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  • 51.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    National and regional economic effects of the horse industry in Sweden Estimations from a BI-model for 2016: Estimations from a BI-model for 20162018In: Human-horse relationships in work and play: Interspecies encounters inbusiness, tourism and beyond, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first results from a newly developed BI (business intelligence) model for the Swedish horse industry. Compared to previous studies of the impact from the horse industry we are able to present both figures for the national level as well as a decomposition to regional levels.

    The size of the horse industry in Sweden for 2016, is measured departing from the expenditure approach, i.e. summing the final use of horse related goods and services. One implication of the approach is that results are comparable with overall GDP figures for a country and with other subsectors of an economy, e.g. the tourism industry or the car producing industry. The model has two main inputs. Firstly, estimates of the geographical position of all Sweden’s 355.500 horses of different type and use, based on JBVs statistics and postal codes from horse associations. Secondly, estimates of the horse owner’s consumption pattern related to their leisure or professional use. Other horse related activities like riding schools, education, race tracks, betting etc. is treated separately, measured and added to the overall calculation.

    The preliminary results indicate that the horse industry in Sweden amounts to somewhere in the interval of 26-32 Billion SEK corresponding to approximately 0,5-0,6 percentage of Swedish GDP. Looking at regional variations, the region of Skåne has most horses and consistently also the region with largest share of the horse industry.

  • 52.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Andersson, Hans
    SLU.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter av hästnäringen: Skattningar baserat på en B.I. – modell av hästnäringen för 20162018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar skattningar av den svenska hästnäringens samhällsekonomiska effekter på nationell och regional nivå. År 2016 uppskattades hästnäringen i Sverige generera en direkt omsättning på 31,3 miljarder kronor motsvarande en sysselsättning om ca 16 900 helårsarbetskrafter. Skattningarna bygger på en modell för hästnäringens samhällsekonomi som har sin utgångspunkt i summering av total konsumtion av hästrelaterade varor och tjänster i Sverige under ett år. Rapporten presenterar även den Business Intelligence (BI) lösning som ligger till grund samt hur bakgrundsdata har samlats in, lagrats och paketerats för att slutligen presenteras med hjälp av ett BI-verktyg (https://hastnaringen-i-siffror.se).

  • 53.
    Helena, Nilsson
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The impact of big-boxes on local retail: What happens when IKEA comes to town?2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large discount retailers, or big-boxes as they are sometimes referred to, are often subject to heated debate and their entry on a market is greeted with either great enthusiasm or dread. For instance, the world’s largest retailer Wal-Mart (Forbes 2014) has a number of anti- and pro-groups dedicated to its being and the event of a Wal-Mart entry tends to be met with protests and campaigns (Decamme 2013) but also welcomed by, for instance, consumers (Davis & DeBonis 2013). Also in Sweden, the entry of a big box is a hot topic and before IKEA’s opening i Borlänge 2013, the first in Sweden in more than five years, great expectations were mixed with worry (Västerbottens-Kuriren 2011).The presence of large scale discount retailers is not, however, a novel phenomenon but a part of a long-term change in retailing that has taken place globally over the past couple of decades (Taylor & Smalling, 2005). As noted by Dawson (2006), the trend in Europe has over the past few decades gone towards an increasing concentration of large firms along with a decrease of smaller firms.This trend is also detectable in the Swedish retail industry. Over the past decade, the retailing industry in Sweden has increased by around 190 Billion SEK, and its share of GDP has risen from 2,7% to 2,9%, while the number of employees have increased from 200 000 to 250 000 (HUI 2013). This growth, however, has not been distributed evenly but rather it has been oriented mainly towards out-of-town retail clusters. Parallel to this development, the number of large retailers has risen at the expense of market shares of smaller independent firms (Rämme et al 2010). Thereby, the presence of large scale retailers is simply part of a changing retail landscape.The effects of this development, where large scale retailing agents relocate shopping to out-of-town shopping areas, have been heavily debated. On the one hand, the big-boxes are accused of displacing independent small retail businesses in the city-centers and the residential areas, resulting in, to some extent, reduced employment opportunities and less availability for the consumers - especially the elderly (Ljungberg et al 2006). In addition, as access to shopping now tends to require some sort of a motorized vehicle, environmental aspects to the discussion have emerged. Ultimately these types of concerns have resulted in calls for regulations against this development (Olsson 2010). On the other hand, the proponents of the new shopping landscape argue that this evolution implies productivity gains, the benefits of lower prices and an increased variety of products (Maican & Orth 2012). Moreover it is argued that it leads to, for instance, better services (such as longer opening hours) and a creative destruction transformation pressure on retailers, which brings about a renewal of city-centerIIretail and services, increasing their attractivity (Bergström 2010). The belief in benefits of a big box entry can be exemplified by the attractivity of IKEA, and the fact that municipalities are prepared to commit to expenses amounting up to hundreds of millions in order to attract the entry of this big-box. Borlänge municipality, for instance, agreed to expenses of about 350 million SEK in order to secure the entry of IKEA, which opened in 2013 (Blomgren 2009).Against this backdrop, the overall effects of large discount retailers become important: Are the economic benefits enough to warrant subsidies or are there, on the contrary, some very compelling grounds for regulations against these types of establishments? In other words; how is overall retail in a region where a store like IKEA enters affected? And how are local retail firms affected?In order to answer these questions, the purpose of this thesis is to study how entry of a big-box retailer affects the entry region. The object of this study is IKEA - one of the world’s largest retailers, with 345 stores, active in over 40 countries and with profits of about 3.3 billion (IKEA 2013; IKEA 2014). By studying the effects of IKEA-entry, both on an aggregated level and on firm level, this thesis intends to find indications of how large discount retail establishments in general can be expected to affect the economic development both in a region overall, but also on the local firm level, something which is of interest to both policymakers as well as the retailing industry in general.The first paper examines the effects of IKEA on retail revenues and employment in the municipalities that IKEA chose to enter between 2000 and 2011; Gothenburg, Haparanda, Kalmar and Karlstad. By means of a matching method we first identify non-entry municipalities that have a similar probability of IKEA entry as the true entry municipalities. Then, using these non-entry municipalities as a control group, the causal effects of IKEA entry can be estimated using a treatment-control approach. We also extend the analysis to examine the spatial impact of IKEA by estimating the effects on retail in neighboring municipalities. It is found that a new IKEA store increases revenues in durable goods trade with 20% in the entry municipality and the number of employees with 17%. Only small, and in most cases statistically insignificant, negative effects were found in neighboring municipalities.It appears that there is a positive net effect on durables retail sales and employment in the entry municipality. However, the analysis is based on data on an aggregated municipality level and thereby it remains unclear if and how the effects vary within the entry municipalities. In addition, the data used in the first study includes the sales and employment of IKEA itself, which could account for the majority of the increases in employment and retail. Thereby the potential spillover effects on incumbent retailers in the entry municipalities cannot be discerned in the first study.IIITo examine effects of IKEA entry on incumbent retail firms, the second paper in this thesis analyses how IKEA entry affects the revenues and employment of local retail firms in three municipalities; Haparanda, Kalmar and Karlstad, which experienced entry by IKEA between 2000 and 2010. In this second study, we exclude Gothenburg due to the fact that big-box entry appears to have weaker effects in metropolitan areas (as indicated by Artz & Stone 2006). By excluding Gothenburg we aim to reduce the geographical heterogeneity in our study. We obtain control municipalities that are as similar as possible to the three entry municipalities using the same method as in the previous study, but including a slightly different set of variables in the selection equation. Using similar retail firms in the control municipalities as our comparison group, we estimate the impact of IKEA entry on revenues and employment for retail firms located at varying distances from the IKEA entry site.The results generated in this study imply that entry by IKEA increases revenues in incumbent retail firms by, on average, 11% in the entry municipalities. In addition, we do not find any significant impact on retail revenues in the city centers of the entry municipalities. However, we do find that retail firms within 1 km of the IKEA experience increases in revenues of about 26%, which indicates large spillover effects in the area nearby the entry site. As expected, this impact decreases as we expand the buffer zone: firms located between 0-2 km experiences a 14% increase and firms in 2-5 km experiences an increase of 10%. We do not find any significant impacts on retail employment.

