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  • 51.
    Anåker, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Anåker, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden..
    von Koch, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden..
    Eriksson, G.
    Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden..
    Sjostrand, C.
    Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden..
    Elf, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Multi-professional teamwork in stroke units - time to understand the impact of the built environment on the work of staff2018In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 13, p. 59-59Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Anåker, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    von Koch, Lena
    Sjöstrand, Christina
    Bernhardt, Julie
    Elf, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet; Chalmers University of Technology.
    A comparative study of patients’ activities and interactions in a stroke unit before and after reconstruction – the significance of the built environment2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e0177477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early mobilization and rehabilitation, multidisciplinary stroke expertise and comprehensive therapies are fundamental in a stroke unit. To achieve effective and safe stroke care, the physical environment in modern stroke units should facilitate the delivery of evidence-based care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore patients’ activities and interactions in a stroke unit before the reconstruction of the physical environment, while in a temporary location and after reconstruction. This case study examined a stroke unit as an integrated whole. The data were collected using a behavioral mapping technique at three different time points: in the original unit, in the temporary unit and in the new unit. A total of 59 patients were included. The analysis included field notes from observations of the physical environment and examples from planning and design documents. The findings indicated that in the new unit, the patients spent more time in their rooms, were less active, and had fewer interactions with staff and family than the patients in the original unit. The reconstruction involved a change from a primarily multi-bed room design to single-room accommodations. In the new unit, the patients’ lounge was located in a far corner of the unit with a smaller entrance than the patients’ lounge in the old unit, which was located at the end of a corridor with a noticeable entrance. Changes in the design of the stroke unit may have influenced the patients’ activities and interactions. This study raises the question of how the physical environment should be designed in the future to facilitate the delivery of health care and improve outcomes for stroke patients. This research is based on a case study, and although the results should be interpreted with caution, we strongly recommend that environmental considerations be included in future stroke guidelines.

  • 54.
    AQiff, Birgitta
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av akut konfusion hos äldre i akutsjukvård – En kvalitativ intervju studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title:

    Nurses experience of acute confusion in elderly patients in acute emergency care- A qualitative interview study.

    Background:

    The elderly cared for in emergency care have an incidence between 11–51% to develop acute confusion during the care period. The condition is related to increased morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Multifactorial causes lie behind the elderly being affected. Acute confusion is a clinical diagnosis, at present there are not biomarkers or examinations that can identify the condition. Acute confusion requires early awareness, swift investigation, medical care and well adapted health care environment in order for the patient to recover.

    Purpose:

    To describe nurses experiences in detecting, preventing and caring for patients suffering from acute confusion in emergency care.

    Design:

    A qualitative interview with five nurses working within geriatric emergency care at two hospitals in the south of Sweden.

    Result:

    Three categories emerged in the result; strategies to identify and assess signs of acute confusion, strategies and hinders for preventative measures and good nursing upon acute confusion, and improvement proposals for the care of elderly suffering from acute confusion. Nurses used observation, communication, and gathering of information from medical records and relatives in order to identify acute confusion. A comprehensive view in care, continuity in contacts, adaption of health care environment and relatives engagement were important factors to prevent acute confusion and provide good nursing. Hindering factors were a result of shortcomings in the health care environment, insufficient resources and time, and lack of knowledge among other requisite staff regarding appropriate reception and approach.

    Conclusion:

    An evidence-based screening instrument which identifies various states of confusion would render assessment and documentation easier for nurses. Personal centered care built upon that such is planned based on a comprehensive view and continuity in contacts, and that relatives are more engaged in care, is advocated by the nurses. Health care environment shall be adapted, be calm and supportive in form. Staff that work with confused patients need more sufficient knowledge regarding appropriate reception and approach to render patient recovery easier.

  • 55.
    Ara Akther, Hasne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Khatoon, Zohra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Social, economic and professional barriers for midwives to provide quality midwifery care in Bangladesh: A focus group discussion study with midwifery faculty members in Bangladesh2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Midwifery is central in addressing maternal and newborn health. Social, economic and professional barriers prevent midwives from providing quality midwifery care, which in the end can lead to poor maternal and newborn health. The midwifery profession is under development in Bangladesh and midwifery teachers’ perspective on barriers towards quality midwifery care is vital to identify the barriers preventing quality midwifery care in this country.

    Aim:

    To describe midwifery teacher’s perceptions on midwives’ realities in Bangladesh from social, economic and professional perspectives.

    Methods:

    A qualitative deductive design in which three focus group discussions were held with 17 midwifery teachers in total. Data was analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results:

    Social barriers hampering quality midwifery care include lack of female empowerment, gender inequality permeating education, child birth, workplaces and negative attitudes in society towards women. Low income, inadequate housing and unsafe accommodation are among economic barriers. Professionally, little opportunities to participate in policy dialogue, to raise midwives’ voices and contribute to decisions, little public awareness about the midwifery profession, heavy workload, inadequate staffing and workplace environments hamper quality care.

    Conclusion and clinical application:

    Quality maternal health depends on enhanced midwifery workforce. Minimizing the identified barriers may elevate the confidence level of midwives and enable them to provide evidence based up-to-date care freely and independently. Revising economic benefits for midwives and taking initiatives to establish separate midwifery education facilities countrywide is a good start. This thesis provides a platform for further research focusing on improvements in quality of midwifery care after the deployment of newly introduced midwifery cadre service in Bangladesh.

  • 56.
    Ara Begum, Arshe
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Yesmin, Farida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nursing and midwifery educators’ self-assessed compliance to midwifery educators’ core competences: A questionnaire survey based on international standards prior the development of a mentorship program in Bangladesh2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Building midwifery educators’ capacity has been identified as an important component to ensure quality midwifery education in Bangladesh.

    Objective:

    To describe midwifery educators self-assessed compliance with capabilities’ according to international standards for nursing- and midwifery educators in order to strengthen their capacity in the development of a mentorship program.

    Methods:

    This study was conducted at 25 of the 38 colleges/institutes, with 59 midwifery educators. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire with open and closed response options; both qualitative and quantitative analysis was used for analysis of data.

    Result

    : The midwifery educators’ self-assessed capabilities were scored high regarding midwifery knowledge, orientation to research, the ability to facilitate positive change for effective clinical teaching environment, and in the area of midwifery practice. Mentorship could be used in various ways. It could be used for capacity building of clinical mentors/staffs, for capacity building of nursing and midwifery faculty, for capacity building at policy level in planning, policy making, budgeting and in research initiatives. If challenges with for example electricity, internet and access to computers were met, mentorship programs could be net-based and thereby facilitating expertise from all over the world. However, face-to-face meetings were also important and more blended mode might be more effective. The focus would be to improve clinical practice, skill lab practice, and evidence-based knowledge in the field of midwifery.

    Conclusion:

    Mentorship programs could be net-based if challenges were managed, but face-to-face meetings was also seen as important. The recommendations regarding the content of a mentorship program were that areas to be included could be professionalism, skills lab and evidence based knowledge.

    Clinical applicability and further research:

    All colleges/institutions with clinical sites connected to them in Bangladesh, would benefit from mentorship to faculty and clinical supervisors. Institutional collaboration is suggested to provide peer-mentoring of midwifery faculty and clinical supervisors. As half of all pre-registration midwifery programs are embedded in the practice setting, the necessity of mentorship programs involves both faculty and clinical supervisors became evident. More research in these areas to guidance approaches to build midwifery educator’s capacity is required.

