escalation in interest on vacations that are more active and tourism surrounding fitness and exercise is a growing aspect in the tourism industry. Fitness and exercise is mentioned by some researchers to be a part of sport tourism and wellness tourism, however, how much research have been done to investigate this topic?

    The aim of this thesis is to look deeper into the topics of sport- and wellness tourism in order to get a better understanding and a clearer picture of what kind of research that exists in order to confront the claims of both Priestly (1995) and Gibson (1998). In addition to this, see what research have been done in sport- and wellness tourism directly connected to exercise and fitness

  • 73.
    Kauppinen, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The existing research on sport- and wellness tourism: A meta-review2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past years, there have been an escalation in interest on vacations that are more active and tourism surrounding fitness and exercise is a growing aspect in the tourism industry. Fitness and exercise is mentioned by some researchers to be a part of sport tourism and wellness tourism, however, how much research have been done to investigate this topic?

    The aim of this thesis is to look deeper into the topics of sport- and wellness tourism in order to get a better understanding and a clearer picture of what kind of research that exists in order to confront the claims of both Priestly (1995) and Gibson (1998). In addition to this, see what research have been done in sport- and wellness tourism directly connected to exercise and fitness

  • 74.
    Kažemėkaitė, Ingrida
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The World Heritage Status: Implications for Destination Development: The case of the World Heritage site Curonian Spit, Lithuania2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural Heritage of a destination is very important to determine, particularly when it’s aiming to become a tourist destination. To develop tourism more rapidly many locations are eager to get the nomination of The World Heritage site, and when a destination becomes the World Heritage site status more regulations and limitations will be applied to a site by UNESCO. The main problem is that in some cases are identified a lack of the focus on the systematic long – term management plans for sustainable destination development.

    In this study, a particular attention is given to the case of the Curonian Spit – nominated to the World Heritage List by UNESCO in 2000. The study takes into the consideration the lack of guidelines for heritage conservation and heritage tourism. It focuses on the detailed analysis of the processes concerning the Curonian Spit World Heritage management. Furthermore, the main Curonian Spit tourism identities which worldwide are recognized.

    The paper aims to identify how the World Heritage status affects tourism destination development in Curonian Spit. The inductive approach helps to identify main managerial patterns and major stakeholders’ knowledge connected to the site’s CP managerial weaknesses and strengths.

    The results show that there are several major problems regarding tourism development in Curonian Spit that were identified through semi - structured interviews and content analysis. Hence, current study outlines the status of the current relationship between heritage and tourism, management goals and examines tourism management on the Curonian Spit.

    Existing problems are the absence of appropriate national legislation, lack of managerial institutions competence regarding World Heritage and tourism management together and none existing cooperation between managerial institutions and the local stakeholders.

    Nowadays, Curonian Spit is more attractive for international tourism market, but it cannot be proven that this is UNESCO title’s outcome. On the topic of Curonian Spit, no managerial changes were identified before and after UNESCO but gathered information provided clear managerial organization’s viewpoint on the Curonian Spit management effectiveness. No long – term goals are made because according to the Lithuania’s National laws report it should include only one-year transportation, infrastructure, and management plans.

     Gathered data approve theoretical assumptions that heritage and tourism can be managed together and provide beneficial outcomes; however managerial competencies and goals are overlapping with each other.

    It is recognized that in tourism development the Curonian Spit is not growing from the infrastructure perspective. The municipality interested in further expansion of the tourism activities on the territory of the Curonian Spit and in the expansion of the physical infrastructure. However, the development should proceed in accordance with the needs of local nature and landscape.

    Growing visitors’ number leads to an assumption that Curonian Spit as the resort is sustainably managed, however, the main solution that should be considered regarding heritage tourism development in the Curonian Spit is that Lithuania’s governmental municipality’s legal systems should be rewritten with considerations regarding sustainable location development.

    All gathered data leaves the room for further investigations, such as providing more specific examples how system law is compatible or incompatible with heritage and tourism development goals. It is possible to investigate a correlation between several factors: such as local business and managerial institutions or eco - tourism development in WHS etc., however, due to the specific goals of the case, results and findings can be generalized just to a certain degree. It is believed that this study and data is valid and can lie down as research gap filler that was mentioned in the literature review, however, gathered data is relevant just for Curonian Spit case.