  • 54.
    Hozzánková, Hana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Modelling S shaped hazard function: A case of evaluating Volvo Cars training project2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to introduce a new S-shaped hazard function, derive its corre-

    sponding likelihood function and then apply it to a real dataset to show advantages of

    such method. We dened an inovative S-shaped hazard function based on arctangent

    with three additional parameters. Our hazard function opens new possibilities for the

    measurement of the lock-in e ect directly using one of its parameters. Its signicance is

    further tested by a standard Wald test. We derive a log-likelihood function and apply

    it on a data from Volvo Cars Project. According to our results we conclude that the

    program was unsuccessful. Surprising shapes of nal hazard functions lead us to closer

    examination of possible limitations. We conclude that our results could be a ected

    by several aspects such as data quality, computational methods and possible violation

    of independency assumption. Nevertheless, this study works as a useful summary of

    the newly-dened S-shaped hazard function and highlights its innovative possibility to

    estimate lock-in e ect together with its signicance testing.

  • 55.
    Huq, Asif
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    How does accounting and auditing regulations affect firm growth and cost of capital?2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides an understanding of how new audit regulation affect firm growth and how audits affect the cost of capital. To investigate the effect of audit reforms on employment growth, we exploited a Swedish reform made in November 2010 that gave certain firms the option to opt out of previously imposed statutory audits. We find that firms which fulfilled the requirements for voluntary auditing, compared to a control group of similar firms that did not, increased their employment growth rate by 0.39%. Furthermore, the reform was also exploited to investigate if audited financial statements add value for firms in the private debt market. We find that firms with audited financial statements, on average, save 1.26 percentage points on cost of debt compared to firms with unaudited financial statements. Thus, the reform creates a possibility for firms that have the ambition to grow in employment to do so by not auditing, and those who want to grow by investments in capital to do so by reducing the cost of such investments by auditing. However, the current ceiling of the reform is also likely to force some firms to operate at sub-optimal levels, those without having the option to opt out of audit even though they might not accrue any benefit from auditing, at least in the short-run. One can argue that is partly due to how institutions evolve, generally slower than other actors in the society do.

  • 56.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Does voluntary audit increase small firm growth?: Evidence from a natural experiment2017In: EAA 2017 Abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many European countries have abolished mandatory audits for small firms, but we still lack knowledge on whether this affects small firm growth. A Swedish reform in 2010 made audits voluntary for small firms fulfilling certain requirements, while firms that did not meet these requirements still had mandatory audits. We argue that this regulatory change created an almost perfect natural experiment, which can be exploited to evaluate the effects of the reform on employment growth using a difference-in-difference estimator. Our results show that firms who fulfil the requirements for voluntary auditing, as compared to a control group of firms that does not, increased their employment growth rates by on average 0.39%, corresponding to 5 500 jobs being created in the three years following the reform. It thus seems that voluntary audits are reducing the regulatory burden for small firms, making resources available that can be used to increase the number of employees. The current threshold levels for mandatory audits are still significantly lower in Sweden than in most other European countries, which implies that the policymakers in Sweden could create more jobs in small and medium-sized firms if they increased the size threshold levels for mandatory audits.

  • 57.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research.
    Free to choose: Do voluntary audit reforms increase employment growth?2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many European countries have abolished mandatory audits for small firms to reduce the regulatory and administrative burden for these firms. However, we still lack knowledge on whether such legislative changes affect employment growth for those firms that become free to choose to have external audits. We investigate this question using a Swedish reform that made audits voluntary for small firms fulfilling certain requirements. The reform created an almost ideal natural experiment, which we use to evaluate the effects of voluntary audits on employment growth for small firms using a difference-in-difference estimator. We find that firms which fulfilled the requirements for voluntary auditing, compared to a control group of similar firms that did not, increased their employment growth rate by 0.39%. This corresponds to 1,830 jobs being created in the year following the reform, suggesting that mandatory audits act as a growth barrier for small firms.

  • 58.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effect of audit reform on the employment growth of small Swedish limited companies: A natural experiment2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the regulatory burden for firms will free resources that can be used for productive investments. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a change in regulations, in effect abolishing statutory audits for Swedish micro firms in November 2010, on employment growth in the affected micro firms. The changes in regulations created what we argue is an almost perfect natural experiment that can be exploited to evaluate the effects of the reform on employment growth using a difference-in-difference estimator. Our results show that employment growth is higher in firms which fulfil the requirements for voluntary auditing as compared to a control group of firms of similar sizes that does not, and the positive treatment effect is found for micro firms in all Swedish counties and in all types of industries. We estimate that the reform created 1276 jobs in the three years following the reform. We thus suggest that the current threshold for statutory audits should be increased in Sweden, whose threshold levels for statutory audits are significantly lower than in most other European countries even after the 2010 changes in regulations. Such a regulatory change would, in all likelihood, lead to employment growth in the affected firms. 

  • 59.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Handelns utredningsinstitut.
    Do Audited Firms Have Lower Cost of Debt?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research.
    Do audited firms have lower cost of debt?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate if audited financial statements add value for firms in the private debt market. Using an instrumental variable method, we find that firms with audited financial statements, on average, save 1.26 percentage points on cost of debt compared to firms with unaudited financial statements. We also find that using the big, well-known auditing firms does not yield additional cost of debt benefits. Lastly, we find that the effect of audit on cost of debt varies between industries. As such, we find that firms in industries that have been identified in previous studies to have a more complex information structure, and therefore more complex auditing process, also save more on cost of debt relative to other industries when audited.

  • 61.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Isacsson, G.
    The spatial extent of agglomeration economies across the wage earnings distribution2019In: Journal of regional science, ISSN 0022-4146, E-ISSN 1467-9787, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 281-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the spatial extent of agglomeration economies across the wage earnings distribution using economic mass (total employment) in four distance bands around each individual’s establishment in a quantile regression framework. We control for observable and unobservable individual and establishment characteristics. Remaining endogeneity in the model is assessed with a set of instrumental variables. Results indicate a positive effect of economic mass on wage earnings up to 25 km away from the establishment. The spatial extent of agglomeration economies is similar across the wage earnings distribution. However, increases in economic mass shift the wage earnings distribution in a nonsymmetric way. 