  • 57.
    Arin, Nassrin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som är väsentliga för sjuksköterskors bedömning av smärta hos patienter med medelsvår till svår demens En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syfte

    Detta examensarbete är en litteraturöversikt som syftar till att beskriva vilka faktorer som är

    väsentliga för sjuksköterskors bedömning av smärta hos patienter med medelsvår till svår

    demens

    Metod

    Litteratur hittades via databaserna PubMed och Medline. Sjutton stycken artiklar som

    motsvarade syftet i studien hittades och analyserades. De sjutton artiklarna var publicerade

    mellan 2004 och 2014

    Resultat

    Analysen av de sjutton artiklar som ligger till grund för resultaten av studien visade tre

    kategorier; Känna igen smärta, Instrument för bedömning av smärta samt Kunskap och

    förhållningssätt. I kategorin att Känna igen smärta visar sig att det är en svår, viktig och

    komplicerad uppgift för sjuksköterskan att bedöma smärta hos patienter med demens. Detta

    beror på att de ofta inte kan uttrycka det verbalt, men i stället anger sjuksköterskan annat

    beteende av demens som skulle kunna vara ett tecken på underliggande smärta. Resultaten

    visade också att detta ledde till osäkerhet bland sjuksköterskor. I kategorin Instrument för

    bedömningen av smärta visade det sig att det fanns ett antal bedömningsverktyg som kan

    hjälpa sjuksköterskan i sin bedömning och tolkning av smärta hos patienter med demens. I

    kategorin Kunskap och attityd visade att sjuksköterskor som har utbildningar hade lättare att

    dechiffrera smärta hos patienter med demens och smärta hos patienter med demens kan ofta

    misstolkas som ett tecken på bara oro. Resultatet visar att det är viktigt med fastställda rutiner

    och rätt inställning sjuksköterskan för att kunna göra en bra och rättvis bedömning av smärta

    hos patienter med demens så att de får rätt behandling för smärta.

    Slutsatser

    Studien visar att det är en svår och komplex uppgift för sjuksköterskan att bedöma smärta hos

    patienter med demens. Det är lättare att bedöma smärtan hos en patient som sjuksköterskan

    har en god relation till och känner sedan tidigare. Bedömningsinstrument kan vara ett bra sätt

    och fungera som ett hjälpmedel för sjuksköterskan att tyda och tolka smärtan hos patienter

    med demens. Fortbildning av vårdpersonal i att tyda smärta hos patienter med demens är att

    rekommendera eftersom att litteraturen visade att långvarig erfarenhet leder till större

    skicklighet att upptäcka smärta och kan dessutom vålla desensibilisering. Det råder en stor

    osäkerhet hos vårdpersonal när det kommer till bedömning av smärta hos patienter med

    demens.

  • 58.
    Aronsson, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Riskfaktorer för självmord bland män över 65 år och självmordspreventiva omvårdnadsinsatser2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Självmord är ett folkhälsoproblem bland äldre världen över. I takt med en globalt ökad medellivslängd och en större population äldre individer förväntas antalet självmord bland äldre öka. Män över 65 år genomför cirka 5-6 gånger fler självmord än kvinnor i samma ålder. Syfte: Att kartlägga de orsaker som ligger till grund för att män över 65 år begår självmord, samt beskriva preventiva omvårdnadsinsatser. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturstudie, sökningar gjordes i Pubmed, Cinahl och Medline. Totalt inkluderades 27 artiklar. Resultat: Riskfaktorer för självmord hos äldre män var depression, förluster, fysisk funktionsnedsättning, misstro mot sjukvården samt att de var beslutsamma och använde våldsamma metoder. Självmordsprevention bör ske med gemensamma insatser i vården och i socialsektorn. Utbildning av vårdpersonal leder till ökat självförtroende, ökad kunskap och mer kompetens att identifiera individer i riskzonen. Utbildning leder även till förändrade attityder och förhållningssätt hos vårdpersonal vilket leder till mindre risk för känsla av förlorad autonomi hos patienten. Slutsats: Utbildning av vårdpersonal är av stor vikt för att förmedla kunskaper och förmågor att bemöta självmordsbenägna individer och för att påverka de attityder som råder i samhället. Ju tidigare insatser som görs för hälsa och välmående desto bättre, vilket indirekt ger självmordsprevention på köpet.

  • 59.
    Aronsson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Grandin, Simone
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Långvarig smärta efter cancerbehandling - En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancer is increasing among the population, which can lead to an increased number of complications as chronic pain, not only from the cancer treatment but from the disease itself. Patients have also been found to feel that their pain problems are not taken seriously by the healthcare professionals. The nurses should work to relieve any suffering which is caused by pain. Suffering is a unique experience that is different for everyone. As suffering may be due to the overall life situation, the nurses need a greater understanding of the situation in order to fulfill their responsibilities. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to compile research on chronic pain after cancer treatment. Method: An integrative literature review with 11 included articles. Result: Two main themes were identified; daily life and quality of life, and six subthemes regarding how the chronic pain influences and impacts the following; physical activities, daily activities, the professional life, drug use, general wellbeing, and sex life. Conclusion: Many patients experienced a negative impact on their daily life in both mental, physical and social dimensions. Patients felt that work, physical activity and daily tasks were limited due to the chronic pain. This varied in all aspects depending on the type of cancer and which treatment the patients received.

  • 60.
    Artikulova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Martinez Vasquez, Susan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Strategier och hjälpmedel som kan förbättra munhälsan hos äldre personer inom äldreomsorg: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att belysa vilka strategier och hjälpmedel som kan förbättra

    munhälsan hos äldre personer inom äldreomsorg. Metod: En

    litteraturöversiktsstudie baserad på befintlig kunskap. Studien innefattade 15

    artiklar med såväl kvalitativ som kvantitativ ansats och söktes i databaserna Cinahl

    och Pubmed. Resultat: Resultatet visade att de strategier som framkom till följd av

    bearbetning av de femton valda vetenskapliga artiklar i denna studie var

    munvårdsutbildning till vårdgivarna, uppföljning av befintliga rutiner samt

    införandet av nya rutiner och anpassad kommunikation. Dessa strategier visade sig

    vara mycket effektiva för förbättrad munhälsa hos vårdtagarna inom äldreomsorg.

    I studien beskrivs även effekter av användning av hjälpmedel som elektrisk

    tandborste och munvårdskort. Konklusion: Resultatet visade att bland annat

    munvårdsutbildning ger ett bättre munvårdsresultat.

  • 61.
    Arvidsson, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ivarsson, Thérèse
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans känslor och upplevelser av att tvångsvårda patienter inom psykiatrisk vård- En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    In psychiatric care, coercion is a reality that can affect the patient's self-determination, which can lead to ethical dilemmas for nurses in different areas of work and in threats and violence. The demands are high on the nurses to be able to create trust and confidence in the patient. And to show empathy and understanding when a conflict arises. Clear guidelines and laws exist to support compulsion and forced measures.

    Aim:

    aim of this literature review is to investigate the nurse's feelings and experiences of compulsive care and to perform forced measures in psychiatric care. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review. The articles were searched within the databases Cinahl, Pubmed and PsycINFO. A total of 15 qualitative scientific articles were selected. Result: The result showed that the nurse's have mixed feelings and experiences of forced measures. Feelings like stress, fear, anxiety and insufficiency. The nurses associate these feelings as insufficient knowledge and experience and threatening and violent situations. Forced measures often contributed to negative feelings as well as ethical dilemmas of the nurse. Conclusion: This literature review shows that nurses experienced insufficient knowledge about the treatment and management of threats and violence, as well as alternative treatment methods for forced measures. The nurse was often faced with ethical dilemmas that may damage the therapeutic relationship.

  • 62.
    Arvidsson, Madelene
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sellström, Sandra
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till personer med psykiska funktionsnedsättningar i utövandet av fysisk aktivitet och dess hälsoeffekter Litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has been researched a lot of physical activity beneficial effects on the human

    body physically. Previously, there has been a natural part of treatment in psychiatry, which

    made the authors curious about how it can be highlighted in the care of people with mental

    disabilities.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the health benefits of physical activity for

    people with mental disabilities and nurse support through tutoring.

    Methodology: During the compilation of the results revealed that nurses can provide

    support through the Motivational Interviewing (MI) was of central importance. When the

    patient heard and build up their goals to be measurable with trained medical staff, but also

    through support of patient self-education and knowledge of the physical activity's positive

    impact on mental health.

    Conclusion: The nurse's approach to support and motivate people with mental disabilities to

    exercise physical activity was found to be several. Then it was important to the ruled and

    knew the different ways to motivate people with mental disabilities. Other important

    approaches were good care relationship, individualized exercise programs, and support and

    training in the health benefits that physical activity gave.