    In conclusion, this thesis identifies that World Heritage status in Curonian Spit case does not affect tourism development, but explains that Lithuanian Governmental laws and stakeholders lack of communication are main difficulties regarding destination development and makes way for future studies.

  • 75.
    Ketabi, Mohamed Fouad
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The perceived destination images by Swedish tourists with their visit on Cyprus2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2016 Cyprus received 3,2 million international tourists. The island is considered as the 40th

    most popular destination in the world, while if counted per capita of local population Cyprus

    has a 6th place worldwide. There are some 200,000 tourists from Sweden travelling to the

    island annually. Swedish citizens, in a similar fashion with the rest of Nordic countries enjoy

    a similar consumer behavior and high purchasing power. Understanding how Swedish tourists

    perceive image of Cyprus helps to nuance the view of visitors coming from Nordic countries

    onto the destination. The visit experience plays an important role to reduce the destination

    image stereotyping, which caused by different information sources that may lead to a change

    in destination image after visitation. Positive destination image leads to satisfaction and revisit

    intentions. This thesis investigates in detail how Swedish’ tourists perceive the

    destination images during their visit on Cyprus. The researcher followed semi-structured

    qualitative research method with the use of in-depth interviews to collect empirical data with

    respondents who have visited Cyprus. Destination image theory is utilized to support the

    theoretical ground for the thesis, while a textual content analysis was used as a tool for

    analyzing the interviews. Adopting the qualitative research approach provided the opportunity

    to capture the holistic components of Cyprus destination images while Cyprus touristic’

    attributes were identified and ranked based on their functionality and psychological

    dimensions. Conducting this research provided the researcher the chance to test the theoretical

    destination image formation and the interrelationship among the destination image different

    components. Cyprus images after visiting the destination differ from the pre-visit stage as

    images were modified after visiting the destination. Swedish tourists upon their visit

    perceived the images of Cyprus in positive and negative ways. Cyprus Tourism Organization

    can benefit Cyprus by considering the negative notions found in this research and try to solve

    these problems or minimize their effects as possible.

  • 76.
    Klaassen, Stephanie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Should I stay, or should I go?: The motivations, experiences and attitudes of Högskolan Dalarna students towards sojourning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Student travel in Europe has become a major phenomenon in the past 25 years. Annually Dalarna University gives students the opportunity of spending part of their studies at one of the partner universities abroad. Despite the support from the International Office, financial support from the government as well as the fact that international experiences have become an important attribute of young academics and future employment, the university has experienced a low demand of applicants. Thus, Dalarna University has made it their mission to promote so-called sojourning (the time of their studies that students spend at a university abroad) among their students, especially Swedish students. This thesis has the purpose of studying the motives, experiences and attitudes of Swedish students towards sojourning.

    The findings of this research, which were collected through semi-structured interviews with staff of Dalarna University as well as with 14 students, have shown connections between the results and previous literature. For example, the interviews with the sojourners have demonstrated that more than half of the interviewees have decided to participate in the Erasmus programmes in order of receiving a change of environment. Furthermore, a majority of students agree their time abroad has had an effect on their personal development in terms of confidence and independence. Finally, the interviews have given the author an insight on issues that were perceived by the student during the process of planning the sojourn, such as a lack of communication and information before, during and after the time spent abroad.

  • 77.
    Klaiber, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The impact of cross-border collaboration on destination competitiveness: Are cross-border destinations the next big thing in rural tourism? The case of the SITE region2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 78.
    Kolesnikova, Alexandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tolstonoh, Kateryna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Destination image in dark tourism: Tour operators and visitors perception of Chernobyl2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study on destination image is highly important for the destination developmentand increase of the overall tourism flows. It is formed by several actors, such astourists and Tour Operators. There is a scant research conducted on the investigationof destination image specifically within dark tourism. This concept is relatively newand undiscovered. The authors attempt to fulfill the existing gap in the investigationon the present phenomena by studying destination image of Chernobyl ExclusionZone as a new dark tourism site from two different perspectives and try to place itin the overall tourism development strategy for Ukraine.The qualitative research method was chosen for this study. The empirical datawas gathered through conduction of in-depth interviews with the major TourOperators and the content analysis of visitors’ blogs was performed. The resultsshow that both parties see Chernobyl as a dark tourism destination includingattractions of such kind as toxic and Post-Soviet. However, during the discussion ofthe results and relevant destination formation literature some inconsistency wasdetermined in the Tour Operators image projection. The further researched showedthat the connection of destination Chernobyl to the tourism branch of Ukraine is notfound sufficient and even negatively impacting the development of specified site.

