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  • 51.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI-Borlänge.
    How does employment density influence individuals’ wages?: A micro data approach.2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effect of employment density on wages in Sweden in a large geocoded data set on individuals and workplaces. Employment density is measured in four circular zones around each individual’s place of living. The data contains a rich set of control variables that we use in an instrumental variables framework. Results show a relatively strong but rather local positive effect of employment density on wages. Beyond 5 kilometers the effect becomes negative. This might indicate that the effect of agglomeration economies falls faster with distance than the effects of congestion.

  • 52.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI.
    Is the spatial scope of agglomeration economies on wages the same across the wage earnings distribution?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the spatial scope of employment density across the wage distribution within four distance bands around each individual’s place of work. Observable and unobservable individual and workplace characteristics are controlled for. Remaining endogeneity in the wage model framework is assessed with an IV approach. Results indicate a positive effect of employment density on wages within 5 kilometres. The effect is negative beyond 50 kilometres. The spatial scope of employment density is larger at the higher end of the wage distribution but the effect closest to the establishment seems larger at the lower end of the wage distribution.

  • 53.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI-Borlänge.
    Wieweg, Lena
    VTI-Borlänge.
    Extended local labor markets due to high speed trains: Visualization of estimations in the Swedish national travel demand forecasting tool, SAMPERS2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wider economic benefits resulting from extended geographical mobility is one argument for investments in high-speed rail. More specifically, the argument for high-speed trains in Sweden has been that they can help to further spatially extend labor market regions which in turn has a positive effect on growth and development. In this paper the aim is to cartographically visualize the potential size of the labor markets in areas that could be affected by possible future high-speed trains. The visualization is based on the forecasts of labor mobility with public transport made by the Swedish national mobility transport forecasting tool, SAMPERS, for two alternative high-speed rail scenarios. The analysis, not surprisingly, suggests that the largest impact of high-speed trains results in the area where the future high speed rail tracks are planned to be built. This expected effect on local labor market regions of high-speed trains could mean that possible regional economic development effects also are to be expected in this area. However, the results, in general, from the SAMPERS forecasts indicaterelatively small increases in local labor market potentials.

  • 54.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Managing town centres under increasing competitive conditions: The role of the property owners2010Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Strategic alliances in a town centre: Stakeholders' perceived importance of the property owners2014In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for town centres to manage increased competition in retailing, cooperation between stakeholders in a strategic alliance has become more important. Typical stakeholders in such a strategic alliance are retailers, local authorities, and property owners. The importance of retailers and local authorities is well researched. However, the property owners’ importance is not. The aim of this article is to uncover the perceived importance of property owners in a strategic alliance. This is a case study of a medium-sized town in which semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders were conducted. In the chosen town there is a town centre management alliance at work. The case studied shows a fragmented property owner market with no dominant property owner. Our study shows that the perception of the role of the property owner is crucial for town centre development. However, many property owners do not recognise their own significance for the town centre development. The main reasons for this opinion are that they do not consider themselves to have enough resources or the capability to influence the town development.

  • 56.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Strategic alliances in a town centre: Stakeholder’s perceptions of property owner’s role2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for town centres to manage increased competition in retailing, co-operation between stakeholders in a strategic alliance has become more important. A typical set of stakeholders in a strategic alliance for strengthening retailingare retailers, local authorities and property owners. The roles of retailer’sand local authorities’ are well researched. However, the role of property owners is not. The aim of this paper seeks to unfold the role of property owners in a strategic alliance. This is a case study of a medium-sized town in which semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders were conducted. In the chosen town there is a TCM alliance co-operation at work. The above mentioned stakeholders are possible members in an alliance. The case studied shows a fragmented property owner market with no dominant property owner, as it is in many medium-sized towns. Our study shows that many stakeholders look at the role of property owners as crucial for town centre development. However, property owners do not see that they can significantly contribute to or benefit from the development.The main reasons for this opinion are that they consider themselves as not having enough resources or the capability to influence the town development.