  • 63.
    Arvidsson, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Jansson, Susanne
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Stress hos sjuksköterskor och utövandet av personcentrerad vård: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working person-centered is an important part of the profession as a nurse, not least because the nurse's ethical rules suggest that, but also because every person is unique, and that care should therefore be adapted to each individual. As part of this degree project, the person-centered care and the work environment in hospitals has been overlooked for how the person centered care is affected by the nurse's experience of stress.

    Aim: The aim is to describe how stress in the nurse's work environment affects the personcentered care of patients in hospitals.

    Methods: The degree project was conducted as a literature review based on 17 scientific articles with publication between 2009 and 2018. The database used was Cinahl.

    Results: The results show that despite a stressful working environment for the nurse, the emotional part does not affect the patient's care. However practical care may cause damage, which in turn can affect patient safety. The result also shows that management has a major responsibility in setting up guidelines for person-centered care, as well as preventing burnout of the nurse and patient safety.

    Conclusion: There is a clear link between the working environment and the psychologist's nurse, despite this, the nurses do not receive the opportunity to participate in decisions made by the management. More studies need to be done about the work environment and the impact on the nurse in terms of stress and burnout. The concept of person-centered care is wide and extensive, therefore, clear guidelines for the practice of person-centered care need to be made in practice to ensure the results of how the work environment affects person-centered care.

  • 64.
    Arwidson, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pettersson, Rose-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens upplevelse av att leva med Multipel Skleros och hur sjuksköterskan kan stödja dessa patienter.: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att belysa patientens upplevelse av att

    leva med Multipel Skleros, samt hur sjuksköterskan kan stödja dessa patienter.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt och artiklarna söktes i

    databaserna CINAHL och PubMed. Vi hittade 14 artiklar som utgjorde grund för

    resultatet. 6 kvantitativa och 8 kvalitativa artiklar. Resultat: Sjukdomen MS

    upplevdes av patienterna som en förlust av sin friska identitet. En rädsla och oro

    inför framtiden. Trötthet var det som ofta påverkade det dagliga livet. Patienterna

    ville ha mer information om sjukdomen och en bra kommunikation med

    sjuksköterskan. Slutsats: Att leva med MS gav stora förändringar psykiskt och

    fysiskt. Trötthet gav minskad energi att klara vardagen. Patienterna kände skuld,

    nedstämdhet och oro. Informationen och kunskapen från sjuksköterskan var

    bristfällig.

  • 65.
    Atilgan, Josefine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Vikström, Nicole
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans hälsofrämjande åtgärder vid överviktsproblematik: Litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Overweight and obesity are a growing issue, from 1980 to 2014 have the global presence of overweight and obesity more than doubled. People with overweight and obesity have an increased risk of developing sequelae such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, even the risk of dying beforehand increases. Aim: The aim was to describe factors that affect the nurses’ health promotion to adult with overweight and obesity in primary and somatic care. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review where data was collected thru the databases CINAHL and Pubmed. The result was based on 14 articles with both quantitative and qualitative approach. Results: The results

    show five categories that affect the nurses health promotion: Lack of time and non-adapted equipment, Knowledge and skills, Attitudes of the nurses, Confidence in the conversation and own ability and The nurses own lifestyle.

    Conclusion: This literature review provides an understanding of what factors that affect the nurses’ work with health promotion towards patients with overweight or obesity. Nurses have good opportunities to work preventively with weight problems and they have a significant role in how patients with overweight and obesity are treated.

  • 66. Avelin, Pernilla
    et al.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Säflund, Karin
    Wredling, Regina
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University.
    Parental grief and relationships after the loss of a stillborn baby2012In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 668-673Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Axelsson, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lans, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Riskfaktorer för suicid bland ungdomar: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Close to 800 000 people die by suicide every year worldwide, and that makes suicide a global public health problem. Nearly one-third of all suicides occurs among young people, and suicide is the second leading cause of death globally among adolescents and young adults. It is important to identify individuals with an increased risk of committing suicide in order to reduce the death number due to suicide, which can be done by paying attention to risk factors for suicide.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review is to describe risk factors for suicide among adolescents.

    Method: This study is a literature review where 13 articles have been included in the result. The search for articles was performed in the databases PsycInfo and Cinahl.

    Results: The result showed a wide range of different risk factors for suicide among adolescents. Five categories could be distinguished and these were social situation, mental illness, abuse, substance use and sexual minority. Subcategories were added to these categories. Mental health and social situation among adolescents turned out to be two of the main risk factors for suicide.

    Conclusion: Various risk factors for suicide among adolescents appeared in this literature review. In order to work with suicide prevention the nurse must have knowledge of risk factors for suicide. Furthermore, it is also important that the nurse has a person-centered approach to the patient. In this way, suicide among adolescents can be identified, assessed and prevented.

  • 68. Ayala, Ana
    et al.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Velandia, Marianne
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Fathers’ care of the newborn infant after caesarean section in Chile: a qualitative study2016In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 8, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Chilean hospitals the current model of care after caesarean section is to separate newborn infants from both parents. The care of newborn infants and the parents' experience immediately after caesarean section requires further exploration.

    Aim: To describe fathers' experiences and perceptions of being the primary caregiver to their newborn infant during the first 90 minutes after caesarean section in a public general maternity hospital setting in Santiago de Chile.

    Method: The questionnaire was one part of a larger research programme named: “Caregiving Models after Elective Caesarean Section – Parents' perceptions and effects on infants' wellbeing”. Four open ended questions were used to gather written text on the experiences and perceptions of 95 fathers who were the primary caregiver to their newborn infant. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee, Scientific Assessment Metropolitan Health Service South East. Systematic text condensation according to Malterud's description was used for analysis of the written text.

    Findings: Two themes were identified: “understanding the first moment of life” and “shared responsibility for future family life” with each theme divided into six categories.

    Conclusion: This study concludes by arguing that in situations where the mother is unavailable or unable to provide basic care, the father should be supported to care for the newborn infant.

    Clinical implications: Parents should be made aware of the benefits of this caring model especially when mother and baby have been separated after birth.

  • 69. Ayala, Ana
    et al.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Velandia, Marianne
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Mother’s experiences and perceptions of a continuous caring model with fathers after caesarean section: a qualitative study2015In: Women's Health Open Journal, ISSN 2380-3940, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Chile, mothers and newborns are separated after caesarean sections. The caesarean

    section rate in Chile is approximately 40%. Once separated, newborns will miss out on

    the benefits of early contact unless a suitable model of early newborn contact after caesarean

    section is initiated.

    Aim: To describe mothers experiences and perceptions of a continuous parental model of newborn

    care after caesarean section during mother-infant separation.

    Methods: A questionnaire with 4 open ended questions to gather data on the experiences and

    perceptions of 95 mothers in the obstetric service of Sótero Del Rio Hospital in Chile between

    2009 and 2012. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: One theme family friendly practice after caesarean section and four categories. Mothers

    described the benefits of this model of caring. The fathers presence was important to mother

    and baby. Mothers were reassured that the baby was not left alone with staff. It was important

    for the mothers to see that the father could love the baby as much as the mother. This model

    of care helped create ties between the father and newborn during the period of mother-infant

    separation and later with the mother.

    Conclusions: Family friendly practice after caesarean section was an important health care

    intervention for the whole family. This model could be stratified in the Chilean context in the

    case of complicated births and all caesarean sections.

    Clinical Implications: In the Chilean context, there is the potential to increase the number of

    parents who get to hold their baby immediately after birth and for as long as they like. When

    the mother and infant are separated after birth, parents can be informed about the benefits of

    this caring model. Further research using randomized control trials may support biological

    advantages.

  • 70.
    Back, Catharina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Kuoppa, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Anknytning hos mödrar till prematura barn: En enkätstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The attachment between mother and infant is vital for the newborn. A birth of preterm infant can be stressful for the mother and her attachment to her infant can be affected. It is unclear if the attachment process differs between primiparous and multiparous mothers.

    Objectiv

    e: The objective was to investigate whether there were any differences in the attachment process depending on the mother's parity and whether the degree of prematurity had an effect on the maternal attachment.

    Design / Methods:

    This was a longitudinal study, data was collected through questionnaires, at eight weeks post discharge and at six and 12 month after birth. The Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale was used. The sample consisted of 493 mothers. Data was analysed with parametric and non-parametric statistics.