  • 62.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Wennström, Johanna
    Town centre cooperation: Changing perception of property owners2017In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 1200-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate if, and how, different stakeholders perceive property owners (PO) have changed their activities in a town centre after increased competition, and if this has led to a different perception of the PO' stakeholder group. Design/methodology/approach – A comparative follow-up case study is conducted through semi-structured interviews on changes in the town centre management (TCM) stakeholders' perceptions of the role, benefit, and contribution of PO. The interviews are carried out before and after the establishment of a big-box retailer, which makes it possible to analyse possible changes in the perceptions in relation to the overall role of the PO when retail competition increases. Findings – A limited number of PO and local authorities have started working more strategically and proactively by creating a time-restricted alliance that goes beyond the work of the TCM organisation. Although the activities of the PO have increased, this is not fully understood by everyone in the town centre, especially the retailers. Research limitations/implications – In comparison with other studies, this study clearly indicates that the property owner plays a key strategic role in enabling town centre development. This role is broader than what the original TCM literature suggests and is based on the aspects of resource coordination and distribution. Practical implications – In order to create the opportunity to develop a town centre in the long run, it is of strategic importance that the PO are in agreement with the development plans. In addition, it is necessary to consider those members who should be part of the strategic alliance. Originality/value – By conducting a comparative follow-up case study, the authors are able to contribute with a deeper understanding of how stakeholders' perceptions change over time. The authors extend the current literature by showing that the PO are a key stakeholder due to their organisational resources and their ability to facilitate town centre development. © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 63.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Big-box retail entry in urban and rural areas: Are there productivity spillovers to incumbent retailers?2019In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically measures the potential spillover effects of big-box retail entry on the productivity of incumbent retailers in the entry regions, and investigates whether the effects differ depending on the size of the new establishment relative to the size of the local market. The results indicate that big-box entry increases the productivity of incumbent firms in two of three rural entry regions where the IKEA is large relative to the local retail market, while no productivity spillover effects could be found in the case of the urban IKEA entry in Gothenburg.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-19 08:40
  • 64.
    Iasonidou, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Estimating the effect of the 2008 financial crisis on GNI in Greece and Iceland: A synthetic control approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to conduct a comparative study in order to estimate the impact of the financial crisis to the GNI of Greece and Iceland. By applying synthetic control matching (a relatively new methodology) the study intends to compare the two countries, thus deducting conclusions about good or bad measures adopted. The results indicate that in both cases the adopted measures were not the optimal ones, since the synthetic counterfactual appear to perform better than the actual Greece and Iceland. Moreover, it is shown that Iceland reacted better to the shock it was exposed. However, different characteristics of the two countries impede the application of Icelandic actions in the Greek case.

  • 65.
    Javed, Farrukh
    et al.
    Business School, Örebro University.
    Thomas, Ilias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Business School, Örebro University.
    A comparison of feature selection methods when using motion sensors data: a case study in Parkinson’s disease2018In: 2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2018, p. 5426-5429Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feature selection methods on the performance of machine learning methods for quantifying motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Different feature selection methods including step-wise regression, Lasso regression and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied on 88 spatiotemporal features that were extracted from motion sensors during hand rotation tests. The selected features were then used in support vector machines (SVM), decision trees (DT), linear regression, and random forests models to calculate a so-called treatment-response index (TRIS). The validity, testretest reliability and sensitivity to treatment were assessed for each combination (feature selection method plus machine learning method). There were improvements in correlation coefficients and root mean squared error (RMSE) for all the machine learning methods, except DTs, when using the selected features from step-wise regression inputs. Using step-wise regression and SVM was found to have better sensitivity to treatment and higher correlation to clinical ratings on the Unified PD Rating Scale as compared to the combination of PCA and SVM. When assessing the ability of the machine learning methods to discriminate between tests performed by PD patients and healthy controls the results were mixed. These results suggest that the choice of feature selection methods is crucial when working with data-driven modelling. Based on our findings the step-wise regression can be considered as the method with the best performance.

  • 66.
    Jia, Siqi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    How fair is the so called fair method for resetting the targetin the interrupted men’s one-day international cricket matches?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Duckworth-Lewis (DL) method is used in the One Day International (ODI) cricketmatches when the matches are interrupted. However, all information we have about thismethod is the Duckworth-Lewis calculator, which leads us to suspect the fairness of it.This thesis quantified the effect of the DL method on the result of the matches, whichmeans if teams have the same winning chance under DL method or not. The effect oflikely influential factors, including the use of DL method, on the winning odds areestimated by using the Generalized Linear Mixed Model. The results indicates that theDL method does not have any significant effect on the winning odds, nor does the DLmethod change the effects of other factors. The results also confirm that homeadvantage exists and that winning the coin toss does not affect the outcome of match.

  • 67. Jin, Y.
    et al.
    Yan, D.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Kang, X.
    An, J.
    Sun, H.
    District household electricity consumption pattern analysis based on auto-encoder algorithm2019In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019, Vol. 609, no 7, article id 072028Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy shortage is one key issue for sustainable development, a potential solution of which is the integration with the renewable energy resources. However, the temporal sequential characteristic of renewable resources is different from traditional power grid. For the entire power grid, it is essential to match the energy generation side with the energy consumption side, so the load characteristic at the energy use side is crucial for renewable power integration. Better understanding of energy consumption pattern in buildings contributes to matching different source of energy generation. Under the background of integration of traditional and renewable energy, this research focuses on analysis of different household electricity consumption patterns in an urban scale. The original data is from measurement of daily energy consumption with smart meter in households. To avoid the dimension explosion phenomenon, the auto-encoder algorithm is introduced during the clustering analysis of daily electricity use data, which plays the role of principal component analysis. The clustering based on auto-encoder gives a clear insight into the urban electricity use patterns in household. During the data analysis, several feature variables are proposed, which include peak value, valley value and average value. The distinction analysis is also conducted to evaluate the analysis performance. The study takes households in Nanjing city, China as a case study, to conduct the clustering analysis on electricity consumption of residential buildings. The analysis results can be further applied, such as during the capacity design of district energy storage.

  • 68. Johansson, D.
    et al.
    Ericsson, A.
    Johansson, A.
    Medvedev, A.
    Nyholm, D.
    Ohlsson, F.
    Senek, M.
    Spira, J.
    Thomas, Ilias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Individualization of levodopa treatment using a microtablet dispenser and ambulatory accelerometry2018In: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, ISSN 1755-5930, E-ISSN 1755-5949, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 439-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This 4‐week open‐label observational study describes the effect of introducing a microtablet dose dispenser and adjusting doses based on objective free‐living motor symptom monitoring in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Methods

    Twenty‐eight outpatients with PD on stable levodopa treatment with dose intervals of ≤4 hour had their daytime doses of levodopa replaced with levodopa/carbidopa microtablets, 5/1.25 mg (LC‐5) delivered from a dose dispenser device with programmable reminders. After 2 weeks, doses were adjusted based on ambulatory accelerometry and clinical monitoring.

    Results

    Twenty‐four participants completed the study per protocol. The daily levodopa dose was increased by 15% (112 mg, < 0.001) from period 1 to 2, and the dose interval was reduced by 12% (22 minutes, P = 0.003). The treatment adherence to LC‐5 was high in both periods. The MDS‐UPDRS parts II and III, disease‐specific quality of life (PDQ‐8), wearing‐off symptoms (WOQ‐19), and nonmotor symptoms (NMS Quest) improved after dose titration, but the generic quality‐of‐life measure EQ‐5D‐5L did not. Blinded expert evaluation of accelerometry results demonstrated improvement in 60% of subjects and worsening in 25%.

    Conclusions

    The introduction of a levodopa microtablet dispenser and accelerometry aided dose adjustments improve PD symptoms and quality of life in the short term.