  • 57.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Wennström, Johanna
    Town centre cooperation: Changing perception of property owners2017In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 1200-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate if, and how, different stakeholders perceive property owners (PO) have changed their activities in a town centre after increased competition, and if this has led to a different perception of the PO' stakeholder group. Design/methodology/approach – A comparative follow-up case study is conducted through semi-structured interviews on changes in the town centre management (TCM) stakeholders' perceptions of the role, benefit, and contribution of PO. The interviews are carried out before and after the establishment of a big-box retailer, which makes it possible to analyse possible changes in the perceptions in relation to the overall role of the PO when retail competition increases. Findings – A limited number of PO and local authorities have started working more strategically and proactively by creating a time-restricted alliance that goes beyond the work of the TCM organisation. Although the activities of the PO have increased, this is not fully understood by everyone in the town centre, especially the retailers. Research limitations/implications – In comparison with other studies, this study clearly indicates that the property owner plays a key strategic role in enabling town centre development. This role is broader than what the original TCM literature suggests and is based on the aspects of resource coordination and distribution. Practical implications – In order to create the opportunity to develop a town centre in the long run, it is of strategic importance that the PO are in agreement with the development plans. In addition, it is necessary to consider those members who should be part of the strategic alliance. Originality/value – By conducting a comparative follow-up case study, the authors are able to contribute with a deeper understanding of how stakeholders' perceptions change over time. The authors extend the current literature by showing that the PO are a key stakeholder due to their organisational resources and their ability to facilitate town centre development. © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 58.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Big-box retail entry in urban and rural areas: Are there productivity spillovers to incumbent retailers?2019In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically measures the potential spillover effects of big-box retail entry on the productivity of incumbent retailers in the entry regions, and investigates whether the effects differ depending on the size of the new establishment relative to the size of the local market. The results indicate that big-box entry increases the productivity of incumbent firms in two of three rural entry regions where the IKEA is large relative to the local retail market, while no productivity spillover effects could be found in the case of the urban IKEA entry in Gothenburg.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-19 08:40
  • 59.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector2013In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 23, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector using a unique dataset covering over 10,000 Swedish wholesale trade firms during the years 2000 to 2004. The results indicate that there are negative correlations between profits, firm age, and firm size and the probability of firm migration. There is a positive correlation between firm growth in the previous year and firm migration, indicating that growth opportunities that cannot be realized at the present location are an important motivation for migration.

  • 60.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Predicting entry of Swedish wholesale firms into local markets2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. As in previous entry studies, profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors,and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we identify local markets in Sweden where firm profits are abnormally high given the level of all independent variables included in the profit function. From microeconomic theory, we then know that these local markets should have higher net entry than other markets, all else being equal, and we investigate this in a second step,also using a panel data econometric model. The results of estimating the net-entry equation indicate that four of five estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameter is only statistically significant at conventional levels in one of our estimated models.

  • 61.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Predicting entry of Swedish wholesale firms into local markets2014In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. Profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors, and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we identify local markets in Sweden where firm profits are abnormally high given the level of all independent variables included in the profit function. From microeconomic theory, we then know that these local markets should have higher net entry than other markets, all else being equal, and we investigate this in a second step, also using a panel data econometric model. The results of estimating the net-entry equation indicate that 19 out of 30 estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameter is only statistically significant at conventional levels in one of our estimated models, and then with an unexpected negative sign.