  • 79.
    Kořenková, Pavla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Attitudes towards natural area tourism: main motivational factors and environmental awareness: An example of students of Palacký University in Olomouc, Czech Republic2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the relationship between travel motivation to natural areas measured by a Recreation Experience Preference (REP) scale and environmental awareness measured by the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale. The primary data for the research were gained from a quantitative online survey focusing on students of the University Palacký in Olomouc, Czech Republic. The thesis handles the definition of nature tourism, presents basic approaches to investigation of travel motivation, research on travel motivation in the Czech Republic, a brief overview of the nature potential for tourism in the Czech Republic and also the relationship between the environment and tourism. Factor analysis was the key method for data analysis. Through this method factors for individual scales were created and these factors were further used as new variables. It was found that internal motivation exceeds external motives and that higher environmental awareness of respondents is related to higher motivation to nature tourism.

  • 80.
    Laarman, Anoek
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Spectator satisfaction and the willingness to paymore for a better service.: A case study of the SWC 2015 in Falun.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spectator satisfaction consists of the opinion and impressions the spectator developsduring an event. These impressions can be influenced by multiple factors, whereas employeesare seen as the most influential factor towards service quality and thus customer satisfaction.Since the employees’ role is seen as important, it is essential for the organization to hire theright employees for the right positions. However, due to the struggle of finding people whohave the qualities for a certain task, often spots are filled with so called unskilled volunteers.All decisions made by the organization affect the spectator experience. Using the Ski WorldChampionship 2015 in Falun as a case study, the purpose of this study is to investigate andexamine the spectators experience and their willingness to pay more for a better service. Themethod for data collection was an on-site self-complete questionnaire study. During the event,a total of N=893 individuals participated in the study. All respondents were spectators of theraces of the SWC in Falun which was held in February 2015. The spectators were asked to fillout a survey by themselves, that contained questions based on their personal experiences duringthe event. Results show that the event was a success among the spectators as their overallexperience was rated high. The quality service of the paid employees, medal ceremony andshops were determined as influencing factors for this experience. By looking at the spectatorswillingness to pay more for a better service, no human resources, but the overall experience isthe direct influencing factor. Based on these results, it is argued that employees cannot influenceevery aspect of the spectators experience, however paid employees are an effective way toincrease the spectator’s experience. These outcomes might be useful for organizations of megasport events in order to see the importance of the human resources hired. Besides, it could bestarting point for future studies facing topics such as behavioral intentions or studies thatresearch different influencing factors than the ones of this study.

  • 81.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Nygren, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Role of Social Media when Deciding on a Destination: Comparison of tourism students at Dalarna University & Bournemouth University2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Students are an important part of the tourism market; however, they are often neglected in tourism research. Even though social media is commonly used amongst students, its effect on their information search and choice of destination is still unknown. This thesis has researched the role of social media in the decision-making process and its use as a tool to assist the choice of destination. An interview with the Global PR and Social Media manager at VisitSweden will be conducted to provide useful information from a manager’s perspective on social media marketing and the questionnaire questions. The method used was a quantitative method where the questionnaire was sent out to the chosen populations of tourism students at Dalarna University and Bournemouth University. The sample groups consist of the students who answered the questionnaire. The data collected from the two populations was analyzed and compared to identify differences between them and what generalizations could be made. The result from this research displayed that social media is used as a tool to assist in choosing a destination. Social media is not used to the same extent that the literature mentioned, as other sources proved to have a larger role when choosing a destination. The two sample groups share similarities, however differences can be found, limiting the researchers’ ability to generalize for both populations of tourism students.

  • 82.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    A Decision Tool Approach to Sensitivity Analysis in a Risk Classification Model2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Decision Analytical tool capable of handling numerically imprecise data for decision making is used in this paper to analyze the risk of the effect of data alteration in the ranking positions of country alternatives for food price volatility. Unguided decision making processes would lead to non-optimal decisions with it’s dire consequences on the resources of organizations. The paper is thus guided by the use of an accurate risk classification model to implement uncertainty and imprecision which are essential part of real life decision making processes with computer based tools to overcome the problem of possibilities uncertain and imprecise input data of criteria and alternatives. A ranking of the alternatives is conducted after imprecision is considered in the input data and a further analysis is carried out to determine which criteria is sensitive enough to alter the position of a country in the rankings.

