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  • 51.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Plantskolan, plantodling från grunden: Lektion 3. Att testa lagringsbarhet och vitaliltet efter lagring2007In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Plantskolan, plantodling från grunden: Lektion 4, Lagring av plantor i plantskolan2007In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Praktisk plantering av miniplantor på Sveaskogs mark2005Report (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Test av status hos granplantor behandlade med Conniflex under sensommar/höst2010Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Test av substanser för behandling av frö för utökad motståndskraft mot torka och snytbaggeangrepp: 2010 års försöksserie inom Brattåsprojektet2010Report (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    TubeSprout: ny föryngringsmetod2011In: PlantAktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 2, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Utveckling av miniplantan - försök med olika behållardjup, -volym och torvtyper2010Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vinterlagring av mikroplantor inför omskolning: praktisk applikation2010Report (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vinterlagring av miniplantor i frys: vintern 06/07 och 07/082010Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vinterlagring av miniplantor i kyl och frys: vintern 08/092010Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Gräns, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Storability measures of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings and assessment of post storage vitality by measuring shoot electrolyte leakage2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As indoor frozen storage is increasing in forest tree nurseries it is important to have accurate methods for assessing seedling storability in autumn and methods to determine post-storage vitality. Storability of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings can be based on determination of dry matter content (DMC) of seedling shoots or by freezing shoots at -25 degrees C and thereafter measure electrolyte leakage (SELdiff-25). To compare these two methods we stored 1-year-old spruce and pine seedlings at different occasions during the autumn. To test if leakage of electrolytes from shoots (SEL) could indicate deteriorated vitality, we measured SEL at the end of storage. After storage seedling viability was determined in a three-week growth test, measuring shoot and root growth capacity (RGC). Determination of freezing tolerance (SELdiff-25) before storage had a better ability to predict the outcome of storage compared to the DMC test. Measuring SEL at the end of the frozen storage period accurately indicated seedling vitality. Seedlings with SEL of 0-5% had a high survival rate whereas SEL over 10% indicated low survival and growth capacity after storage. The SEL method has a potential to become a screening test for identifying batches of seedlings that have been damaged during storage in the nursery.

  • 62.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Vemhäll, Marianne
    Tallplantors stabilitet och rotform - jämförelse mellan naturligt föryngrade och planterad Plantek- och P80-tallplantor: Uppdrag Bergvik Skog AB2006Report (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vemhäll, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Test av vindhastigheter vid torkning av plantor: Uppdrag Svenska Skogsplantor2007Report (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vemhäll, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Test av åtgärder för att minimera rotöverväxning mellan krukor: Uppdrag Svenska Skogsplantor2007Report (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Widemo Sandvik, Maria
    Analys av granvitalitet efter översvämning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Plantering av plantor med frysta substratklumpar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande slutsatser kan dras från denna och andras studier vad avser konsekvenser av plantering med frysta substratklumpar: Plantering av plantor vars substrat inte hunnit tina kan under vissa betingelser gå bra medan andra förhållanden speciellt på våren med kalla jordar i kombination med torr och varm väderlek kan orsaka allvarliga plantskador. Generellt kan man räkna med att få en viss nedsättning av plantans fysiologiska status efter plantering med frysta substratklumpar som accentueras under betingelser som stressar plantan. En sådan stress kan vara då plantans substrat tinar långsamt beroende på en stor frusen massa (stora substratklumpar) och vid kalla markförhållanden.