  • 62.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Magnusson, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Skulle Storytelling kunna användas för att påverka bostadsområdens rykten?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Weissglas, Gösta
    Risk- och sårbarhetsaspekter i planeringsprocessen vid järnvägsinvesteringar: -Exemplet Botniabanan2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien har planeringsprocessen vid infrastrukturinvestering analyserats. Särskild tonvikt har legat på hur Beredskapshänsyn (BIS) har tas i planeringsprocessen. Studieobjektet är Botniabanan. Att planera för och bygga en helt ny järnvägssträckning har långtgående konsekvenser för samhället; ekonomiskt, tekniskt, socialt och ekologiskt. Det är då väsentligt att risk- och sårbarhetsfrågor behandlas systematiskt i ett tidigt skede innan bansträckningar läggs fast. I studien presenteras ett analyssystem, där olika typer av risker och hot, från mikro- till makronivå, systematiseras och ställs mot varandra. Några resultat är: -I den nuvarande planeringsprocessen beaktas risk- och sårbarhetsaspekterna i huvudsak när korridorvalen redan gjorts, dvs relativt sent i planeringsprocessen. En betydande del av sårbarhetsplaneringen går därmed ut på att anpassa dessa risk- och sårbarhetsaspekterna i detaljplanering. - Ändrade prioriteringar leder till förändrad fokusering över tiden, vilket i hög grad påverkar meso- och makrofaktorer som t ex banans dragning. Tung och omfattande godstrafik istället för omfattande passagerartrafik förutsågs exempelvis inte när de ursprungliga planerna drogs upp. Detta betyder att det finns en uppenbar risk att den ekonomiska, sociala och ekologiska betydelse man förutsagt att banan ska få inte uppnås.

  • 64.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Trumberg, Anders
    Örebro Universitet.
    Stayers and movers: Understanding the sorting dynamics that cause socio-economic residential segregation2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many argue that residential segregation is related to selective migration, certainly in Sweden, this view has recently been somewhat challenged when a broader demographic analysis, the so-called demographic conveyer approach, has been used to study the segregation process. However, the number of studies and cases using the demographic conveyer approach to study segregation is limited. In this paper, we apply an elaborated demographic conveyer approach in a new context to describe and analyse the underlying sorting dynamics that over time cause residential segregation. To do so, we follow the individual’s socio-economic carriers, between 1990 and 2008 in three neighbourhoods that have become socio-economically weak. We compare the career outcomes of stayers, in-migrants and out-migrants, and by doing so, we draw conclusions about the underlying dynamics that cause socio-economic segregation. The analysis is conducted in a medium-sized Swedish city which has rapidly become highly segregated since the early 1990s, making it possible to basically follow the evolution of the current segregated situation. Our main conclusion is that the segregation process is due to migration, however, not to internal migration, but rather external immigration. The degree of segregation is highly related to institutional circumstances, since immigrants basically settle in dwellings owned by the public housing company. In our case, the public housing apartments are highly concentrated to the studied area. We also find a general improvement in socio-economic situations regarding both educational levels and unemployment levels for in-migrants, out-migrants and stayers. However, the relationship between the inflows and outflows changes essentially from a situation when the inflows improved the population’s socio-economic status to a situation where the reverse is true. This is accentuated when income is taken into account. The paper also shows that individuals moving away from a segregated neighbourhood, who do not end up in similar neighbourhoods in the city, have better socio-economic carriers than those who stay in one of the three neighbourhoods during the period.

  • 65.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions induced by a shopping center2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies have focused on entire trips in a geographic region, while a few of them addressed trips induced by a city landmark. Therefore paper explores trips and their CO2 emissions induced by a shopping center from a time-space perspective and their usage in relocation planning. This is conducted by the means of a case study in the city of Borlänge in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall in its center are examined. We use GPS tracking data of car trips that end and start at the shopping center. Thereafter, (1) we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where temporal patterns reveal an hourly-based traffic emission dynamics and where spatial patterns uncover a heterogeneous distribution of traffic emissions in spatial areas and individual street segments. Further, (2) this study reports that most of the observed trips follow an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. In this respect, (3) we evaluate how well placed the current shopping center is through a comparison with two competing locations. We conclude that the two suggested locations, which are close to the current shopping center, do not show a significant improvement in term of CO2 emissions.