  • 69. Johansson, Dongni
    et al.
    Thomas, Ilias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Ericsson, Anders
    Johansson, Anders
    Medvedev, Alexander
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Nyholm, Dag
    Ohlsson, Fredrik
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Bergquist, Filip
    Evaluation of a sensor algorithm for motor state rating in Parkinson's disease2019In: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, ISSN 1353-8020, E-ISSN 1873-5126, Vol. 64, p. 112-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: A treatment response objective index (TRIS) was previously developed based on sensor data from pronation-supination tests. This study aimed to examine the performance of TRIS for medication effects in a new population sample with Parkinson's disease (PD) and its usefulness for constructing individual dose-response models.

    METHODS: Twenty-five patients with PD performed a series of tasks throughout a levodopa challenge while wearing sensors. TRIS was used to determine motor changes in pronation-supination tests following a single levodopa dose, and was compared to clinical ratings including the Treatment Response Scale (TRS) and six sub-items of the UPDRS part III.

    RESULTS: As expected, correlations between TRIS and clinical ratings were lower in the new population than in the initial study. TRIS was still significantly correlated to TRS (rs = 0.23, P < 0.001) with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.33. For the patients (n = 17) with a good levodopa response and clear motor fluctuations, a stronger correlation was found (rs = 0.38, RMSE = 1.29, P < 0.001). The mean TRIS increased significantly when patients went from the practically defined off to their best on state (P = 0.024). Individual dose-response models could be fitted for more participants when TRIS was used for modelling than when TRS ratings were used.

    CONCLUSION: The objective sensor index shows promise for constructing individual dose-response models, but further evaluations and retraining of the TRIS algorithm are desirable to improve its performance and to ensure its clinical effectiveness.

  • 70.
    Jomaa, Diala
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A data driven approach for automating vehicle activated signs2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle activated signs (VAS) display a warning message when drivers exceed a particular threshold. VAS are often installed on local roads to display a warning message depending on the speed of the approaching vehicles. VAS are usually powered by electricity; however, battery and solar powered VAS are also commonplace. This thesis investigated devel-opment of an automatic trigger speed of vehicle activated signs in order to influence driver behaviour, the effect of which has been measured in terms of reduced mean speed and low standard deviation. A comprehen-sive understanding of the effectiveness of the trigger speed of the VAS on driver behaviour was established by systematically collecting data. Specif-ically, data on time of day, speed, length and direction of the vehicle have been collected for the purpose, using Doppler radar installed at the road. A data driven calibration method for the radar used in the experiment has also been developed and evaluated.

    Results indicate that trigger speed of the VAS had variable effect on driv-ers’ speed at different sites and at different times of the day. It is evident that the optimal trigger speed should be set near the 85th percentile speed, to be able to lower the standard deviation. In the case of battery and solar powered VAS, trigger speeds between the 50th and 85th per-centile offered the best compromise between safety and power consump-tion. Results also indicate that different classes of vehicles report differ-ences in mean speed and standard deviation; on a highway, the mean speed of cars differs slightly from the mean speed of trucks, whereas a significant difference was observed between the classes of vehicles on lo-cal roads. A differential trigger speed was therefore investigated for the sake of completion. A data driven approach using Random forest was found to be appropriate in predicting trigger speeds respective to types of vehicles and traffic conditions. The fact that the predicted trigger speed was found to be consistently around the 85th percentile speed justifies the choice of the automatic model.

  • 71.
    Jomaa, Diala
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The Optimal trigger speed of vehicle activated signs2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims to elaborate on the optimum trigger speed for Vehicle Activated Signs (VAS) and to study the effectiveness of VAS trigger speed on drivers’ behaviour. Vehicle activated signs (VAS) are speed warning signs that are activated by individual vehicle when the driver exceeds a speed threshold. The threshold, which triggers the VAS, is commonly based on a driver speed, and accordingly, is called a trigger speed. At present, the trigger speed activating the VAS is usually set to a constant value and does not consider the fact that an optimal trigger speed might exist. The optimal trigger speed significantly impacts driver behaviour.

    In order to be able to fulfil the aims of this thesis, systematic vehicle speed data were collected from field experiments that utilized Doppler radar. Further calibration methods for the radar used in the experiment have been developed and evaluated to provide accurate data for the experiment. The calibration method was bidirectional; consisting of data cleaning and data reconstruction. The data cleaning calibration had a superior performance than the calibration based on the reconstructed data.

    To study the effectiveness of trigger speed on driver behaviour, the collected data were analysed by both descriptive and inferential statistics. Both descriptive and inferential statistics showed that the change in trigger speed had an effect on vehicle mean speed and on vehicle standard deviation of the mean speed. When the trigger speed was set near the speed limit, the standard deviation was high. Therefore, the choice of trigger speed cannot be based solely on the speed limit at the proposed VAS location.

    The optimal trigger speeds for VAS were not considered in previous studies. As well, the relationship between the trigger value and its consequences under different conditions were not clearly stated. The finding from this thesis is that the optimal trigger speed should be primarily based on lowering the standard deviation rather than lowering the mean speed of vehicles. Furthermore, the optimal trigger speed should be set near the 85th percentile speed, with the goal of lowering the standard deviation.

  • 72.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Automatic trigger speed for vehicle activated signs using Adaptive Neuro fuzzy system and Random ForestIn: International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1942-2679, E-ISSN 1942-2679Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Predicting automatic trigger speed for vehicle-activated signs2018In: Journal of Intelligent Systems, ISSN 0334-1860, E-ISSN 2191-026XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-activated signs (VAS) are speed-warning signs activated by radar when the driver speed exceeds a pre-set threshold, i.e. the trigger speed. The trigger speed is often set relative to the speed limit and is displayed for all types of vehicles. It is our opinion that having a static setting for the trigger speed may be inappropriate, given that traffic and road conditions are dynamic in nature. Further, different vehicle classes (mainly cars and trucks) behave differently, so a uniform trigger speed of such signs may be inappropriate to warn different types of vehicles. The current study aims to investigate an automatic VAS, i.e. one that could warn vehicle users with an appropriate trigger speed by taking into account vehicle types and road conditions. We therefore investigated different vehicle classes, their speeds, and the time of day to be able to conclude whether different trigger speeds of VAS are essential or not. The current study is entirely data driven; data are initially presented to a self-organising map (SOM) to be able to partition the data into different clusters, i.e. vehicle classes. Speed, time of day, and length of vehicle were supplied as inputs to the SOM. Further, the 85th percentile speed for the next hour is predicted using appropriate prediction models. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems and random forest (RF) were chosen for speed prediction; the mean speed, traffic flow, and standard deviation of vehicle speeds were supplied as inputs for the prediction models. The results achieved in this work show that RF is a reliable model in terms of accuracy and efficiency, and can be used in finding appropriate trigger speeds for an automatic VAS. 

  • 74.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A comparative study between vehicle activated signs and speed indicator devices2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 22, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle activated signs and Speed indicator devices are safety signs used to warn and remind drivers that they are exceeding the speed limit on a particular road segment. This article has analysed and compared such signs with the aim of reporting the most suitable sign for relevant situations. Vehicle speeds were recorded at different test sites and the effects of the signs were studied by analyzing the mean and standard deviation. Preliminary results from the work indicate that both types of signs have variable effects on the mean and standard deviation of speed on a given road segment. Speed indicator devices were relatively more effective than vehicle activated signs on local roads; in contrast their effectivity was only comparable when tested on highways.

  • 75.
    Kogo, Gloria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Analyzing automatic cow recordings to detect the presence of outliers in feed intake data recorded from dairy cows in Lovsta farm2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outliers are a major concern in data quality as it limits the reliability of any data. The

    objective of our investigation was to examine the presence and cause of outliers in the system

    for controlling and recording the feed intake of dairy cows in Lovsta farm, Uppsala Sweden.