    Results:

    The results showed no statistically significant differences in the attachment process between primiparous and multiparous mothers of preterm infants. However, primiparous mothers had a significantly higher degree of satisfaction than multiparous mothers six and 12 months after birth, and multiparous mothers with very preterm infants had significantly lower attachment scores than multiparous mothers with moderately preterm infants.

    Conclusion / Clinical applicability:

    The attachment of primiparous and multiparous mothers of preterm infants did not differ over the first year. However, primiparous mothers had a higher degree of satisfaction with interaction six and 12 months after birth, and multiparous mothers of very preterm infants may have a higher risk for less optimal attachment. Hopefully, the results can help the midwife to support and develop secure attachment between multiparous mothers and their very preterm infants.

  • 71.
    Back, Mariann
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Anhörigas erfarenheter av kommunikation med vårdpersonal i palliativa vård2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, the aging population is steadily increasing, and it will be necessary for healthcare professionals to have competence and education that can meet individual needs in palliative care and care in the final stages of life. Good and satisfactory communication between relatives and healthcare professionals will be required as family / relatives are a major resource in palliative care and care in the final stages of life.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to describe the family's needs and experiences of communication with healthcare professionals in palliative care.

    Method: A systematic literature study that included in its design qualitative, quantitative studies. The articles were searched in the PubMed. database. This resulted in 15 number of articles.

    Result: The results showed deficiencies regarding effective communication and information towards relatives of palliative patients.

    Conclusion: Relatives in the study articles do not feel that their care meets their wishes regarding communication and information. More training regarding communication and information regarding palliative care also in general departments in health care would be needed.

  • 72.
    Back, Marina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Westlund Björkén, Elina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att belysa patienters erfarenheter av information om sin egenvård vid diabetes typ 22019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes insulin deficiency to cause increased blood sugar levels in the body. Diabetes is increasing rapidly around the world. The increase is associated with increased population, age, changed diet and lifestyle, and increased overweight. Type 2 diabetes should be treated primarily by trying to reduce insulin resistance in the tissues. Self-care is mainly to try to eat healthier, exercise and stop smoking.

    Aim: The aim is to clarify patient’s experiences of information about their self-care in type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: This work is a literature study. For the literature search, the scientific databases were PubMed and Cinahl, where they have used high quality.

    Results: Obstacles with the information about self-care could be due to the age of the patient, if there were other diseases, fears, insecurity and lack of insight. Opportunities with the information on self-care were the patient's desire to learn more about diabetes in depth through the health care system and to take the initiative to search for information on your own and to get knowledge that provided greater insight into the importance of self-care.

    Conclusion: The result shows that patients see more obstacles than opportunities regarding information about self-care. It is important that patients receive information about self-care, but primarily that the patient understands the information and receives support and motivation to be able to change the lifestyle.

  • 73.
    Back, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lindberg, Jennie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser och erfarenheter av vård i livetsslutskede på sjukhus: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: End of life care based on relieving suffering and improving the quality of life for the patient´s, which is the nurses basic responsibilities, which are part of the person centered care. Depending on the stage of the disease the patient is in, the helath care needs are affected. The nurse´s faces major challenges and has a definite role in nursing care in the final end of life.Aim: To compile the nurse's experiences about palliative care in hospitalsMethod: A literature review which compiles qualitative and quantitative articles from databases PubMed and CINAHL.Results: The result is based on scientific articles from various parts of the world. The authors have chosen to divide the results into main categories: Emotional responses in nurses, Time and resource shortages to support end-life patients, Impactable aspects of the health environment, Communication between nurses and patients and the need for knowledge and training in palliative care. Nurses experience mixed feelings and shared opinions about caring for patients in the end of life and meeting their needs at the end of life, which is due to the nurse's professional experienceConclusion: Nurses experience emotional responses, lack of time and resources, lack of education, and different levels of experience are factors that complicate their work of care at the end of life, which gave feelings of inadequacy. Nurses also felt that communication was difficult, which was mostly based on the fact that nurses felt insecure in their role in working with patients in the final stages of life while nurses with longer experience and those with higher knowledge had no difficulty in meeting these patients.

  • 74.
    Back Ågren, Jenny
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Möller, Elin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelse av att vårdas på enkelrum - en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, when new hospitals are being built, the design becomes mostly single

    rooms. The healthcare environment should support patients' health and well-being. That there

    is a link between health and the environment in which patients stay in is established in the

    concept of evidence-based design. When patients are hospitalized today, there are different

    types of hospital rooms. These are multibed rooms that accommodate two or more patients as

    well as single rooms, where only one patient is accommodated. This literature review

    examines the patient's experience of being cared for in a single room. Patient´s experience of

    the care is important for the nurse to be aware of and the person-centered care is the key to the

    experience.

    Purpose: To describe patients' experience of care in single rooms.

    Method:

    The study is a literature review based on eleven scientific articles from two

    continents. The articles were searched in the databases pubmed, cinahl and science direct,

    inclusion year were 2000-2018.

    Results: Reported on the purpose of the study and presented

    in four categories: social support, autonomy &controll, comfort and lonliness & isolation,

    which in turn has subcategories. The categories have been designed based on recurring

    concepts in the articles that underlie the results. The result shows both the advantages and

    disadvantages of the patient's experience of being cared for in single rooms.

    Conclusion:

    Patients' experience of care in single rooms is more complex than the design, and decoration

    of the room. It is also about the age and personalities of the patients. More research on this

    subject will be required before general directives to only introduce single rooms in

    construction of new hospitals.

  • 75.
    Backhans, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Jansson, Madelene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Vedertagna metoder som främjar viktnedgång hosvuxna med fetma och övervikt: - En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Overweight and obesity is an increasing problem in the world. In

    today's society several factors contribute to the increase of overweight in the

    population, for instance an increase of fast food chains and a sedentary lifestyle.

    Overweight and obesity is a risk factor for several diseases such as cardiovascular

    diseases.

    Aim:

    To examine established methods that promote weight loss in overweight and

    obese adults.

    Method:

    The study was conducted as a literature review where 15 different

    articles were used to answer the purpose and research question of the study. The

    searches were made in the databases Cinahl and PubMed.

    Result:

    Weight loss is about changing lifestyle habits such as diet and physical

    activity. Other methods found to promote weight loss are stress management and

    technical tools which helped the individual to self-efficacy. Self-monitoring as

    writing down calorie intake and minutes of physical activity every day helped

    individuals to lose weight. Motivation and education about nutrition and exercise

    were factors which promoted individuals self-efficacy to lose weight.

    Conclusion:

    There are several methods that can help the individual to lose weight,

    to change lifestyle habits is an important basis. Even though overweight and

    obesity is a growing problem worldwide there is still little research about what the

    nurse can do to help those people and therefore more research is needed.

  • 76.
    Backlund, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Hansen Lundqvist, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans inställning till och upplevelse av att ha anhöriga närvarande vid återupplivning: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor som vårdar akut sjuka patienter hamnar många gånger i

    situationer där närstående önskar närvara vid återupplivning. Det är en del av sjuksköterskans

    arbete att tillgodose såväl patient som anhörigas behov. För anhöriga som närvara under

    återupplivning kan det upplevas både traumatiskt och skrämmande även om anhöriga ofta vill

    närvara enligt flera studier.

    Syfte: Att genom en litteraturöversikt beskriva sjuksköterskans inställning till, och upplevelse

    av att ha patientens anhöriga närvarande vid återupplivningsförsök.

    Metod: Denna studie är en litteraturöversikt som omfattar 15 artiklar med både kvalitativ och

    kvantitativ ansats. Artikelsökningar genomfördes i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl samt

    manuellt.