  • 66.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions to and from a shopping center2013In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 33, p. 135-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have focused on entire trips within a geographical region, while only a few have examined trips to and from a city landmark. This paper examines trips (and their CO2 emissions) to and from a shopping center from a time-space perspective, and it further considers how this information can be used in relocation planning. It is a case study in the Borlänge city in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall are scrutinized. We use GPS tracking data of car trips starting and ending at the shopping center. Firstly, we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where the temporal patterns reveal hourly-based traffic emission dynamics. The spatial analysis uncovers a heterogeneous distribution of areal traffic emissions as well as of single street segments. Secondly, we find the observed trips mostly agree with an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. Drawing on this finding, we thirdly evaluate the location of the current shopping center by comparing it to two competing locations. We conclude that the two competing locations, being in the vicinity of the current one, would induce an insignificant improvement in terms of CO2 emissions.

  • 67.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    Wuhan University.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    To what extent are CO2 emissions from intra-urban shopping trips by cars affected by drivers’ travel behaviour and store location?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation is seen as one of the major sources of CO2 pollutants nowadays. The impact of increased transport in retailing should not be underestimated. Most previous studies have focused on transportation and underlying trips, in general, while very few studies have addressed the specific affects that, for instance, intra-city shopping trips generate. Furthermore, most of the existing methods used to estimate emission are based on macro-data designed to generate national or regional inventory projections. There is a lack of studies using micro-data based methods that are able to distinguish between driver behaviour and the locational effects induced by shopping trips, which is an important precondition for energy efficient urban planning. The aim of this study is to implement a micro-data method to estimate and compare CO2 emission induced by intra-urban car travelling to a retail destination of durable goods (DG), and non-durable goods (NDG). We estimate the emissions from aspects of travel behaviour and store location. The study is conducted by means of a case study in the city of Borlänge, where GPS tracking data on intra-urban car travel is collected from 250 households. We find that a behavioural change during a trip towards a CO2 optimal travelling by car has the potential to decrease emission to 36% (DG), and to 25% (NDG) of the emissions induced by car-travelling shopping trips today. There is also a potential of reducing CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban shopping trips due to poor location by 54%, and if the consumer selected the closest of 8 existing stores, the CO2 emissions would be reduced by 37% of the current emission induced by NDG shopping trips.

  • 68. Kupiszewski, Marek
    et al.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    Fransson, Urban
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Durham, Helen
    Rees, Philip
    Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Sweden case study2001Report (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Landré, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rule versus interaction function: evaluating regional aggregations of commuting flows in Sweden2013In: European journal of transport and infrastructure research, ISSN 1567-7133, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of two divergent methods for delineating commuting regions, also called labour market areas, in a situation that the base spatial units differ largely in size as a result of an irregular population distribution. Commuting patterns in Sweden have been analyzed with geographical information system technology by delineating commuting regions using two regionalization methods. One, a rule-based method, uses one-way commuting flows to delineate local labour market areas in a top-down procedure based on the selection of predefined employment centres. The other method, the interaction-based Intramax analysis, uses two-way flows in a bottom-up procedure based on numerical taxonomy principles. A comparison of these methods will expose a number of strengths and weaknesses. For both methods, the same data source has been used. The performance of both methods has been evaluated for the country as a whole using resident employed population, self-containment levels and job ratios for criteria. A more detailed evaluation has been done in the Goteborg metropolitan area by comparing regional patterns with the commuting fields of a number of urban centres in this area. It is concluded that both methods could benefit from the inclusion of additional control measures to identify improper allocations of municipalities.