  • 83.
    Laspa, Vasiliki
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Couchsurfing: An understanding of the hosts’ willingness to offer accommodation free of charge to relative strangers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research was to get a better understanding of why one might be a couch surfing host. The focus of this study is the general concept of the Couchsurfing platform which has created the possibility for travelers from all over the world, to offer or to request (or both) hospitality free of charge. As a part of a qualitative study, online interviews were held with six hosts located in different countries around the world. The findings of the data gathered while conducting the research, give an insight of how people choose their potential guests, how they negotiate trust along with what is the that they gain out of sharing the privacy of their homes with ‘strangers’.

  • 84.
    Lilja, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The influences of using visual communication to the people withmobility impairments in tourism: By information and promotion2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies found out that people with disabilities (PWD) do not travel like the peoplewithout disabilities due to lack in information and promotion towards the PWD. Visualcommunication is a concept the tourist destinations use to make the destinations more real tothe visitors by using pictures and videos, which is a concept Swedish websites and disabilityfriendlywebsites in Sweden are missing towards PWD. This research limited to the peoplewith mobility impairments (PWMI) in Swedish disability organizations (HSO).This research examined the influence of the visual communication in two ways: Firstly asimproved information by pictures and videos to the PWMI. Secondly as promotion towardsthe PWMI by using PWMI in the pictures and videos.An online survey with questionnaire was sent to PWMI in different organizations in Sweden,in total were there 212 valid questionnaires collected from the PWMI.The main results found out that PWMI used Internet the most for finding information to thetrips, then it would make sense to improve information on the Internet. Further the researchrevealed visual communication on the Internet would relieve the information search a lot forthe PWMI in all tourism sectors, accommodation the most. Since the information weredifficult to find in all sectors. Therefore, the majority of the PWMI had to look how adaptedthe destinations were and had to call / e-mail to have sufficient information about thedestinations. Improved information with visual communication would also influence thePWMI to travel more.The PWMI perceived the marketing towards the PWMI as very poor in all the tourismsectors. By promoting PWMI in the pictures and videos, the majority of the PWMI would domore tourism activities. The research found out activities as: guided tours, nature activities,sun and sea trips, city sightseeing and adventurous activities interesting for the PWMI. Theseactivities should the PWMI perform in the promotions towards the PWMI.This approach would influence the PWMI feeling more welcome to the destination and also totravel more by feeling more welcome to the destinations.

  • 85.
    Liu, Chang
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Ning, Haoyuan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Destination image in Bejing, China: Exploring the differences in destination branding towards international and domestic tourists2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86.
    Liu, Heran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    A study of perceived image of Stockholm amongChinese students2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is exploring tourism destination perceived image of Stockholm amongChinese students. This paper could offer some academic value for future studies on thedestination image of Stockholm. Besides, this paper may be useful for marketers topromote Stockholm toward Chinese youth/students travel market. Cognitive imageand affective image characteristics were examined.This thesis used quantitative method to analyze the destination image among Chinesestudents. The questionnaire survey was used to investigate cognitive image andaffective image among Chinese students who studying in Stockholm University. Ingeneral, respondents had a positive image of Stockholm. They focused on what to seeand to do as well as the social environment of Stockholm. Happy/ laid back are theitems that reflects the respondents‘ feelings about staying in Stockholm, which is arelax place that makes tourists have a chance to feel the stress free lifestyle. They alsoenjoy the beautiful scenery, friendly local people atmosphere, the cultural attractions,local architectures, good outdoor air condition and water condition of Stockholm aswell. In their opinions, those mentioned attributes were important to constructing thedestination image of Stockholm.

  • 87.
    Lu, Wang
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Li, Jianzhou
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Investigation on the Influences of TV & Movies on Tourism Image of Destination: Case study of Hengdian World Studios2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the influences of movie and TV on tourism image of destination. This research has taken Hengdian World Studio as an example. The researchers have used the methods of case study and in-depth interview analysis. The participants in interview include tourists, citizens and tour guides in Hengdian World Studios.Integrating analysisof case study and interview, the researchercame to the conclusion that TV and movie indeed exert great influences on tourism image of the destination and the influences includeboth positive and negative aspects. In positive aspect, TV and movies,as important media platforms,can greatly and quickly spread the influences and enable more audiences to start paying attention to the destination. Furthermore, TV and movies can also help to directly increase number of visitors to the destination. Gradually, through shaping symbolic values in TV and movies, theycan also turn more audience to visitors andalsoenable Hengdian to develop into a famous brand in movie and TVtourismindustry.More audiencescan transformtheir virtual feelings they had in TV or movies into actual experiencesthrough visiting the destinationand participating in activitiesor games in the destination.