  • 67. Malmqvist, C.
    et al.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Säll, H.
    Differences in bud burst timing and bud freezing tolerance among interior and coastal seed sources of Douglas fir2017In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1987-1998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for species that will grow well through ongoing climate change has increased the interest in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in Sweden. One of the most common problems seen in plantations of Douglas fir seedlings is damage caused by late spring frost, known to be highly correlated with the timing of bud burst. The objective of this study was to investigate spring-related bud development under Nordic conditions of seven Douglas fir provenances and to compare data with a local provenance of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Results from a field trial and a greenhouse-based study were compared. The interior Douglas fir provenances exhibited an earlier bud burst than coastal provenances, both in the greenhouse and in the field trial. When comparing differences within the groups of interior and coastal Douglas fir provenances, no differences could be found. The local Norway spruce, only grown in the greenhouse, showed an intermediate bud development profile similar to the interior Douglas fir provenance Three Valley. We therefore suggest that Three Valley could be planted at the same locations as the investigated local provenance of Norway spruce in mid-Sweden. To avoid spring frost damage the Douglas fir seedlings need to be frozen stored and planted late in spring. Planting under shelterwood can also help protect the seedlings from spring frost damages. As similar results for bud development patterns of Douglas fir and Norway spruce provenances were obtained from the greenhouse and field trials, greenhouse tests could facilitate selection of provenances.

  • 68.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dept of Forestry and Wood technology, Linneus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Asa Forest Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lammhult Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Storability and freezing tolerance of Douglas fir and Norway spruce seedlings grown in mid-Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change provides new challenges to Nordic forestry. Use of non-native species, such as Douglas fir, can be a means of mitigating the effects of climate change and meeting the growing demand for biomass. When Douglas fir is grown in Sweden, it is several degrees of latitude north of its normal range, which can affect timing of growth cessation, hardening of seedlings, and seedling storability. The objective of this study was to investigate tolerance to freezing and sub-zero storability of seven Douglas fir provenances and make comparisons with the native Norway spruce. Freezing tolerance and storability were evaluated by measuring the electrolytic leakage of shoots and roots after freezing, complemented with a three-week cultivation test after storage. All provenances of Douglas fir used in this study were able to tolerate frozen storage at −4°C for about four months. Norway spruce and the interior Douglas fir provenance, Three Valley, could be stored earlier in the autumn than the southern coastal Douglas fir provenances. Consequently, it should be possible to store Douglas fir seedlings with the same routines as for Norway spruce.

  • 69. Nordlander, G.
    et al.
    Petersson, M.
    von Hofsten, H.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Plantskydd mot snytbagge: principerna och verkligheten2001Report (Other academic)
  • 70. Nyström, Christer
    et al.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Germination tests of Robinia pseudoacacia seed2000Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Ohlsson, Anna B.
    et al.
    AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Biochem, Royal Inst Technol, KTH,Sch Biotechnol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Segerfeldt, Patrik
    Royal Inst Technol, KTH, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Royal Inst Technol, KTH, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem,Ecol Chem Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden ; Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia.
    Berglund, Torkel
    AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Biochem, Royal Inst Technol, KTH,Sch Biotechnol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    UV-B exposure of indoor-grown Picea abies seedlings causes an epigenetic effect and selective emission of terpenes2013In: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C - A Journal of Biosciences, ISSN 0939-5075, E-ISSN 1865-7125, Vol. 68, no 3-4, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Terpenoids are involved in various defensive functions in plants, especially conifers. Epigenetic mechanisms, for example DNA methylation, can influence plant defence systems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of UV-B exposure on the release of terpenoids from spruce seedlings and on needle DNA methylation. Ten-week-old seedlings grown indoors were exposed to UV-B radiation during 4 h, and the volatile compounds emitted from the seedlings were analysed. Analysis of the volatiles 1, 3, and 22 d after this UV-B exposure showed that bornyl acetate, borneol, myrcene, and limonene contents increased during the first 3 days, while at day 22 the level of emission had returned to the control level. UV-B exposure decreased the level of DNA methylation in needles of young seedlings, reflected in methylation changes in CCGG sequences. Exposure of young seedlings to UV-B radiation might be a way to potentiate the general defensive capacity, improving their ability to survive in outdoor conditions. UV-B-induced defence is discussed in the light of epigenetic mechanisms.