  • 70.
    Li, Yujiao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Agglomeration economies in urban retailing: Are there productivity spillovers when big-box retailers enter urban markets?2019In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 26, no 19, p. 1586-1589Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that big-box retail entry does not affect the productivity of incumbent retailers when entry occurs in urban areas. In this paper, we show that there are positive spillover effects of big-box retail entry to incumbent retailers in urban areas as well, but that these are limited to relatively small retailers, making the effects difficult to detect using traditional econometric methods, such as difference-in-difference estimation on the full sample of firms. In a two-step procedure, we first use panel smooth transition regression to determine size thresholds that delimit incumbent retail firms by their possible reactions to the new big-box entry. We then use difference-in-difference estimations on these subgroups of firms to determine, within each group, the direction and magnitude of the effects of big-box entry on their productivity. For the group of small incumbent retailers, we find positive spillover effects on productivity of approximately 9%.

  • 71.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pendling och flyttning över sundet? Konsekvenser av Öresundsbron: Bilagsband til SBI-rapport 3151999In: Boligmarkedet i Öresundsregionen, Köpenhamn: Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBI) , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 72. Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How do administrative borders affect accessibility to hospitals? The case of Sweden2018In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 33, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper, we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional administrative borders and hospital accessibility. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population's spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants' distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 73.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    On administrative borders and accessibility to public services:: The case of hospitals in Sweden.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service such as hospitals? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional borders. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population’s spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants’ distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 74.
    Niedomysl, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Fransson, Urban
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Municipalities in Competition: Swedish experience on migration and attractivity2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Smart parking sensors, technologies and applications for open parking lots: a review2018In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 735-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle in traffic dense environments often leads to excess time of driving in search for free space which leads to congestions and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information to vacant parking spaces is one reason for inefficient parking behaviour. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitate guidance of drivers to free parking spaces thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensors or technologies is in use for open parking lot. This paper reviews the literature on the usage of smart parking sensors, technologies, applications and evaluate their applicability to open parking lots. Magnetometers, ultrasonic sensors and machine vision were few of the widely used sensors and technologies on closed parking lots. However, this paper suggests a combination of machine vision, convolutional neural network or multi-agent systems suitable for open parking lots due to less expenditure and resistance to varied environmental conditions. Few smart parking applications show drivers the location of common open parking lots. No application provided real time parking occupancy information, which is a necessity to guide them along the shortest route to free space. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in the fields of deep learning and multi-agent systems.

  • 76.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Smart Parking Tools Suitability for Open Parking Lots: A Review2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, Madeira, 2018, p. 600-609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking a vehicle in traffic dense environments is a common issue in many parts of the world which oftenleads to congestion and environmental pollution. Lack of guidance information to vacant parking spaces isone of the reasons for inefficient parking behaviour. Smart parking sensors and technologies facilitateguidance of drivers to free parking spaces thereby improving parking efficiency. Currently, no such sensorsor technologies are in use for the common open parking lot. This paper reviews the literature on the usage ofsmart parking sensors, technologies, applications and evaluate their suitability to open parking lots. Suitabilitywas made in terms of expenditure and reliability. Magnetometers, ultrasonic sensors and machine vision werefew of the widely used sensors and technologies used in closed parking lots. However, this paper suggests acombination of machine vision, fuzzy logic or multi-agent systems suitable for open parking lots due to lessexpenditure and resistance to varied environmental conditions. No application provided real time parkingoccupancy information of open parking lots, which is a necessity to guide them along the shortest route tofree space. To develop smart parking applications for open parking lots, further research is needed in the fieldsof deep learning.

  • 77.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    A holistic decision support system for last mile handovers2019In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last mile handover is assumed to be the most problematic part in the delivery process and the costs can go upto 50% of the total logistic cost. Real time consumer communication and dynamic scheduling are the major problem areas associated with effective attended last mile handovers. Therefore, aim of this paper is to report the design and development of a holistic decision support system’s functionalities which simultaneously addresses real time consumer communication and dynamic scheduling. A decision support system was designed and developed based on workshops, expert group interviews and its functionalities were proposed with the use cases. A survey was conducted with consumers of a retailer where majority of the consumers accepted the use of mobile communication devices to enable real time communication and alternate handover location which improves customer satisfaction and facilitates to avoid missed handovers. A pilot test was performed where routing distance was reduced with the use of optimized handover routes. However the improvement is subjected to the experience of driver and real time traffic conditions. We conclude that a holistic decision support system with multi-party communication among the stakeholders facilitates in reducing operational costs for logistic companies and improving customer satisfaction and business opportunities.