    First, it can continuously contribute to local tourism industrial development. Moreover, italso extendsthe influences and reshapesthetourismimage of Hengdian as famous film studios. Hengdian World Studios also finds its way to becomean ideal destination for more audiences. However, withincreasing numbers of visitorscoming to Hengdianand moviesto be filmed within the studios, it may also cause the problemsmisread of local culture, separationbetween virtuality in TV and movie and realityof thedestination, and other problems inenvironment pollutionor overload, etc.These negative impacts will not leave good impressions on tourists. Thus, in the long run, it will not sustain a good imageof the destination.Itis of vital importanceto make joint efforts to have more supervision and regulationon tourism management withinthe 3

    studiosin the purposes of continuouslydelivering goodservices to visitors and reshapingthe tourismimage of Hengdian World Studios.

  • 88.
    Luca, Claudia Atena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Memorable experiences in rural tourism: Study of Rural areas from Cluj Napoca County, Romania2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the shift nowadays towards an experience economy, the increased attention placed on memorable experiences and how to stage them can be viewed as a major trend which can act as a source of information regarding the stories that people share about themselves and their self-perceptions, as well as helping businesses make a step towards their guests. In this vein, rural tourism is highly consumed by people searching for these unique and memorable experiences, but the knowledge on tourists’ experiences in a rural setting are very limited. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine what memorable experiences tourists encounter in the rural setting, and more importantly, why were they memorable. In order to answer these questions, the researcher undertook a qualitative approach and in depth semi structured interviews were conducted with people who travelled in the Cluj Napoca County from Romania. The findings revealed an amalgam of experiences that people encounter in the rural setting, combined with various reasons why the experiences were considered memorable in the eyes of respondents. The main findings show how the optimal memorable tourism experience is usually comprised of several factors involving multiple experiential dimensions, and an important influence is represented by social interactions alongside positive emotions.

  • 89.
    Lukenskaitė, Rasa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Emotional identity – destination’s visual representation and image creation. Neuromarketing as an instrument: Case of Vienna, Austria2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction of destination image is multifaceted and complex task of tourist destination marketers. Visual image creation manifests through visualizations of promotional material employing particular marketing strategies. Wisely promoted visual representations are effectual and forceful marketing instrument that through depiction of people in combination with certain environments establishes strong emotive associations about touristic destination in potential visitors’ brains. This way destination’s visual image becomes alive and emotional which leads to formation of strong visual identity projected through visualizations in consumers’ heads. Therefore, destination’s image and identity are interdependent. There are several researches made on general contribution of visual images in brand identity creation and impact on potential visitors’ behaviour, hence little to none investigated how promotional pictures generated by particular destination’s marketers assist in destination’s emotional image and identity creation in combination with leading marketing strategies of destination.

    The aim of this study was to comprehend how visual image of destination is being created through representing people and touristic settings of destination in promotional photographs. Research also intended to examine how destination’s identity could be constructed through associative emotional image. Case study of unique Vienna case applied as it is the only destination employing neuromarketing that uses neuro science for marketing purposes as the lead marketing strategy. The photographs extracted from Vienna DMO’s main promotional website were the research object of content and discourse analysis. As neuro science and (neuro)marketing studies are tightly related with aims of affecting human’s brain, the critical evaluation of investigation products was made through psychological prism.

    Main findings of the study revealed existing discrepancies between marketing strategies and visual representations, depicted inequities, intolerance and lack of distinctiveness intertwined into Vienna’s visual promotion. Destination’s identity can be defined by contradictive and unstable concepts caused by Vienna DMO marketers’ inner conflicts between theory and practice. It is noted that although a progress in constructing new influential destination image has been made, however, the results indicated the dominance in representation of stereotypical image formed long ago in a past. This means incoherent data usage from destination marketers. This study offered that Vienna destination marketers would firstly thoroughly synthesize data acquired from neuro science and then practically integrate it into all marketing tools such as visual representation wisely. That is with the correct messages and captivating narrations to construct coherent, emotionally effective and breaking clichéd perceptions destination image. Paradoxical image creates unstable identity. Strong image will eventually construct strong identity.