    The analyses were made on data recorded as a timestamp of each visit of the cows to

    the feeding troughs from the period of August 2015 to January 2016. A three step

    methodology was applied to this data. The first step was fitting a mixed model to the

    data then the resulting residuals was used in the second step to fit a model based

    clustering for Gaussian mixture distribution which resulted in clusters of which 2.5% of

    the observations were in the outlier cluster. Finally, as the third step, a logistic

    regression was then fit modelling the presence of outliers versus the non-outlier

    clusters. It appeared that on early hours of the morning between 6am to 11.59am, there

    is a high possibility of recorded values to be outliers with odds ratio of 1.1227 and this

    is also the same time frame noted to have the least activity in feed consumption of the

    cows with a decrease of 0.027 kilograms as compared to the other timeframes. These

    findings provide a basis for further investigation to more specifically narrow down the

    causes of the outliers.

  • 76.
    Kwame Osei, Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Machine Learning-based Quality Prediction in the Froth Flotation Process of Mining: Master’s Degree Thesis in Microdata Analysis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the iron ore mining fraternity, in order to achieve the desired quality in the froth flotation processing plant, stakeholders rely on conventional laboratory test technique which usually takes more than two hours to ascertain the two variables of interest. Such a substantial dead time makes it difficult to put the inherent stochastic nature of the plant system in steady-state. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the feasibility of using machine learning algorithms to predict the percentage of silica concentrate (SiO2) in the froth flotation processing plant in real-time. The predictive model has been constructed using iron ore mining froth flotation system dataset obtain from Kaggle. Different feature selection methods including Random Forest and backward elimination technique were applied to the dataset to extract significant features. The selected features were then used in Multiple Linear Regression, Random Forest and Artificial Neural Network models and the prediction accuracy of all the models have been evaluated and compared with each other. The results show that Artificial Neural Network has the ability to generalize better and predictions were off by 0.38% mean square error (mse) on average, which is significant considering that the SiO2 range from 0.77%- 5.53% -( mse 1.1%) . These results have been obtained within real-time processing of 12s in the worst case scenario on an Inter i7 hardware. The experimental results also suggest that reagents variables have the most significant influence in SiO2 prediction and less important variable is the Flotation Column.02.air.Flow. The experiments results have also indicated a promising prospect for both the Multiple Linear Regression and Random Forest models in the field of SiO2 prediction in iron ore mining froth flotation system in general. Meanwhile, this study provides management, metallurgists and operators with a better choice for SiO2 prediction in real-time per the accuracy demand as opposed to the long dead time laboratory test analysis causing incessant loss of iron ore discharged to tailings.

  • 77.
    Laryea, Rueben
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A data-driven decision support system for coherency of experts’ judgment in complex classification problems: The case of food security as a UN sustainable development goal2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Everyday humans need to make individual or collective decisions. Often the decisions aim at achieving multiple goals (thus involving multiple criteria) and rely on the decision maker(s)’ intuition, internal data, as well as external sources of data. Faced with a complex decision problem of this kind, it is a great challenge to decisionmakers to be logically coherent over time with regard to their preferences. To aid in achieving coherency, operation researchers and decision analysts have developed formal methods to support decision makers. One such method is the UTADIS method that serves as the workhorse for this thesis. I received the request from UN officials who had to manage the sustainable development goals while addressing the issue of food security. They wished for a decision support system (DSS) that could aid in their classification of countries to mitigate the risk of failing on food security. The virtue of the DSS should be that their expert judgment was complemented by formal methods for better risk classification. The UTADIS method was fitting for the purpose, but it lacked implementability. In particular, it required an iterative approach engaging the experts multiple times, while not readily lending itself to making use of external data, making it inefficient as a DSS. The fundamental contribution of this thesis is that I have solved these shortcomings of the UTADIS method, such that it now readily can be used in a functionally efficient way for the desired purpose of the UN. In solving these problems, it is also more broadly implementable as a DSS, as I have validated the artifact to a DSS, by use of several demonstrations and exposed it to sensitivity analysis.

  • 78.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A Food Price Volatility Model for Country Risk Classification2018In: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision makers require risk models which satisfies their preferences in decision making processes. A methodological approach to presenting a decision model that satisfies the preferences of the decision maker and aids the decision maker to classify countries into crisis groups based on the price volatility of food staple criteria is discussed in this paper. The price volatility of food staples is obtained from time series plots and a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis method, the UTilitdditives DIScriminantes (UTADIS) classification methodological framework is applied on the price volatility data to develop a food price volatility classification model which suits the decision maker’s preferences. The methodological framework is better applied in this paper by aiding the decision maker to make informed judgements on the price volatility of food staples in predefining their risk classes. This introduces efficiency in the application of the methodological classification framework, by reducing to the barest minimum level, the misclassification errors between the decision makers preferred classification and the UTADIS method’s classification which estimates the utility function or classification model and the utility threshold or cut-off points which would classify the country alternatives into their authentic or original classes with the execution of the methodological framework just once. The resulting utility function or classification model is thus accurate enough to satisfy the preferences of the decision maker in classifying future datasets.

  • 79.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Sensitivity analysis of a risk classification model for food price volatility2018In: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 374-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensitivity analysis to vary the weights of an accurate predictive classification model to produce a mixed model for ranking countries on the risk of food price volatility is carried out in this paper. The classification model is a marginal utility function consisting of multiple criteria. The aim of the sensitivity analysis is to derive a mixed model to be used in ranking of country alternatives to aid in policy formulation. Since in real-life situations the data that goes into decision making could be subjected to possibilities of alterations over time, it is essential to aid decision makers to vary the weights of the criteria using both subjective and objective information to introduce imprecision and to generate relative values of the criteria with a scale to form a mixed model. The mixed model can be used to rank future relative alternative value data sets for policy formulation.

  • 80.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    A Decision Tool Approach to Sensitivity Analysis in a Risk Classification Model2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Decision Analytical tool capable of handling numerically imprecise data for decision making is used in this paper to analyze the risk of the effect of data alteration in the ranking positions of country alternatives for food price volatility. Unguided decision making processes would lead to non-optimal decisions with it’s dire consequences on the resources of organizations. The paper is thus guided by the use of an accurate risk classification model to implement uncertainty and imprecision which are essential part of real life decision making processes with computer based tools to overcome the problem of possibilities uncertain and imprecise input data of criteria and alternatives. A ranking of the alternatives is conducted after imprecision is considered in the input data and a further analysis is carried out to determine which criteria is sensitive enough to alter the position of a country in the rankings.

  • 81.
    Li, Boyan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A comparison of hurdle method and universal kriging for predicting spatially correlated count response with excessive zeros2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A hurdle model combined with Bernoulli part and truncated Poisson part can be used to predict zero-inflated geographic count response. To get the prediction with a hurdle model, the estimation of fixed effects can be easily solved as generalized linear model (GLM) does. An ad-hoc method, which re-fits the hurdle model to compute the predicted random effect for geographic IDs with missing response, is applied. However, no study has examined the performance of this prediction method for hurdle model, especially for the spatially correlated count responses with excessive zeros. This paper aims to check how well the hurdle predictors perform in ideal and real situations, by means of cross validation. The performance of the hurdle model based prediction is compared with the performance of the predictors from the universal kriging which is most widely used on spatial predictions. The simulation result shows that hurdle performs better than universal kriging based on mean absolute errors. The ideal situation is generated by using Monte-Carlo simulation. In order to examine the comparative performance with real data situations, two real data examples are presented. The results show that, in prediction using single observation per location (e.g. one year’s spatial observation) with excessive zeros, hurdle model does not perform well, while universal kriging also failed in the same situations especially for those non-zero points.