    Huvudresultat: Studiens resultat redovisas under sju kategorier, Erfarenhet, Arbetsplatsens

    betydelse, Blödning och överlevnad, Personal som tar hand om anhöriga, Anhörigas

    förväntningar, Kommunikation och missförstånd, Stress eller motivation. Resultatet visade på

    en stor variation mellan positiva och negativa upplevelser och inställningar av att ha anhöriga

    närvarande vid återupplivning. Faktorer som påverkade kunde identifieras och handlade bland

    annat om sjuksköterskans erfarenhet och utbildningsnivå, tillgängliga resurser och riktlinjer

    på arbetsplatsen. Många sjuksköterskor upplevde även en oro över hur anhöriga skulle

    reagera.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visade att det fanns en stor variation i påverkande faktorer där negativa

    inställningar och upplevelser kunde kopplas till bland annat organisatoriska brister och oro för

    anhörigas psykiska mående. Anhörig närvaro upplevdes som positivt var när rätt resurser fanns

    att tillgå och bland sjuksköterskor som var vana att arbeta personcentrerat

  • 77.
    Backlund, Linnéa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Båskman, Jennifer
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Döende patienters upplevelser av palliativ hemsjukvård En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to illuminate dying patients experiences of palliative home care.

    Method: The work was conducted as a literature review with 16 scientific articles, 12 of those had a qualitative approach and 4 had a quantitative approach. The data collection was  onducted in the databases CINAHL and PubMed. The same keyword were used in both.

    Main result: The results show that patients were generally satisfied with the care in their homes. By receiving care in the home they experienced a safety and it was valuable to have their next of a kin close. It was important for them to continue to live as normally as possible. The patients had the opportunity to finish projects and figure out feelings in relationships. Patients experience of good palliative care had its fundamental parts in self-determination and trust. The personnel in the palliative home care teams were experienced as professionals and skilled. At the end of life many existential questions occurred and a need for believes came through.

    Conclusion: The development of palliative home care is important because there is a wish for patients to be home at the end of life with support of competent personnel and with their next of a kin by their side.

  • 78.
    Backström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fagerlund, Angelica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patientens osagda ord Sjuksköterskans arbete med patienter som drabbats av afasi efter stroke – en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the communication barriers and opportunities arising nurse may face in the nursing work with patients with aphasia following stroke.

    Method: The study is based on 15 qualitative scientific articles that have been analyzed and examined with Dalarna University's modified version of William Stoltz and Bahtsevani (2006). Articles were selected for inclusion and exclusion criteria to meet the study objective.

    Results: The result of the literature review is based on the main categories and subcategories. The study revealed that the diagnosis of the kind of aphasic patient suffered is important for nurses to know how he should respond to the patient for the best rehabilitation and patient-centered care, which also needed education and training on aphasia and the different aphasia resorts. Training in communication strategies is essential for nurses to more easily respond to the patient and not get caught up in the communication with the patient.

    Conclusions: The study shows that it is important that patients early received the correct diagnosis which promotes rehabilitation. Even the nurses have need of and training in communication and alternative communication as it showed that the nurses' communication was facilitated by the patient. It also emerged that it is important with patient centered care based on the patient's needs.

  • 79.
    Backström, Susanne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Imhof, Mathilda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Skolsköterskans erfarenheter av hälsosamtal med nyanlända elever på gymnasieskola.: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and disclose the experiences that school nurses encounter, in regard to health consultations, with newly arrived foreign students. The study had a qualitative design and was composed of semi structured interviews with an applied inductive approach. In total, seven interviews were performed with separate school nurses from the counties of Västernorrland and Stockholm. The interview material was processed through a content analysis. The results from the study indicated a theme of "

    being more than a school nurse" was composed of three main constituents;

    "To be challenged in one´s profession as a school nurse in health consultations"

    "To be enriched in one's profession in regard to health consultations"

    "To be inadequate in the health consultations as a school nurse"

    Based on both positive and negative factors, all school nurses affirmed that the meeting with the newly arrived foreign students, in regard to health consultations, resulted in being more than a school nurse. Health consultations with the students involved different types of challenges that consisted of inadequate guidelines, knowledge, time and resources. In spite of the challenges posed by the findings in this report, the school nurses asserted that they inched forward.

    The school nurses argued that they were enriched in their role in relation to the health consultations, which resulted in a sense of satisfaction and a commitment of wanting to help and be there for these students on a deeper level.

    The nurses reported a feeling of being inadequate during the consultations with the students, which brought forth feelings of insecurity, frustration and helplessness with the nurses. They reported that even their professional disposition had been affected.

    All participants in this study agreed that current high school health consultation guidelines were inadequate and confirmed that they lacked some knowledge in regard to cultural differences. The participants also requested guidance in their work involving newly arrived foreign students.

  • 80. Bajracharya, Kiran
    et al.
    Sapkota, Sabitri
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    News & events: A milestone of Midwifery in Nepal2014In: Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM), ISSN 2409-2290, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 2p. 2-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 81.
    Bayer, Johanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bohlin, Tore
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som kan påverka sjuksköterskestudentersupplevelse av stress samt förekommande copingstrategierbland sjuksköterskestudenter: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturöversikten var att belysa de faktorer som kan påverkasjuk-sköterskestudenters upplevelse av stress samt att undersöka vilkacopingstrategier som kan förekomma hos sjuksköterskestudenter vidstresshantering. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt.Litteratursökning utfördes i CINAHL with Full Text samt PubMed vilketresulterade i 16 artiklar som representerade sjuksköterskestudenter från 15 länder.Resultat: Utifrån de faktorer som orsakade stress hos sjuk-sköterskestudenteridentifierades tre huvudteman vilka var stressorer relaterade till teoretiskutbildning, stressorer under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt personligastressorer. Stressorer under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning var vanligastförekommande. Emotionsfokuserad coping var vanligast förekommande därcopingstrategier som att tala med vänner och familj, positivt tänkande och att ägnasig åt andra aktiviteter användes. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskestudenter upplever stressfrämst från teoretiska utbildningen i form av examinationer och denverksamhetsförlagda utbildningen där relationen till handledaren, vårda patienteroch dödsfall var de vanligast förekommande stressorerna. Sjusköterskestudenternaanvände sig av copingstrategier som kan ha positiv och negativ effektpå hälsan. Emotionsfokuserade och problemfokuserade copingstrategier användesmest frekvent. Undvikande copingstrategier var mer sällan förekommande.

  • 82.
    Begum, Mamotaz
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Khatum, Fazila
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Begum, Shamsunnaher
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Perceived beneficences of and compliance to the content in a mentorship program: A questionnaire baseline survey among nursing and midwifery educators in Bangladesh prior the development of a mentorship program2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Building midwifery educators’ capacity has been identified as an important component to ensure quality midwifery education and a midwifery workforce that can provide quality midwifery and newborn care. With the background of midwifery being recently introduced in colleges/institutions in Bangladesh, the midwifery educators would benefit from a mentorship program. In an attempt to provide recommendations for development of a mentorship program to midwifery faculty this study was conducted.

    Objective:

    To describe perceived beneficences of and compliance to the content in a mentorship program; pedagogic styles, students learning and nursing and midwifery educators’ opinions about their own working situation as midwifery educators in Bangladesh.

    Methods:

    The total number of participants were 59 (n= 59). Data were collected through a structured questionnaire with both open and closed response options, analyzed statistically and through content analysis.

    Result

    : The midwifery faculty finds it beneficial to participate in a mentorship programs because they perceive they can improve their own situation for the best of the country, moving midwifery forward. The most important skill/ability for faculty to teach the midwifery students was critical thinking and an ability to transfer theoretical knowledge into clinical practice, preferably by useing a variety of pedagogic styles. There is complicance among the midwifery faculty to use information technology to impact students’ learning experiences during clinical placement.

    Conclusion:

    Mentorship stands out to be a beneficial method of improving teaching and assessment of students’ performances particularly in clinical settings. Communication technology could be an option for providing support and mentorship to midwifery faculty. Information technology could be one important part of a mentorship program.

    Clinical applicability and suggestions for further research:

    The clinical applicability of this thesis is the provision of up-dated evidence-based information on complicance to modern technology to support the implementation of theoretical knowledge into clinical practice. Continuity of a mentorship program requires attention for sustainable outcome.