    There is a broad space for the future research suggested, as to include more visual representation elements such as videos, sound tracks and texts into study and to examine the topic from the perspective of destination inhabitants and consumers. The comparative analysis advocated.

  • 90.
    Mackenzie, Calahan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Poska, Robert
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Uncovering History and FolkloreNear Vasalopps-Arenan: Exploring Functions of Mobile Applications for an E-Guide2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The location of focus is Vasalopps-Arenan, a trail of historical relevance in Sweden both forthe world famous ski race, Vasaloppet, which has been held yearly since 1922, and the journeyof Gustav Vasa, upon which it is named. The potential to expand the all-season use of thetrail with the advent of free Wi-Fi along its 90 km length further supports this means. Vasalopps-Arenan is also the organization responsible for the trail system of the same name.Instead of the ski-race that the arena is best known for, this research focuses on the historicalevidence, stories, myths, and folklore previously underrepresented, and connecting them tophysical and natural phenomena that surround the research area, through the formulation ofnarratives. The introduction of literature related to narrative authenticity and interpretationwill give context to the importance of gathering primary and secondary data, for the creationof narratives that convey the stories accurately and effectively. This data is collected and analysedusing qualitative methods, through which the implemented process of deducing theirinclusion into narratives, will be beneficial for both this study and the organization, VA. Bydoing this, a connection is made between physical attractions and the area’s history and folklore,to satisfy the formulation of narratives that are intended for presentation within a digitalguide or application. A smartphone application that enables the capture of video, audio, photoimages, GPS information, can provide opportunities for much deeper and meaningful e-guideexperiences. Introducing a technological background and current applications in the marketwill provide context for both a scale formed to provide a foundation upon which Vasalopps-Arenan can build user specific information relative to its trail, and to determine what functionswould be most beneficial for the user categories of Vasalopps-Arenan. This study willuncover underrepresented/unrepresented historical data related to folklore, myths, physicalattractions and ancient beliefs within the region of this study’s focus, for the purpose of beingincluded into an e-guide/smartphone application. The study will conclude that the findings fornarrative inclusion are suitable for use within a mobile e-guide platform, and that the functionsof an application intended for different user categories also support the future creation ofthe proposed Vasalopps-Arenan application.

  • 91.
    Mahn, Kathleen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Student’s Attitudes and Perceptions towards Career Intentions & Mobility in the Tourism Industry: A Study of Swedish Universities2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to capture the students understanding of their entry into the tourism work market by examining the students across Sweden that study in tourism programs.

    Methods

    An online survey was circulated to students enrolled in tourism programs in Sweden. A non-probability sampling was applied to ensure that the primary data could be collected through the use of convenience sampling. A total amount of 205 valid responses were gathered which were analysed by using an independent sample T-test, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis.

    Results

    The variable work experience (yes and no) was not found to be significantly different from attitudes and perception of careers (Nature of work and Commitment to the Industry). Whereas, the relationship between students’ mobility and the intention to pursue a career in the tourism industry was found to exist.

    Conclusion

    Student’ attitudes and perceptions towards a career in the tourism industry tends to be positive. Thus, there is no significant difference between students with work experience and the students that do not have any. However, a positive relationship between the attitudes and perceptions towards mobility and the intention to pursue a career in tourism could be found.