  • 82. Li, Y
    et al.
    Rezgui, Y
    Guerriero, A
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Kubicki, S
    Yan, D
    Development of an adaptation table to enhance the accuracy of the predicted mean vote model2020In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 168, article id 106504Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Who benefits when IKEA enters local markets in Sweden?: An empirical assessment using difference-in-difference analysis, synthetic control methods, and Twitter sentiment analysis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy makers often spend considerable amounts of money to attract IKEA to their region despite not having any empirical measurements on its expected contribution to the local economy. As such, an empirical study of the economic and social impact of new IKEA stores can aid political decision making, and contribute to the literature regarding how big-box retail entry affects the regions where they enter.

    This dissertation aims to estimate: the impact of IKEA entry on incumbent retailers productivity, and investigate if the impact is heterogenus depending on local maket size, type of retail industry, distance to surrounding retailers, and firm size; IKEA entry effects on the average labor productivity in durable goods retailing in the entry regions; and, finally, public opinions regarding  IKEA entry.

    For IKEA entry effects on incumbent retailers, Paper I~III separately examine four factors of potential heterogeneity. Paper I finds that market size matters: smaller rural regions have bigger IKEA effects. Paper II considers two factors: firm industry and distance, and confirms that IKEA entry effects dissipate over distance. The positive impact of IKEA entry on incumbent retailers is limited to those selling complementary goods to IKEA. No positive effects were found for the urban entry in Gothenburg in the two first papers, which is somewhat surprising. Paper III found that a positive effect exist also in Gothenburg, but it is limited to relatively small incumbent retailers with a capital stock below 1 500 000 SEK. Policy making tends to consider IKEA overall effects on entry municipalities besides IKEA spillover effects on firms. Paper V shows that rural regions are affected by IKEA entry, while larger urban markets are not.

    For the social effects of IKEA, Paper VI uses Twitter text mining to study public opinions regarding IKEA entry into local markets. The new IKEA stores under study caught significant public attention at the time of entry, with mostly positive attitudes toward the new stores. The favorite topics for discussion at the time of the different IKEA entries were heterogeneous depending on location.

    Methodologically, Paper I uses traditional Difference-in-Difference (DID) to have an initial understanding of IKEA entry spillover effects in four regions; Paper II extends to Spatial DID to catch the spatial interaction between firms; Paper III uses Panel Smooth Transition Regression to identify heterogenous effects due to firms size. Paper IV investigates a new treatment effects estimation aproach, Synthetic Control Method (SCM), to explore when the SCM is powerful, and how to improve its performance; Paper V then uses SCM to estimate IKEA effects at municipality level. In addition, to make SCM developed readily available for other researchers, the author of this thesis also published one web-application to implement a synthetic control method power test, and another to implement parametric & non-parametric estimation and inference.  

    These findings confirm that IKEA has a positive effect on the regions where they enter. Nevertheless, governments that are to decide if to allow a big-box retail entry into their local community should be aware that the impact of such entry will depend on the size of the existing retail market, the type of existing retail industry, and the size of existing retailers in the entry region.

  • 84.
    Li, Yujiao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Twitter Sentiment Analysis of New IKEA Stores Using Machine Learning2018In: 2018 International Conference on Computer and Applications, ICCA 2018, 2018, p. 4-11, article id 8460277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studied public emotion and opinion concerning the opening of new IKEA stores, specifically, how much attention are attracted, how much positive and negative emotion are aroused, what IKEA-related topics are talked due to this event. Emotion is difficult to measure in retail due to data availability and limited quantitative tools. Twitter texts, written by the public to express their opinion concerning this event, are used as a suitable data source to implement sentiment analysis. Around IKEA opening days, local people post IKEA related tweets to express their emotion and opinions on that. Such “IKEA” contained tweets are collected for opinion mining in this work. To compute sentiment polarity of tweets, lexiconbased approach is used for English tweets, and machine learning methods for Swedish tweets. The conclusion is new IKEA store are paid much attention indicated by significant increasing tweets frequency, most of them are positive emotions, and four studied cities have different topics and interests related IKEA. This paper extends knowledge of consumption emotion studies of prepurchase, provide empirical analysis of IKEA entry effect on emotion. Moreover, it develops a Swedish sentiment prediction model, elastic net method, to compute Swedish tweets’ sentiment polarity which has been rarely conducted.  

  • 85.
    Li, Yujiao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Agglomeration economies in urban retailing: Are there productivity spillovers when big-box retailers enter urban markets?2019In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 26, no 19, p. 1586-1589Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that big-box retail entry does not affect the productivity of incumbent retailers when entry occurs in urban areas. In this paper, we show that there are positive spillover effects of big-box retail entry to incumbent retailers in urban areas as well, but that these are limited to relatively small retailers, making the effects difficult to detect using traditional econometric methods, such as difference-in-difference estimation on the full sample of firms. In a two-step procedure, we first use panel smooth transition regression to determine size thresholds that delimit incumbent retail firms by their possible reactions to the new big-box entry. We then use difference-in-difference estimations on these subgroups of firms to determine, within each group, the direction and magnitude of the effects of big-box entry on their productivity. For the group of small incumbent retailers, we find positive spillover effects on productivity of approximately 9%.

  • 86.
    Lin, Chenlu
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A Combined Approach to Recommendation Systems: A case study of data analysis for hotel ratings2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendation systems are used to improve the convenience and efficiency for users tobook hotels. The most widely used method in recommendation systems is collaborativefiltering. A critical step of the collaborative filtering method is to analyze one user'spreference and recommend products or services to the user based on other similar users'preferences. However, collaborative filtering is vulnerable for recommendation when it isdifficult to obtain user preferences, in the situation where e.g. a user provides none or veryfew comments on products or services. The problem occurring in this situation is called thecold start problem. This thesis proposes an improved method which combines collaborativefiltering with data classification to recommend suitable hotels to new users. The accuracy ofthe recommendation is determined by the rankings so that evaluations are conducted on theTop-3 and the Top-10 recommendation lists using the 10-fold cross-validation method andROC curves. The results show that the Top-3 hotel recommendation list proposed by thecombined method has the superiority of the recommendation performance than the Top-10 listunder the cold start condition in most of the times.

  • 87.
    Lindgren, Charlie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Huq, Asif
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Current practices of CSR around the globe: An exploratory text mining study2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Luo, Xin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The causal effect of fertility on Swedish mothers’ labor supply2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to estimate causal effect of childbearing on women’slabor supply in Sweden. I follow the approach suggested by Angrist and Evans (1998)using parental preferences for a mixed child-gender composition as an exogenoussource of variation in women’s fertility. The results show that having an additionchild have a negative effect on women’s working hours. However, none of theseeffects are statistical significant and the value of F-statistic and partial-R2 are rathersmall, all suggest that the same-sex is very likely a weak instrument in Sweden.