  • 83.
    Begum, Mst. Marium
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Nahar, Most. Nargis
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health.
    Parents’ and health care providers’ perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards: A qualitative metasynthesis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Four million infants die with in the first month of life and 27% of these deaths are directly related to low birth weight (LBW) or preterm birth. The main causes of infant death in premature and LBW infants is neonatal infections. It is thus crucial that the infant is taken care of in an appropriate way regarding caring and feeding and that care is provided to improve the child’s chances of survival and to lay the foundation for a healthy life. Aim: The aim of this meta-synthesiswas to examine parent`s and health care providers perceptions and experiences of supportive care in neonatal wards. Method: A qualitative meta-synthesis based on peer-reviewed scientific literature, and meta-ethnographic analysis method. In this meta-synthesis 16 articles were included. Result: The results comprised of two categories, Parents’ perspective of supportive strategies with eight corresponding preliminary patterns and Health care providers’ perspective of supportive strategies with six corresponding preliminary patterns. In the result section, each categories are presented with its corresponding preliminary patterns. The mothers experienced that the baby was unstable and therefore they wanted to be close to the baby at all times if something happened. Important was closeness to the infant is important, parental support according to needs, adequate communication and information with parents, genuine caring and continuous support to get close to the child. It also meant less light and less noise and privacy for the infant and the parent in the NICU ward.Conclusion Parents wanted to be able to be with his infant as rapidly after birth be reunited in case something happened. The importance of receiving information about their infant’s condition underpinned all communications that the parents undertook with NICU staff both in co-care when together with the child and part-care, when separated. Information for the parents was an important requirement of accepting their situation and immediately affected their anxiety. Clinical implications: The organizers of care must take in account that parents and infants will not be befitted by being cared for apart from each other. When planning for co-care enabling infants to be close to the parents, the mother-baby dyad should be prioritized. Context specific interview studies are suggested on co-care and part-care, parents and care providers perspectives.

  • 84.
    Begum, Sufia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Akter, Rehena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Mapping and Nursing Instructors Suggestions of Acceptable and Feasible Requirements for an accreditation Toolkit for Midwifery Educations in Bangladesh: A Questionnaire Study at Five Institutes/Colleges in Rangpur and Rajshahi Divisions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    To build the midwifery workforce and maintain quality in midwifery educations, the development of an accreditation system has been initiated in Bangladesh.

    Objective:

    The objectives of this thesis are 1) to map five midwifery education sites in Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions, Bangladesh. The mapping describe the situation at the institutes/colleges and clinical sites in which the midwifery students and teachers are aimed to reach the learning outcomes of the courses in the 3 years diploma midwifery curricula, 2) to provide information to Bangladesh Nursing and Midwifery Council with acceptable and feasible requirements that could feed into an accreditation toolkit for nursing institutes with midwifery education from nursing instructors perspective.

    Methods:

    This questionnaire study includes a mapping of the situation at 5 institutes or colleges in the Rangpur and Rajshahi divisions, and 20 nursing instructors’ perceptions of acceptable and feasible requirements to be included in an accreditation tool for midwifery educations. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire with closed and open response alternatives analyzed descriptive statistics and answers on open questions in text were categorized.

    Results

    : Eighty percent of the collages/institutions accepted the proportion theory 40% in relation to practice 60%. The need for adequately qualified midwifery teachers, clinical preceptors/mentors, skills lab facilities and simulation became obvious. Teacher’s and clinical supervisors’ continuous in-service training and available resources were crucial to deliver the midwifery curriculum. Continuous in-service training could cover skills in antenatal care, maintenance of pantographs, care of the newborn and brief knowledge about breast feeding was suggested. Conclusion: This study illuminates gaps in quality education in Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions that could be solved with continuous in-service trainings of the nursing instructors and midwives supervising midwifery students. The government initiated the initiative to support the development of an accreditation system and toolkit closing the gap between the participants outlined in the curricula and the implementation in clinical practice in Rajshahi and Rangpur division.

    The clinical applicability

    of this thesis is to inform Bangladesh Nursing and Midwifery Council with support from Directorate General of Nursing and Midwifery and supervision of Ministry of Health and Welfare on feasible and acceptable requirements that could be included in an accreditation toolkit for midwifery education in Bangladesh. The thesis findings could be used to inform NGOs and other donor organizations, national and international, on subjects and content when developing in-service trainings.

  • 85.
    Bel Mekki, Veronica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Fernström, Pia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans uppfattning om omvårdnadsinsatser som främjar livskvalitet vid bipolär sjukdom: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies have shown that persons with bipolar disorder have

    a poorer quality of life compared to the rest of the population. As a nurse in

    psychiatric care it is important to have knowledge about the disease in order to

    provide the best possible treatment with the goal to stabilize symptoms, prevent

    relapse and promote quality of life.

    Objective: Based on the nurse's perception, describe the nursing interventions

    promoting quality of life in bipolar disorder.

    Method: A qualitative content analysis based on eight semi-structured interviews.

    Results: The results showed three main themes: Knowledge about the disease: the

    importance of that both the patient and family members gain knowledge about the

    disease; Safety and continuity of care: knowing where and who to contact in care

    was of great importance and Person-centered care: be seen and treated as a unique

    person.

    Conclusion: Patient education which highlights the importance of regular habits,

    to avoid stress and to become aware of early signs can help stabilize symptoms

    and prevent relapse.

  • 86.
    Berg, Karolin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gunnarsdottir, Moeidur
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans copingstrategier vid stress: - En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Coping is the individual's ability to adapt to and handle different

    conditions. In order to handle stress in the nursing profession today, knowledge

    about different coping strategies may be needed. The nursing role and the

    responsibility of nurses has grown and more is required of the nurse. Unhealthy

    working environment can contribute to increased risk of stress at work. A part of

    SOC, a sense of coherence, is manageability, which can mean that a person has the

    resources to meet the demands and stress that she or he or she faces.

    Aim

    The aim of this review of literature was to compile the coping

    strategies nurses use to cope with stress

    Method

    The Literature review is based on 15 articles published between

    2008 and 2018. Databases used were Cinahl, PubMed and Psycinfo.

    Result

    The different coping strategies that were found showed that nurses

    could use

    Asking for help and social support, Positive thinking, Self-control,

    Problem solving, Acceptance, Escape and avoidance, Exercising religion

    and

    Recovery.

    Coping strategies were divided into two categories, Emotion-focused

    coping

    and Problem-focused coping.

    Conclusion

    The result in the literature review shows that nurses use several

    different coping strategies to handle stress. The most common coping strategy was

    to ask for help and social support.

  • 87. Berg, Lena
    et al.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Östergren, Jan
    Göransson, Katarina
    An observational study of activities and multitasking performed by clinicians in two Swedish emergency departments2012In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 246-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore the type and frequency of activities and multitasking performed by emergency department clinicians.

    Methods: Eighteen clinicians (licensed practical nurses, registered nurses and medical doctors), six from each occupational group, at two Swedish emergency departments were followed in their clinical work for 2 h each to observe all their activities and multitasking practices. Data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Results: Fifteen categories of activities could be identified based on 1882 observed activities during the 36 h of observation. The most common activity was information exchange, which was most often performed face-to-face. This activity represented 42.1% of the total number of observed activities. Information exchange was also the most common activity to be multitasked. Registered nurses performed most activities and their activities were multitasked more than the other clinicians. The nurses’ and doctors’ offices were the most common locations for multitasking in the emergency department.

    Conclusion: This study provides new knowledge regarding the activities conducted by clinicians in the emergency department. The most frequent activity was information exchange, which was the activity most often performed by the clinicians when multitasking occurred. Differences between clinicians were found for activities performed and multitasked, with registered nurses showing the highest frequencies for both.

  • 88.
    Bergdahl, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Löfgren, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Följsamhet till råd om egenvård hos patienter med diabetes typ 2: En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disorder and a global health problem, with the

    number falling ill persons greatly increases. Treatment of type 2 diabetes consists mainly of

    self-care, which places great demands on the patient and the healthcare system. A lack of

    compliance to advice on self-care can lead to poorer health for the patient and increased costs

    for society.

    Aim: The purpose of this literature review was to describe the factors that influence

    compliance to advice on self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Method: A literature review based on 15 scientific articles, both qualitative and quantitative

    articles were reviewed. The databases CINAHL and PubMed were used.

    Results: Factors affecting compliance to advice on self-care were identified and resulted in

    five broad categories: Information; Knowledge; Social support; technological support and

    Life situation revealed as important factors for low compliance to advice on self-care.