  • 92.
    Martinius, Mirthe
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Dark tourism, dark emotions?: Visitors' emotions provoked at Holocaust memorial museum Anne Frank House in Amsterdam2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the emotional response of visitors during their visit at the dark tourism site, Holocaust memorial museum the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. This thesis is based on primary data using quantitative and qualitative research design. In order to collect quantitative data a self-completion questionnaire was administered on-site and a probability sampling method was used in which participants of the questionnaire were selected by a simple random sample sampling technique (Bryman, 2012). Additionally, qualitative data was collected by means of participant observations of two different techniques inside and outside the museum (Bryman, 2012). Both conducted in April 2016. Study findings are drawn from 314 questionnaires measuring emotional response, at four different locations within the memorial museum, leading to a 90% confidence level. Jotted notes of the observed participants were included to find out what triggered the emotional response of visitors. Findings of the measured emotions through the questionnaire as experienced strongest are interest, compassion, admiration and sadness. Additionally, participants who responded to the open question with any additional strong felt emotion, the most frequent mentioned categorized emotions were "spiritual", "inspirational" and "loss of sense". The retrieved observational data show sharing emotions may create a feeling of fellowship with others, individuals fused in a single entity. Besides, participant copy behaviour of the shared emotion was observed of which the emotions ranged from excitement, sadness and a feeling of being lost. Consequently, findings revealed visitors being confronted with death and suffering experience overall positive emotions during their visit. The emotional response investigated at dark tourism sites has just begun and therefore no consistency has been identified with previous results of tourism studies yet. A lack of empirical approaches to identify emotions in a dark tourism context was found. Therefore the data retrieved can be used for future studies. However, there might be a consistency with Fredrickson’s broaden-and-built theory and the undoing hypothesis. Lastly, the findings contribute to previous research identified "emotional involvement" as important motive to visit the Anne Frank House, the specific emotions experienced by the visitors on site could be compared in order to develop marketing campaigns and improve site management to retain and promote the site accordingly.

  • 93.
    Mehrtens, Ingmar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Analysis of tourist photographs of Sälen, Idre, Trysil and Engerdal: Importance of UGC photographs for tourists’ destination image formation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 94.
    Memedi, Gzime
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Stakeholder collaboration and community involvement in planning and managing the world heritage sites: case study Ohrid region, Macedonia2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to investigate stakeholder collaboration and community involvement on conservation of Ohrid region, Macedonia. To find out how the stakeholder collaboration is framed in media a content analysis approach has been employed. Online newspapers were reviewed and key information retrieved from them were considered as categories and used in subsequent analysis. This analysis was complemented with a questionnaire designed to measure the perspectives of citizens on the management of the world heritage site. From both analyses, it was found that in most of the cases there were contradictions in statements by people from different institutions including governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). For instance, the governmental organizations were in favor to increase the constructions in the city and also around the lake with the aim of increasing the number of tourists and thus revenue for the country. In contrast, the NGOs were against the increase of constructions and were critical to the government for not taking into account the negative impacts to the world heritage site. There were also disagreements between local community and governmental organizations/municipality regarding the management of the world heritage site. The local citizens showed disappointment since their views were not considered and included in the decision-making process concerning the developments in the Ohrid region. In summary, it was found that collaboration between stakeholders was poor and they had different priorities; the governmental organizations focused on increasing the number of tourists and developing the region from an economic perspective without taking into account the negative impacts on the world heritage site whereas the local community and NGOs were concerned more about the world heritage status as given by UNESCO.

  • 95.
    Mengya, He
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Residents’ Attitudes Towards Film-induced Tourism Development: A study of Hengdian World Studios in Dongyang city, China2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is using Hengdian World Studios as an example to provide first-hand

    material through questionnaire surveys, aiming to fill research gap and deepen the

    knowledge about how the impacts of film-induced tourism perceived by local

    residents in Dongyang City of Eastern China. The specific objectives of this study are

    twofold: Firstly, to investigate the overall perceptions and attitudes of residents

    towards the development of Dongyang City as a film-induced tourism destination.

    Secondly, to determine the socio-demographics factors and the degree of involvement

    in the tourism sectors influencing residents’ perceptions and attitudes towards the

    development of Dongyang City as a tourism destination. The first conclusion to stand

    out is that, generally, residents in Dongyang City show more optimistic view about

    tourism, perceiving its positive impacts more strongly than its negative impacts. The

    second conclusion of this study reveal that residents’ attitudes are significantly

    diverse depending on their socio-demographic characteristics and the degree of

    involvement in the tourism sectors. This study contributes to scholars and tourism

    developers in developing destinations, especially valuable for film-induced tourism

    destinations where tourism is in an initial phase. Since a harmonious community

    cannot be formed in isolation without regard for the local residents’ cooperation and

    participation, tourism managers will be better propose and implement planning

    polices for the sustainability of tourism to minimize adverse effects if residents’