  • 72. Pettersson, Marie
    et al.
    Kännaste, Astrid
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Långström, Bo
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: is plant chemistry the explanation?2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 299-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), is a major pest in conifer reforestation areas in the Palaearctic region. Size and chemistry of the seedlings may explain the damage rates in plantations. The performance of 10-week containerized seedlings (mini-seedlings) was compared with 1-year-old conventional seedlings of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), in a field experiment in central Sweden. After 2 years the weevil damage was lower for the mini-seedlings than for the conventional seedlings (3.5 vs 55%). After 3 years, the overall survival was 82 and 75%, respectively. Weevil damage was the main cause of mortality for conventional seedlings, whereas mini-seedlings mainly died from drought. Volatiles of the two seedling types were compared by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Unwounded mini-seedlings and conventional seedlings differed in their compositions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Mini-seedlings mainly emitted limonene, known to be repellent to the pine weevil. When wounded, green leaf volatiles were released by mini-seedlings while the pine weevil attractant -pinene was released by conventional seedlings. Volatiles may partly explain the mini-seedlings' resistance against weevil attack. Further studies are needed to clarify how long this mini-seedling effect remains.

  • 73.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Storability and root freezing tolerance of Norway spruce seedlings2000In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 30, p. 964-970Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Användarvänligt och snabbt vitalitetstest2008Report (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Elektrolytiskt läckage visar plantornas vitalitet2008In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Influence of soil temperature on root freezing tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)1999In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 217, p. 173-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Metodutveckling för tidig upptagning och säker fryslagring av täckrotsplantor av tall2004Report (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Rejält hett i kartongen!2008In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor - Delrapport 5: Långtidsuppföljning av plantor efter värmebehandling2007Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor: Delrapport 12006Report (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor: Delrapport 2 - plantor i tillväxt2006Report (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor: Delrapport 3 - plantor under invintring2006Report (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Resultat från torktest av plantor: Delrapport 4 - Plantor från fryslager2007Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Sammanfattning av erfarenheter från torktester av plantor2007Report (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Slutrapport av projekt "Miniplantans köldhärdighet"2004Report (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Nathalie, Verhoef
    Balk, Peter
    Quality management for vital forest tree seedlings: Final report, Project no: P33854-12011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work concerns development of a prototype molecular tests to identify vitality status of conifer seedlings. The work is done by NSure, Holland, Dalarna University and SUAS. In case for spruce, a successful validation experiment has been performed to validate the identified frost tolerance and vitality genes. Multiple indicators were identified that can be used to either reinforce the existing ColdnSure test, but also for development of a vitality test. The identified frost tolerance and vitality genes for pine still need to be validated. NSure together with Dalarna University aim to perform a validation next season. Multiple LN indicators were identified in spruce that can be used to determine the effectiveness of a LN treatment, but they are not yet validated. In spruce and pine hardly any scientific research is performed to study the effect of a LN treatment, particularly not at molecular level. Therefore NSure together with Dalarna Research Station want to apply for a project. Within this project, we would be able to develop the tests further.

  • 87.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Nyström, Christer
    Development of height, diameter, dry matter content and shoot freezing tolerance in 1-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings grown at different night lengths2000Report (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vemhäll, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    RGC-analys av 5 tallpartier från Lugnets plantskola2009Report (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vemhäll, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    RGC-analys av 5 tallpartier från Lugnets plantskola2010Report (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vemhäll, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    RGC-analys, Lugnets plantskola2011Report (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Verhoef, Nathalie
    Balk, Peter
    van Wordragen, Monique
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Development of a molecular test to determine the vitality status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings during frozen storage2012In: New forests, ISSN 0169-4286, E-ISSN 1573-5095, Vol. 43, no 5-6, p. 665-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal forest regions, a great portion of forest tree seedlings are stored indoors in late autumn to prevent seedlings from outdoor winter damage. For seedlings to be able to survive in storage it is crucial that they store well and can cope with the dark and cold storage environment. The aim of this study was to search for genes that can determine the vitality status of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings during frozen storage. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the ColdNSure (TM) test, a gene activity test that predicts storability was assessed. The storability of seedlings was tested biweekly by evaluating damage with the gene activity test and the electrolyte leakage test after freezing seedlings to -25 A degrees C (the SELdiff-25 method). In parallel, seedlings were frozen stored at -3 A degrees C. According to both methods, seedlings were considered storable from week 41. This also corresponded to the post storage results determined at the end of the storage period. In order to identify vitality indicators, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) was performed on bud samples collected during storage. Comparing physiological post storage data to gene analysis data revealed numerous vitality related genes. To validate the results, a second trial was performed. In this trial, gene activity was better in predicting seedling storability than the conventional freezing test; this indicates a high sensitivity level of this molecular assay. For multiple indicators a clear switch between damaged and vital seedlings was observed. A collection of indicators will be used in the future development of a commercial vitality test.