  • 78.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    How does different algorithm work when applied on the different road networks when optimal location of facilities is searched for in rural areas?2014In: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2013 Workshops: WISE 2013 International Workshops BigWebData, MBC, PCS, STeH, QUAT, SCEH, and STSC 2013, Nanjing, China, October 13-15, 2013, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Zhisheng Huang, Chengfei Liu, Jing He, Guangyan Huang, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, Vol. 8182, p. 284-291Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median problem is often used to locate P service facilities in a geographically distributed population. Important for the performance of such a model is the distance measure. The first aim in this study is to analyze how the optimal location solutions vary, using the p-median model, when the road network is alternated. It is hard to find an exact optimal solution for p-median problems. Therefore, in this study two heuristic solutions are applied, simulating annealing and a classic heuristic. The secondary aim is to compare the optimal location solutions using different algorithms for large p-median problem. The investigation is conducted by the means of a case study in a rural region with a. asymmetrically distributed population, Dalecarlia. The study shows that the use of more accurate road networks gives better solutions for optimal location, regardless what algorithm that is used and regardless how many service facilities that is opt for. It is also shown that the Simulating annealing algorithm not just is much faster than the classic heuristic used here, but also in most cases gives better solutions.

  • 79.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Lemarchand, Laurent
    Massé, Damien
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Multiobjective Optimization for Multimode Transportation Problems2018In: Advances in Operations Research, ISSN 1687-9147, E-ISSN 1687-9155, article id 8720643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose modelling for a facilities localization problem in the context of multimode transportation. The applicative goal is to locate service facilities such as schools or hospitals while optimizing the different transportation modes to these facilities. We formalize the School Problem and solve it first exactly using an adapted -constraint multiobjective method. Because of the size of the instances considered, we have also explored the use of heuristic methods based on evolutionary multiobjective frameworks, namely, NSGA2 and a modified version of PAES. Those methods are mixed with an original local search technique to provide better results. Numerical comparisons of solutions sets quality are made using the hypervolume metric. Based on the results for test-cases that can be solved exactly, efficient implementation for PAES and NSGA2 allows execution times comparison for large instances. Results show good performances for the heuristic approaches as compared to the exact algorithm for small test-cases. Approximate methods present a scalable behavior on largest problem instances. A master/slave parallelization scheme also helps to reduce execution times significantly for the modified PAES approach.

  • 80.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Vinterkonferens i rumslig statistik i Dalarna2011In: Qvintensen, ISSN 2000-1819, Vol. 2011, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 81. Trumberg, Anders
    et al.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Socioekonomisk omvandling i Borlänge 1990-2008 med fokus på bostadsområdet Jakobsgårdarna: Hur påverka omflyttningen befolkningsstrukturen i ett bostadsområde?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att undersöka hur individers flyttningsmönster mellan olika bostads-områden påverkar olika segregationsprocesser i Borlänge stad.  Studien visar att Borlänge ligger i mittskiktet om man jämför andelen befolkning med utländskbakgrund i Sveriges alla kommuner. Trots att Borlänge har en förhållandevis låg andel befolkning med utländsk bakgrund har den etniska och socioekonomiska segregationen mellan olika bostadsområden i Borlänge ökat mellan åren 1990-2008. Runt år 2000 har det skett en förändring inom gruppen med utländsk bakgrund där de osynliga minoriteterna (Europa, USA, Kanada, Australien) har minskat och de synliga minoriteterna (utanför Europa undantaget USA, Kanada och Australien) har ökat.