    attitudes and perceptions are taken into account

  • 96.
    Mokkala, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Student satisfaction in tourism education: The case of Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The students' expectations must be met to ensure their overall satisfaction. Because of this student satisfaction has become a measurement tool with which the universities can compete against each other in order to attract potential students and also a higher level of internal and external funding. This thesis deals with students' overall satisfaction in tourism education at Dalarna University in Sweden. It is important to understand what it takes for the universities to be able to produce a motivated workforce for the communities and how satisfied students could help in achieving this goal. Sweden was selected because of the recent introduction of tuition fees, in 2010, which has made it even more crucial to understand the factors affecting students' satisfaction. The method chosen for conducting this study was a questionnaire where the students of Dalarna University were asked to rate different aspects of their overall experience on a Likert scale. The research was conducted via Facebook and email questionnaire. The results show different levels of satisfaction based on the tourism programmes and gender for example. The major finding from this research implicate that the social conditions and surrounding city categories are the most influential when it comes to the overall satisfaction of students at Dalarna University. The results give the university and the city of Borlänge an insight on issues that really matter to the students and how to improve them.

  • 97.
    Mwamburi, Sharon
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Causes and Effects of Tourism Seasonality: Case Study: Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has an economic relevance to Kenya’s economy, hence captivating attention from researchers, business sphere and policy makers of the tourism sector. Seasonality is a common phenomenon in the tourism industry. The focal point of this research is on wildlife watching tourism as its main attraction. The research general objective was; to establish seasonality, its effects on the tourism industry and discover potential measures to mitigate it hence bridging the gap between high and low season. This mode of tourism attracts large numbers of tourists who wish to experience Africa’s most diverse, incredible and most spectacular eco-system in Narok County in Kenya. This research examined seasonality and its effects at Maasai Mara National Resrve in Kenya. Seasonality promulgates a number of issues that need exceptional attention and strategies. Seasonality affects the number of tourists to Maasai Mara and therefore threatens the growth of businesses in the region. Being omnipresent, all tourism enterprises in the regions are impacted by seasonality. At certain times of the year, Maasai Mara National Reserve has more tourists than they are able to accommodate, while at other times, there are few tourists to the National Reserve. The research was based on qualitative method where primary data was gathered from the managers whilst secondary data was gathered from legitimate sources i.e. Tourism Board of Kenya, Ministry of Tourism among others. Semi-structured interviews were used in the research; the target group was 5 managers in Maasai Mara. The findings depicted that Maasai Mara National Reserve is very much affected by seasonality since it is located in a remote area, poor road maintenance during the rainy season, seasonal migration of wildlife between the reserve and Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and finally the hotels and camps majorly rely on international tourists who tend to visit in large numbers during the wildlife migration in July and August.

  • 98.
    Nashawati, Salah
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourism Experience in Cashless Society: Investigating links between credit card purchase and satisfactionThe case of FIS Cross Country World Cup -Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The encouragement of governments to turn its systems toward cashless societies will likely

    lead to an emergence of new touristic experiences. The impacts of cashlessness will affect the

    creation of the purchasing experience in the tourist mind. Sweden is one of the fastest growing

    economies toward a cashless society, hence, this study will explore the tourist experience in a

    cashless society and its impacts on the tourist experience by applying hypothesis basing on

    rational choice theory. The study is based on a survey of data collected via on-site sampling

    during the Swedish Skiing games: Cross Country World Cup, that is held in Falun, Sweden

    between 15th-18th of March in 2018.

  • 99.
    Nebrat, Nataliya
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Environmental disclosures of ski resorts in the USA and their use in building social relationships2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the phenomenon of website-based voluntary environmental disclosures (VEDs) of ski resorts in the Northeast USA. The qualitative content analysis research method is used to investigate which environmental initiatives are being voluntarily disclosed by these ski resorts. Based on the adopted environmental categories of the Sustainable Slopes Program the study found that energy, waste management and water use initiatives are most popular among the Northeast USA ski resorts VEDs, and that the environmental education, transportation and riparian areas initiatives receive the least attention among. Therefore, it appears that the environmental initiatives with the most economic benefit to a firm are emphasized by these entities. Through the prism of the social exchange theory it is argued that due to their small size and lack of prominence within the USA ski industry these firms use their VEDs primarily to foster social relationships with such stakeholders as owners, investors and business community, although with certain efforts towards those with environmentalists, local communities and other stakeholders.

  • 100.
    Nguyen, Tommy
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Rasmussen, David
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Analyzing motivational factors which may influence seasonal retention: A case study on Kolmården Zoo Park & Leksand Resort2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unveiling the factors which drive the seasonal workforce in a family-park tourism destination setting through interviews with previous workers of those destinations, and to understand the challenges of working seasonally opposed to working full-time.

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