    Conclusion: It is very important to try to identify each individual's different conditions, in

    order to thus be able to cu

  • 89.
    Bergendahl, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lövstrand, Madelene
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans preoperativa information för patientens postoperativa smärtupplevelse: - En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hip surgery is a common operation, for both elective and acute approach. Nurses’ duties includes pain prevention and information to the patient. This with the patient always in focus. Studies have shown that it is most common to give the information verbally, and that patients want to know more preoperative about the postoperative phase to be more involved.

    Aim

    : The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the importance of nurses’ preoperative information for postoperative pain management.

    Methods

    : For the research the database CINAHL and PubMed was used. A review template was used, and only the articles with a medium high score has been used. This work is based on 17 articles which has been divided in main categories that was elective, acute, information and pain.

    Results

    : A relationship between preoperative information and postoperative pain was found in 13 of the articles. This connection indicate that the given information provided the patients to manage their postoperative pain. Patients undergoing elective surgery was better prepared and was given more patient activated education preoperative than acute surgery. Preoperative individual strategies was identified.

    Conclusion:

    Most of the studies showed that preoperative information is used to reduce postoperative pain by increasing patients’ participation and their ability to cope better. Since a connection was found between most of the articles in this work it increases the likelihood that there is a relationship between nurses’ preoperative information and patients’ postoperative pain experience.

  • 90.
    Bergens, Katarina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Palmer, Ellinor
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Det goda bemötandet inom prehospital akutsjukvård: En litteraturöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att beskriva vad som kännetecknar ett gott bemötande inom den prehospitala akutsjukvården och vilken betydelse bemötandet har för vården. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt och artiklar söktes via databaserna CINAHL och PubMed. De elva inkluderade artiklarna resulterade i kategorier och subkategorier som beskriver vad som är utmärkande för ett gott bemötande inom den prehospitala sjukvården och vilken betydelse det har för vården. Resultat: Resultatet visade att ambulanspersonalen ska anpassa kommunikationen efter patientens förutsättningar och de ska ha ett förhållningssätt som baseras på respekt, ödmjukhet och empati. En förutsättning för en god omvårdnad är att en omvårdnadsrelation, baserad på tillit och förtroende, upprättas. Omvårdnadsrelationen synliggör patientens sårbarhet, vilket ställer krav på ambulanspersonalen att visa respekt för patientens integritet. Slutsats: Patienten har inte bara fysiska utan även psykiska och sociala behov. Att ambulanspersonalen har en holistisk människosyn gör att patienten blir bemött som en unik individ och därmed får en bättre prognos medan brister i den prehospitala vårdkedjan kan äventyra patientsäkerheten.

  • 91.
    Bergens, Marika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Johnson, Pernilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Arbetsrelaterade stressfaktorer ochsjuksköterskans möjlighet till en patientsäker vård2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe the factors that influence work-related stress and how it affects the ability to provide a safe patient care.Methods: The study was conducted through a literature review and the articles were searched through databases CINAHL and PubMed. The 14 included articles resulted in two themes and five subthemes that describes factors for work-related stress and its effects.Results: The degree of workload, lack of communication and poor relationships at work was largely a contributing cause of work-related stress. Staff shortages did increase stress to the nurses who worked and came with additionally high risk of exhaustion and burnout. Time pressure meant that nurses did not manage important aspects of nursing care. The focus was on carrying out practical tasks while patient care did suffer. These factors contributed greatly to the compromise of patient safety, in terms of the nurses reduced concentration, which among other things led to missed or failed documentation and medication errors.Conclusion: Staff shortages and time pressure is greatly contributing factors in nurses become stressed and burned out. These factors make it difficult to maintain an evidence-based and patient-safe care.

  • 92.
    Berggren, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Graf, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskors följsamhet till riktlinjer för handhygien utifrån en beteendeteori En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Healthcare-associated infections are a global problem and good handhygiene

    is the main tool in the fight against healthcare- associated infections.

    Adherence to hand hygiene is globally low. The nurse’s hands are the main source

    of spreading infection, and because of that the nurse’s behavior towards hand

    hygiene is important. The nurse’s intention to perform hand hygiene can be

    explained by the internal dimension, who are, according to the Theory of planned

    behaviour, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe the attitudes, subjective

    norms and perceived behavioural controls that affect nurses’ adherence to guidelines

    for hand hygiene.

    Method: This study was conducted as a literature review and based on fourteen

    articles of quantitative and qualitative method from the databases PubMed,

    CINAHL and Web of Science.

    Results: The results of the literature review demonstrate that, from the perspective

    of the Theory of planned behaviour, there were attitudes, subjective norms and

    perceived behavioural controls that affected nurses’ adherence to guidelines for

    hand hygiene. Nurses felt that personal protection was an important attitude that

    motivated to hand hygiene. In subjective norm the patient, colleagues and role

    models emerged as motivating factors to perform hand hygiene and the feeling that

    it is easy to perform hand hygiene was the most prominent factor under perceived

    behavioural control.

    Summary: Adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene is low in spite of national

    efforts and campaigns to increase adherence. The results showed that nurses’

    adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene was mainly influenced by personal

    protection, the patient, peers, role models and the feeling that it is easy to perform

    hand hygiene. The results of this literature review can be used to increase the

    knowledge in this area and develop new strategies to increase nurses’ adherence to

    guidelines for hand hygiene.

  • 93.
    Bergholm Andersson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Erfarenheter av att vårda personer med demenssjukdom: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med distriktssköterskor2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: District nurses come in contact with people who have dementia diagnosis to different extent.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine nurses' experiences in meeting people with dementia diagnosis and how they adapt giving care that are based on the patient's needs.

    Method: The study was qualitative and based on interviews with four district nurses. For processing the collected data content analysis was used.

    Results: The analysis revealed the three domains, the nurse's situation, the person with dementia diagnosis´ situation and adapting care measures. Further analysis led to four categories, facing a complex care situation, to be challenged, to take care of resources and to adapt their health care measures to the individual or to the dementia. The district nurses identified that people with dementia is a fragile and vulnerable group and to care for them was a challenge on many levels. It requires in-depth knowledge and an ability to see all the factors that surround this population, it´s challenging, complex and exciting. Working person-centered is something that both sought and done in practice, they also take good care of resources that will benefit the patients.

    Conclusion: The district nurses showed joy and commitment that were prominent and seemed to be linked to their education and knowledge. Research including people with dementia and others with limited decision-making capacaty are needed and desirable. Their participation would provide valuable knowledge that could lead to the development in the care concerning this vulnerable population.

  • 94.
    Bergholm, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Bertilsson, Hans-Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelser av att leva med bensår: Litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Leg ulcer is a symptom caused by different underlying illnesses of

    which poor venous circulation is the most common one. People over 65 years of

    age are at the highest risk. Leg ulcer is a burden both for the patient and the

    healthcare system.

    Aim:

    To describe patients experiences of life with leg ulcers.

    Method:

    This study was conducted as a literature review, in which 16 articles was

    included using the databases Cinahl, Pubmed and Psycinfo. The articles were of

    qualitative and quantitative design.

    Result:

    Patient experiences of living with leg ulcers resulted in three categories:

    To experience suffering, to feel restricted and to experience lack of knowledge.

    The patients experienced a lot of suffering regarding pain, sleep deprivation and

    negative emotions. The patients also experienced limitations caused by

    immobility, limitations in the choice of clothes and shoes and social restrictions.

    The patients lack of knowledge, information and the nurses lack of knowledge

    about leg ulcer treatment was obvious in this study.

    Conclusion:

    Patient perceived a lot of suffering and limitations caused by life with

    leg ulcers. Pain was the most dominant symptom and was rarely assessed or

    treated properly. Pain caused deterioration and enhancement of other symptoms

    with profound effect on patient's wellbeing. Added support, information and pain

    control could improve patient wellbeing.

  • 95.
    Berghov, Emmelie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Danielsson, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Att vårdas i ett isoleringsrum vid infektion eller risk för infektion – patientens upplevelse.: En litteraturöversikt.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    To describe the experience of being cared for in an isolation room in patients with infection or at risk for infection.