  • 89.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Entry, re-location and growth in the Swedish wholesale trade industry2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wholesale trade has an intermediate position between manufacturing and retail in the distributional channel. In modern economies, consumers buy few, if any, products directly from manufacture or producer. Instead, it is a wholesaler, who is in direct contact with producers, buying goods in larger quantities and selling them in smaller quantities to retailers. Traditionally, the main function of a wholesaler has been to push goods along the distributional channel from producer to retailer, or other nonend user. However, the function of wholesalers usually goes beyond the process of the physical distribution of goods. Wholesalers also arrange storage, perform market analyses, promote trade or provide technical support to consumers (Riemers 1998). The existence of wholesalers (and other intermediaries) in the distributional channel is based on the effective and efficient performance of distribution services, that are needed by producers and other members of the supply chain. Producers usually do not enjoy the economies of scale that they have in production, when it comes to providing distributional services (Rosenbloom 2007) and this creates a space for wholesalers or other intermediaries. Even though recent developments in the distributional channel indicate that traditional wholesaling activities now also compete with other supply chain organizations, wholesaling still remains an important activity in many economies (Quinn and Sparks, 2007).

    In 2010, the Swedish wholesale trade sector consisted of approximately 46.000 firms and generated an annual turnover of 1 300 billion SEK (Företagsstatistiken, Statistics Sweden). In terms of turnover, wholesaling accounts for 20% of the gross domestic product and is thereby the third largest industry. This is behind manufacturing and a composite group of firms in other sectors of the service industry but ahead of retailing. This indicates that the wholesale trade sector is an important part of the Swedish economy. The position of wholesaling is further reinforced when measuring productivity growth. Measured in terms of value added per employee, wholesaling experienced the largest productivity growth of all industries in the Swedish economy during the years 2000 through 2010.

    The fact that wholesale trade is one of the important parts of a modern economy, and the positive development of the Swedish wholesale trade sector in recent decades, leads to several questions related to industry dynamics. The three topics that will be examined in this thesis are firm entry, firm relocation and firm growth. The main question to be answered by this thesis is what factors influence new firm formation, firm relocation and firm growth in the Swedish wholesale trade sector?

  • 90.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Essays on firm dynamics in the Swedish wholesale trade sector2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a summary and five self-contained papers addressing dynamics of firms in the Swedish wholesale trade sector.

    Paper [1] focuses upon determinants of new firm formation in the Swedish wholesale trade sector, using two definitions of firms’ relevant markets, markets defined as administrative areas, and markets based on a cost minimizing behavior of retailers. The paper shows that new entering firms tend to avoid regions with already high concentration of other firms in the same branch of wholesaling, while right-of-the-center local government and quality of the infrastructure have positive impacts upon entry of new firms. The signs of the estimated coefficients remain the same regardless which definition of relevant market is used, while the size of the coefficients is generally higher once relevant markets delineated on the cost-minimizing assumption of retailers are used.

    Paper [2] analyses determinant of firm relocation, distinguishing between the role of the factors in in-migration municipalities and out-migration municipalities. The results of the analysis indicate that firm-specific factors, such as profits, age and size of the firm are negatively related to the firm’s decision to relocate. Furthermore, firms seems to be avoiding municipalities with already high concentration of firms operating in the same industrial branch of wholesaling and also to be more reluctant to leave municipalities governed by right-of-the- center parties. Lastly, firms seem to avoid moving to municipalities characterized with high population density.

    Paper [3] addresses determinants of firm growth, adopting OLS and a quantile regression technique. The results of this paper indicate that very little of the firm growth can be explained by the firm-, industry- and region-specific factors, controlled for in the estimated models. Instead, the firm growth seems to be driven by internal characteristics of firms, factors difficult to capture in conventional statistics. This result supports Penrose’s (1959) suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on, are important determinants of firm growth rates.

    Paper [4] formulates a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and tests this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms and identification of low- and high-return local markets. The results indicate that 19 of 30 estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameters is only statistically significant at conventional level in one of our estimated models, and then with unexpected negative sign.

    Paper [5] studies effects of firm relocation on firm profits of relocating firms, employing a difference-in-difference propensity score matching. Using propensity score matching, the pre-relocalization differences between relocating and non-relocating firms are balanced, while the difference-in-difference estimator controls for all time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity among firms. The results suggest that firms that relocate increase their profits significantly, in comparison to what the profits would be had the firms not relocated. This effect is estimated to vary between 3 to 11 percentage points, depending on the length of the analyzed period. 

  • 91.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Vinterturismens utveckling 2012-2017: En kartläggning av gästnätternas fördelning och utveckling på kommunnivå i Dalarnas län2017Report (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Mahbub, Cynthia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The match of demand and supply of public transportation (bus) services in Borlänge, Dalarna.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility to public transport service allows mobility of people who do not have access to private cars and at the same time reduces adverse effects of motorized vehicles such as energy consumption, air pollution, etc. Government body promotes to use public transport to facilitate better living condition. However, a critical issue remains whether the public transportation services are sufficient to meet the demanded public transportation services.

    In this research, particular attention has been paid to the spatial transport service gap assessment by analyzing the demand and the supply of the public transportation services in Borlänge. The spatial aspects have been chosen based on Swedish socio-economic condition. The aim of the research is to find a generic methodology to ascertain the disparity between public transport demand and available supply of public transport especially on bus line 211, 213 & 216 in Borlänge Municipality and to visualize the disparity of transportation service using Geographical Information System (GIS) application at different areas along the bus line.

    The result indicates that existing public transport provided by Dalatrafik has a significant gap in Tronsjö, Milsbosjön, Milsbo and Viksnäs between delivered transport supply and possible transportation service needed. This transportation gap may occur due to the deficiency of service capacity and low frequency of the services. Moreover, some topics can be explored for further research such as temporal service gap analysis at each area, find alternative means of transport, flexible transportation service and etc. to improve the public transportation system in Borlänge.

  • 93.
    Malek, Wasim
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Big Data Analysis in Social Networks: Extracting Food Preferences of Vegans from Twitter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Market research is often conducted through conventional methods such as surveys, focus

    groups and interviews. But the drawbacks of these methods are that they can be costly and timeconsuming.

    This study develops a new method, based on a combination of standard techniques

    like sentiment analysis and normalisation, to conduct market research in a manner that is free

    and quick. The method can be used in many application-areas, but this study focuses mainly on

    the veganism market to identify vegan food preferences in the form of a profile.

    Several food words are identified, along with their distribution between positive and negative

    sentiments in the profile. Surprisingly, non-vegan foods such as cheese, cake, milk, pizza and

    chicken dominate the profile, indicating that there is a significant market for vegan-suitable

    alternatives for such foods. Meanwhile, vegan-suitable foods such as coconut, potato,

    blueberries, kale and tofu also make strong appearances in the profile.

    Validation is performed by using the method on Volkswagen vehicle data to identify positive

    and negative sentiment across five car models. Some results were found to be consistent with

    sales figures and expert reviews, while others were inconsistent. The reliability of the method

    is therefore questionable, so the results should be used with caution.

  • 94.
    Martín-Roldán Villanueva, Gonzalo
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Household’s energy consumption and productionforecasting: A Multi-step ahead forecast strategiescomparison.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a changing global energy market where the decarbonization of the economy and

    the demand growth are pushing to look for new models away from the existing

    centralized non-renewable based grid. To do so, households have to take a

    ‘prosumer’ role; to help them take optimal actions is needed a multi-step ahead

    forecast of their expected energy production and consumption. In multi-step ahead

    forecasting there are different strategies to perform the forecast. The single-output:

    Recursive, Direct, DirRec, and the multi-output: MIMO and DIRMO. This thesis

    performs a comparison between the performance of the differents strategies in a

    ‘prosumer’ household; using Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest and

    K-Nearest Neighbours Regression to forecast both solar energy production and

    grid input. The results of this thesis indicates that the methodology proposed

    performs better than state of the art models in a more detailed household energy

    consumption dataset. They also indicate that the strategy and model of choice is

    problem dependent and a strategy selection step should be added to the forecasting

    methodology. Additionally, the performance of the Recursive strategy is always

    far from the best while the DIRMO strategy performs similarly. This makes the

    latter a suitable option for exploratory analysis.