  • 92.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. SLU.
    Gräns, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. SLU.
    Jacobs, Douglass F
    Purdue Univ, Dept Forestry & Nat Resources, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA..
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. SLU.
    Verhoef, Nathalie
    NSure, Binnenhaven 5, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Short-day photoperiods affect expression of genes related to dormancy and freezing tolerance in Norway spruce seedlings2017In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 74, no 3, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key message: Gene expression analysis showed that prolonged short day (SD) treatment deepened dormancy and stimulated development of freezing tolerance of Picea abies seedlings. Prolonged SD treatment also caused later appearance of visible buds in autumn, reduced risks for reflushing, and promoted earlier spring bud break.

    Context: Short day (SD) treatment of seedlings is a common practice in boreal forest tree nurseries to regulate shoot growth and prepare the seedlings for autumn planting or frozen storage. Aims The aim of this study was to examine responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to a range of SD treatments of different length and evaluate gene expression related to dormancy induction and development of freezing tolerance.

    Methods: The seedlings were SD treated for 11 h a day during 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. Molecular tests were performed, and the expression profiles of dormancy and freezing tolerance- related genes were analyzed as well as determination of shoot growth, bud set, bud size, reflushing, dry matter content, and timing of spring bud break.

    Results: The 7-day SD treatment was as effective as longer SD treatments in terminating apical shoot growth. However, short (7 days) SD treatment resulted in later activation of dormancy-related genes and of genes related to freezing tolerance compared to the longer treatments which had an impact on seedling phenology.

    Conclusion: Gene expression analysis indicated an effective stimulus of dormancy-related genes when the SD treatment is prolonged for at least 1-2 weeks after shoot elongation has terminated and that seedlings thereafter are exposed to ambient outdoor climate conditions.

  • 93.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. SLU.
    Gräns, Daniel
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Verhoef, Nathalie
    Mikusiński, Grzegorz
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Evaluating methods for storability assessment and determination of vitality status of container grown Norway spruce transplants after frozen storage2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 417-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autumn sown small seedlings for later transplanting into large containers have been introduced in Swedish forest tree nurseries. Containerized transplants of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) from three Swedish nurseries were frozen stored during the autumn of 2014 to find out storability and post-storage vitality. Seedling storability was determined by measuring electrolyte leakage after freezing shoots to −25°C (SELdiff−25), by measurements of dry matter content (DMC) of seedling shoots and by the commercial molecular test ColdNSure™. Vitality of seedlings after storage was determined by measuring the leakage of electrolytes from shoots (SEL), and seedlings were also tested in regrowth tests. All three methods for storability assessment gave similar predictions, except in one case where DMC showed “not storable” for successfully stored seedlings. Our results indicated that young transplants can be successfully short term stored before reaching the target levels for safe long-term storage of conventional seedlings. Early storage of young transplants resulted in low post-storage survival and vitality expressed as root growth capacity and shoot electrolyte leakage (SEL). A prolonged duration in storage generally resulted in lower survival as well as lower root growth capacity and higher levels of SEL, especially for seedlings stored at earlier dates. 

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