    Background:

    Patients may need to be isolated for various reasons, either to prevent infection or to protect infection-sensitive patients. Multiresistant bacteria are an increasing problem around the world. In order to reduce antibiotic resistance and prevent infection of multiresistant bacteria, a measure is to isolate patients who are infected.

    Method:

    A literature review. The result is based on 14 articles, both qualitative and quantitative articles have been used.

    Result:

    There were both positive and negative experiences of being cared for in an isolation room. Among the positive experiences were feelings of security and the opportunity to privacy. The negative experiences were connected with the physical environment, ignorance and emotions like anxiety and loneliness. Also the healthcare professional´s attitudes, response and compliance with routines affected the patient´s experience of isolation care.

    Conclusion:

    The isolation experience is unique to each individual and factors that can affect the experience are the healthcare professional’s ability to provide adequate information, have a good behavior, and give the patient the opportunity to preserve social contacts.

  • 96.
    Berglund, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pelleberg, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans bemötande av patienter med psykisk ohälsa inom somatisk vård: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with mental health problems often have a somatic comorbidity. Research shows that patients with mental health problems often experience that they are treated unfairly and being misunderstood when seeking somatic care. Good encountering is a prerequisite for the creation of a caring relationship which forms the foundation for good care. Encountering also affect the patient's health, compliance, and experience of care. Aim: The aim was to illuminate factors of significance for the encountering of patients with mental health problems in somatic care from nurse’s perspective. Method: A literature review based on 15 articles with both quantitative and qualitative design. Searches were made in the databases PubMed and Cinahl. Result: Factors of significance for encountering could be divided into three themes: attitudes, factors related to the patient meeting and factors related to organization. Both positive and negative attitudes to patients with mental health emerged. Factors related to the patient meeting were anxiety and fear, complex communication, and insufficient skills. Factors related to organization were environment, time and resources, support and prioritization of somatic care. Conclusion: Conclusions that may be drawn from this study are that several different factors may be relevant to encountering, and that there is room for improvement. Important areas of improvement that emerged are nurse´s attitudes and competence. The result also indicates that the organization within somatic care is not adapted to the care and encountering of patients with mental health problems.

  • 97.
    Berglund, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Nilsson, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Parent’s experiences of feeding their preterm infant in Neonatal Units in Sweden.: Ethnographic design2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Studies have shown that having a preterm infant may cause stress and powerlessness for parents. It is important to support parents around the feeding situation, and that the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) has appropriate space and place to help the family to bond to each other. For the healthcare professionals it is important to promote skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding; particularly for preterm infants. There are many studies on parent’s experiences of NICUs and a few studies on parent’s experiences of feeding their infant in the NICU.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore parents experiences of feeding their infant in the NICU.

    Design: The study was conducted using an ethnographic design.

    Results: A global theme of ‘The journey in feeding’ was developed from four organising themes: ‘Ways of infant feeding’; ‘Environmental influences’; ‘Relationships’ and ‘Emotional factors’. These themes illustrate the challenges mothers reported with different methods of feeding. The environment had a big impact on parent’s experiences of infant feeding. Some mothers felt that breastfeeding seemed unnatural because their infant was so tiny but breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact helped them to bond to their infant. The mothers thought it was difficult to keep up with the milk production by only pumping. Routines were not inviting parents to find their own rhythm. They also felt stressed about the weighing. Healthcare professionals had positive and negative influences on the parents.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates that while all parents expressed the wish to breastfeed, their ‘journey in feeding’ was highly influenced by method of feeding, environmental, relational and emotional factors. The general focus upon routines and assessing milk intake generated anxiety and reduced relationality. Midwives and neonatal nurses need to ensure that they emphasise and support the relational aspects of parenting and avoid over-emphasising milk intake and associated progress of the infant

  • 98.
    Berglund, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Nicklas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder för att förebygga vårdrelaterad urinvägsinfektion – en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the literature review was to describe the nursing interventions the nurse can take to prevent health care related urinary tract infection.

    Background: According to Swedish national board of health and welfare (u.å.a) about 10 % of the hospitalized patients in 2008 was affected with a nosocomial infection. The most common nosocomial infection is urinary tract infection. This means more suffering for patients and costs society money. A nurse has a responsibility to promote health, prevent illness, restore health and prevent suffer for patients.

    Method: The study was conducted as a literature review. The articles were searched via the database PubMed and Cinahl. The result is based on 15 articles that met the inclusion criteria and quality control.

    Results: For the nurse to prevent health care -related urinary tract infection it requires nurse care measures like documentation, accurate indication, good hand hygiene , education and adherence to procedures at the insertion of the catheter.

    Conclusion: By following nursing interventions such as documentation, accurate indication, good hand hygiene, and adherence to routines, the essay writers claims that VRUI can be prevented and also prevent healthcare suffering of the patient. What the essay writers have taken up and discussed is something that the essay writers believe are included in the nurse's daily work. If the nurse takes responsible for their actions, update their knowledge, implement good hand hygiene, and follow the guidelines the essay writers claims that VRUI can be prevented.

  • 99.
    Bergman, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Wanke, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    HBTQ-personers erfarenheter av vårdpersonalens bemötande inom sjukvården – en litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund. Synen på HBTQ-personer i samhället är under förändring och i takt

    med att fler vågar vara öppna med sin sexuella läggning, konfronteras det

    heteronormativa synsättet. Historiskt sett är detta en grupp som mötts av

    diskriminering och stigmatisering ute i samhället och även i vårdsituationer och i

    mötet med vårdgivare. Lagändringar har framtagits för att stoppa

    marginaliseringen av denna grupp, vilket lett till attitydförändringar i samhället.

    Syftet med litteraturöversikten var att undersöka HBTQ-personers erfarenheter av

    vårdpersonalens bemötande inom sjukvården. Metod. Litteraturöversikt med 17

    kvalitativa och kvantitativa artiklar. Resultatet visade att denna grupp fortfarande

    erfar stigmatisering och diskriminering i mötet med vård och vårdgivare, samt att

    vårdpersonalen saknade betydande kunskap om denna grupp. Slutsats. Det finns

    fortsatta behov av forskning inom området, utbildning av vårdpersonal, samt

    införande av ämnet HBTQ i utbildningen för allmänsjuksköterskor.

  • 100.
    Bergman, Josefin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Sjuksköterskors, sjuksköterskestudenters och vårdpersonals kunskap och förhållningssätt till vårdhygien och meticillinresistenta Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Vårdrelaterade infektioner och MRSA är ett stort problem i vården. Bristande följsamhet till vårdhygien är en orsak till smittspridning. Den legitimerade sjuksköterskan har ett personligt och arbetsledande ansvar för arbetet med evidensbaserad vård och för att gällande riktlinjer efterföljs. Syfte: Att belysa vilka kunskaper och förhållningssätt sjuksköterskor, sjuksköterskestudenter och vårdpersonal har till vårdhygien och MRSA samt vilka faktorer som påverkar följsamhet till vårdhygien. Metod: Litteraturöversikt. Resultat: Bristande kunskap och förhållningssätt är faktorer som påverkar följsamhet till vårdhygien och MRSA. Aktivt ledarskap och samlade strategier mot smittspridning påverkar följsamhet till vårdhygien positivt. Hög arbetsbelastning kan vara en negativ påverkansfaktor. Kunskapsbrist inom hela vårdorganisationen om vårdhygien och MRSA har identifierats. Bristande kunskap kan leda till låg följsamhet och felaktigt förhållningssätt. Bristfälligt förhållningssätt till evidensbaserade riktlinjer leder till att sjuksköterskor skapar egna hygienrutiner. Åtgärder som förbättrar följsamhet innefattar; goda hygienförebilder, förbättrad kommunikation, arbete för en engagerad personalgrupp samt att vårdpersonal får utbildning i vårdhygien och MRSA. Slutsats: En bristande kunskap om vårdhygien och MRSA har påvisats. Sjuksköterskan har som arbetsledare en viktig roll i att påverka annan vårdpersonal positivt. Ökad kunskap om vårdhygien och MRSA, ett positivt förhållningssätt, ett aktivt ledarskap och samlade strategier förbättrar följsamheten.

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