  • 95. Matic, T
    et al.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Memedi, M.
    Nyholm, D.
    Bergquist, F.
    Groznik, V.
    Zabkar, J.
    Sadikov, A.
    Unsupervised learning from motion sensor data to assess the condition of patients with parkinson's disease2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects the patient’s motor system, resulting in muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability. As the disease slowly progresses, the symptoms worsen, and regular monitoring is required to adjust the treatment accordingly. The objective evaluation of the patient’s condition is sometimes rather difficult and automated systems based on various sensors could be helpful to the physicians. The data in this paper come from a clinical study of 19 advanced PD patients with motor fluctuations. The measurements used come from the motion sensors the patients wore during the study. The paper presents an unsupervised learning approach applied on this data with the aim of checking whether sensor data alone can indicate the patient’s motor state. The rationale for the unsupervised approach is that there was significant inter-physician disagreement on the patient’s condition (target value for supervised machine learning). The input to clustering came from sensor data alone. The resulting clusters were matched against the physicians’ estimates showing relatively good agreement. 

  • 96.
    May, Ross
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    An Empirical Investigation of the Merits of a Class of Analytically Tractable Matern Covariance Structures in Spatial Data Analysis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate, using the R package spaMM, the effect of misspecification of the smoothing parameter, Q, of the Matern covariance structure on the mean part of hierarchical generalised linear models (HGLMs) with spatially correlated Gaussian Matern random effects. In particular, by restricting Q to the set {0.5, 1.5, 2.5} I examine via a simulation study the amount of bias introduced on the fixed effects estimates in which the data used to fit the model was generated with different values to the aforementioned set. The effect of misspecification was found to be minimal.

    By restricting the smoothing parameter, Q, to the set {0.5, 1.5, 2.5} I utilise the R package hglm, to develop a procedure (MaternHGLM) for fitting spatial Matern HGLMs. In particular, I constructed a hierarchical likelihood (h-likelihood) function with given correlation parameters which thus enabled me to Choleski decompose the Matern covariance matrix and utilise hglm to estimate fixed and random effects along with dispersion parameters. Using the above estimated parameters I then formed an adjusted profile h-likelihood for the estimation of the Matern scaling parameter, U, using the Newton-Raphson procedure. Simulation studies were carried out to assess the computational efficiency of MaternHGLM compared to spaMM. I found that, on average, MaternHGLM was 136% faster than spaMM.

    I also analysed two real world datasets using both spaMM and MaternHGLM. By fixing Q at the most appropriate value from the set {0.5, 1.5, 2.5} I examined to what extent, if any, did the conclusions drawn differ from those in the original study. I found that in general the conclusions were the same, however, on one of the datasets spaMM’s conclusion didn’t align at all with the original analysis even with Q estimated from the data.

  • 97.
    May, Ross
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The reinforcement learning method: A feasible and sustainable control strategy for efficient occupant-centred building operation in smart cities2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over half of the world’s population lives in urban areas, a trend which is expected to only grow as we move further into the future. With this increasing trend in urbanisation, challenges are presented in the form of the management of urban infrastructure systems. As an essential infrastructure of any city, the energy system presents itself as one of the biggest challenges. As cities expand in population and economically, global energy consumption increases and as a result so do greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To achieve the 2030 Agenda’s sustainable development goal on energy (SDG 7), renewable energy and energy efficiency have been shown as key strategies for attaining SDG 7. As the largest contributor to climate change, the building sector is responsible for more than half of the global final energy consumption and GHG emissions. As people spend most of their time indoors, the demand for energy is made worse as a result of maintaining the comfort level of the indoor environment. However, the emergence of the smart city and the internet of things (IoT) offers the opportunity for the smart management of buildings. Focusing on the latter strategy towards attaining SDG 7, intelligent building control offers significant potential for saving energy while respecting occupant comfort (OC). Most intelligent control strategies, however, rely on complex mathematical models which require a great deal of expertise to construct thereby costing in time and money. Furthermore, if these are inaccurate then energy is wasted and the comfort of occupants is decreased. Moreover, any change in the physical environment such as retrofits result in obsolete models which must be re-identified to match the new state of the environment. This model-based approach seems unsustainable and so a new model-free alternative is proposed. One such alternative is the reinforcement learning (RL) method. This method provides a beautiful solution to accomplishing the tradeoff between energy efficiency and OC within the smart city and more importantly to achieving SDG 7. To address the feasibility of RL as a sustainable control strategy for efficient occupant-centred building operation, a comprehensive review of RL for controlling OC in buildings as well as a case study implementing RL for improving OC via a window system are presented. The outcomes of each seem to suggest RL as a feasible solution, however, more work is required in the form of addressing current open issues such as cooperative multi-agent RL (MARL) needed for multi-occupant/multi-zonal buildings.

  • 98.
    May, Ross
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Wu, J.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Reinforcement learning control for indoor comfort: A survey2019In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019, Vol. 609, no 6, article id 062011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building control systems are prone to fail in complex and dynamic environments. The reinforcement learning (RL) method is becoming more and more attractive in automatic control. The success of the reinforcement learning method in many artificial intelligence applications has resulted in an open question on how to implement the method in building control systems. This paper therefore conducts a comprehensive review of the RL methods applied in control systems for indoor comfort and environment. The empirical applications of RL-based control systems are then presented, depending on optimisation objectives and the measurement of energy use. This paper illustrates the class of algorithms and implementation details regarding how the value functions have been represented and how the policies are improved. This paper is expected to clarify the feasible theory and functions of RL for building control systems, which would promote their wider-spread application and thus contribute to the social economic benefits in the energy and built environments.

  • 99.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Optimization heuristic solutions, how good can they be?: With empirical applications in location problems2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial optimization problems, are one of the most important types of problems in operational research. Heuristic and metaheuristics algorithms are widely applied to find a good solution. However, a common problem is that these algorithms do not guarantee that the solution will coincide with the optimum and, hence, many solutions to real world OR-problems are afflicted with an uncertainty about the quality of the solution. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the usability of statistical bounds to evaluate the quality of heuristic solutions applied to large combinatorial problems. The contributions of this thesis are both methodological and empirical. From a methodological point of view, the usefulness of statistical bounds on p-median problems is thoroughly investigated. The statistical bounds have good performance in providing informative quality assessment under appropriate parameter settings. Also, they outperform the commonly used Lagrangian bounds. It is demonstrated that the statistical bounds are shown to be comparable with the deterministic bounds in quadratic assignment problems. As to empirical research, environment pollution has become a worldwide problem, and transportation can cause a great amount of pollution. A new method for calculating and comparing the CO2-emissions of online and brick-and-mortar retailing is proposed. It leads to the conclusion that online retailing has significantly lesser CO2-emissions. Another problem is that the Swedish regional division is under revision and the border effect to public service accessibility is concerned of both residents and politicians. After analysis, it is shown that borders hinder the optimal location of public services and consequently the highest achievable economic and social utility may not be attained.

  • 100. Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How do administrative borders affect accessibility to hospitals? The case of Sweden2018In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 33, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper, we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional administrative borders and hospital accessibility. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population's spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants' distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

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