    Jakobsgårdarna tillsammans med Tjärna ängar och Bullermyren kan karakteriseras som särskilt utsatt områden med en hög andel befolkning med utländsk bakgrund och invånarna är också socioekonomiskt svagare än invånare i andra områden i Borlänge. Den dominerande boend-eformen i Jakobsgårdarna (samt i Tjärna ängar och Bullermyren) är hyreslägenheter ägda av allmännyttan. Det blir därför naturligt att området har en befolkning som är i starten på sin boende-, utbildnings- och yrkeskarriär. Det visar sig i materialet då befolkningen i området är relativt ung dvs. det finns inte så många andra områden som man kan flytta till om man ska flytta hemifrån, då de flesta andra bostadsområden i Borlänge består av privatägda egnahem. Detta får betydelse för befolkningen med utländsk bakgrund, eftersom de av olika skäl har svårare att hitta arbete, få en inkomst etc. blir de kvar i området eller roterar mellan bostadsområdena Jakobs-gårdarna, Tjärna ängar och Bullermyren eftersom det inte finns några andra alternativa boenden.

    Då utbudet av hyreslägenheter är relativt liten i Borlänge är det troligtvis de sk institutions-genererade flyttningarna som är en grundläggande orsak till den etniska segregationen i Borlänge. Runt år 2002 accelererar utflyttningen av svenskfödda i Jakobsgårdarna och andelen synliga minoriteter ökar i området, det tyder på att det finns ett mönster av sk segregationsgenererande flyttningar från området, dvs. de som har möjlighet flyttar ut ur bostadsområdet gör det. De individer som flyttar från Jakobsgårdarna har en starkare socioekonomiskt ställning än de som flyttar in i området, därför reproduceras den socioekonomiska segregationen och blir ihållande. Denna process gör att området i framtiden, om ingenting görs, troligtvis kommer att förbli ett socioekonomiskt svagt område. Tillsamman med de institutions -och segregationsgenererande flyttningarna riskerar Jakobsgårdarna att bli ännu mer etniskt och socioekonomiskt segregerat från övriga områden i Borlänge.

  • 82.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Dan, Zhiguang
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Network density and the p-median solution2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-medianmodel is commonly used to find optimal locations of facilities for geographically distributed demands. So far, there are few studies that have considered the importance of the road network in the model. However, Han, Håkansson, and Rebreyend (2013) examined the solutions of the p-median model with densities of the road network varying from 500 to 70,000 nodes. They found as the density went beyond some 10,000 nodes, solutions have no further improvements but gradually worsen. The aim of this study is to check their findings by using an alternative heuristic being vertex substitution, as a complement to their using simulated annealing. We reject the findings in Han et al (2013). The solutions do not further improve as the nodes exceed 10,000, but neither do the solutions deteriorate.

  • 83.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data2017In: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017, 2017, p. 323-334, article id IAC201711035Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error of -10 km/h. Elevation measurements are unreliable with errors bigger than 100 meters.

  • 84.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    An Evaluation of the Reliability of GPS-Based Transportation Data2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error

  • 85.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    On assessing governmental sustainable residential planning and its alignment with residents’ and estate investors’ objectives2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are three key actors in forming the sustainable spatial distribution of residency in an area, (local) government, the estate investor and the resident, each with its own objective. Most urban planning studies have mainly focused on the ex-post evaluation of residential development by considering the objective of each actor separately. This paper outlines a conceptual model where the three key actors and their unique objectives are integrated with the aim of providing an ex-ante evaluation of residential development for government to make policies operational on a micro level. The methodology is implemented on a Swedish city, where sustainable residential development is in high need due to the influx of immigrants. The case study demonstrates that the model can integrate the macro and micro actors well. The model can provide noteworthy insights for the government on where the objectives of sustainability, livability and profit can be met. A sensitivity check of the parameter settings shows that the implementation of the model is robust for replication in other cities.

  • 86.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Reliability of GPS based traffic data: an experimental evaluation2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS tracking of mobile objects provides spatial and temporal data for a broad range of applications including traffic management and control, transportation routing and planning. Previous transport research has focused on GPS tracking data as an appealing alternative to travel diaries. Moreover, the GPS based data are gradually becoming a cornerstone for real-time traffic management. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS devices are however susceptible to measurement errors – a neglected issue in transport research. By conducting a randomized experiment, we assess the reliability of GPS based traffic data on geographical position, velocity, and altitude for three types of vehicles; bike, car, and bus. We find the geographical positioning reliable, but with an error greater than postulated by the manufacturer and a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Velocity is slightly underestimated, whereas altitude measurements are unreliable.

  • 87.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a city there are hotspots that attract the citizens and most of the transportation in the city arises when citizens move between their residence and the hotspots. However, the evaluation between energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has been found to be rather weak. In this paper, we propose an ex-ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility due to different residential plans implemented at various urban areas. The method is illustrated by a Swedish midsize city which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. On average, the CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA) to the suburban polycentric area (SPA) to the edge urbanization area (EUA), EUA is almost 3 times more than CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same sequence, the overall increase is more than 4 times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses.

  • 88.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission: a microscopic look at Borlänge in Sweden2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1597-1614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a city there are hotspots that attract citizens, and most of the transportation arises when citizens move between their residence and primary destinations (i.e. hotspots). However, an ex ante evaluation of energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has seldom been conducted. Therefore, this paper proposes an ex ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts, in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility, of residential plans for various urban areas. The method is illustrated in a case study of a Swedish midsize city, which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. In general, CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA), to the sub-polycentric area (SPA), to the edge urbanization area (EUA), where CO2 emission of EUA is twice that of the CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same pattern, though the relative increase is more than four times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses. 

  • 89.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Does road network density matter in optimally locating facilities?2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal location on the transport infrastructure is the preferable requirement for many decision making processes. Most studies have focused on evaluating performances of optimally locate p facilities by minimizing their distances to a geographically distributed demand (n) when p and n vary. The optimal locations are also sensitive to geographical context such as road network, especially when they are asymmetrically distributed in the plane. The influence of alternating road network density is however not a very well-studied problem especially when it is applied in a real world context. This paper aims to investigate how the density level of the road network affects finding optimal location by solving the specific case of p-median location problem. A denser network is found needed when a higher number of facilities are to locate. The best solution will not always be obtained in the most detailed network but in a middle density level. The solutions do not further improve or improve insignificantly as the density exceeds 12,000 nodes, some solutions even deteriorate. The hierarchy of the different densities of network can be used according to location and transportation purposes and increase the efficiency of heuristic methods. The method in this study can be applied to other location-allocation problem in transportation analysis where the road network density can be differentiated. 

  • 90.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    How does the complexity of a road network affect optimal facility locations?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The road network is a necessary component in transportation. It facilitiesspatial movements of people and goods, and it also influences the optimal locations of facilities that usually serve as destinations of the movements. To fulfill the transportation needs and to adapt to the facility development, the road network is often organized hierarchically and asymmetrically with various road levels and spatial structures. The complexity of the road network increases along with the increase of road levels and spatial structures. However, location models locate facilities on a given road network, usually the most complex one, and the influence from the complexity of road network in finding optimal locations is not well-studied. This paper aims to investigate how the complexity of a road network affects the optimal facility locations by applying the widely-applied p-median model. The main result indicates that an increase in road network complexity, up to a certain level, can obviously improve the solution, and the complexity beyond that level does not always lead to better solutions. Furthermore, the result is not sensitive to the choice of algorithms. In a specific case study, a detailed sensitivity analysis of algorithm and facility number further provides insight into computation complexity and location problems from intra-urban to inter-urban.

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