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  • 51.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Herö, Johan
    Lundgren, Lina
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Increasing Activation of the Gluteus Medius using a New Training Device2012Inngår i: Journal of Sport and Health Research, ISSN 1989-6239, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 311-320Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The gluteus medius (GM) is a strong abductor and medial rotator of the thigh, and plays an important role in stabilizing the pelvis and controlling the knees during athletic activities.Weakness in the GM can have adverse effects onperformance and increase the risk of lower extremityinjuries. The aim of this study was to validate a newtraining device by comparing the activation of theGM when performing a squat with and without thedevice. Methods: Thirty-two female athletes (mean age 20 ± 3) performed body weight squats on and offthe device, while surface electromyography wasrecorded bilaterally on the GM. Results: All testsubjects were able to perform the squat and toactivate the GM. The activation of the GM was significantly higher when using the new device than when performing squats on the floor (Z=-4.9,P<0.001). Correlation tests between a complete sequence of three squats and one selected repetition revealed that activation was consistent throughout theexercise (right GM: rs=0.93, P<0.001, left GM:rp=0.92, P<0.001). No differences in activation were found between the right and left GM when squatting on the device. Conclusion: The newly developed training device increases muscle activity in the GM during squats. Moreover, the results showed thatsquatting on the device activates the left and rightside of the body equally, and that the GM was activated during the whole hip flexion exercise. This information and the new training device can be usedin training programs to improve stabilization of the pelvis and lower extremities during dynamic exercises.

  • 52.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Boustedt, Cecilia
    Nordenskiöld, Ulla
    A grip force over 104 Newton is associated to less activity limitations and pain in women with hand ostheoarthritis2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Bremander, Ann
    Lunds universitet.
    Qualitative differences in the muscle activity in the forearm flexor and extensor muscles in healthy men and women in different ages2012Inngår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 71, nr s3, s. 755-755Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 54.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    A new electronic grip force measurement device for hand evaluation2013Inngår i: Abstracts of the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology EULAR. June 12-15, 2013. Madrid, Spain, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hand grip force is a good indicator of general muscle strength and can also be used to predict multiple outcomes such as changes in activities of daily living (ADL), disability, mortality and general upper extremity strength. Hand grip force is often measured as the amount of static grip force a subject can produce when measured with a hydraulic dynamometer such as the Jamar or with an electronic device such as the Grippit. The Grippit device measures an average grip force, a peak grip force and force over a set time period. Grippit has shown good reliability for healthy subjects. Grippit, which was developed over 20 years ago in Gothenburg, Sweden is no longer manufactured. Therefore, the need for anewly developed and modernized measurement instrument for use in evaluating hand rehabilitation has arisen.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the newly developed instrument GRIP-it and to describe and validate the relationship between grip force measurements from GRIP-it and the original Grippit device.

    Methods: Healthy controls (n=43) were included in the study. Two devices were used to evaluate grip force (Newton, N), (i) GRIP-it a newly developed device and (ii) Grippit. Both instruments were used to measure mean and maximal force over 10 seconds.

    Results: GRIP-it displayed a mean measurement error of -1.7 ± 0.5% and the corresponding error for Grippit was -1.6 ± 1.9%. All subjects completed the grip force tests and the results for three attempts for each hand. The test-retest reliability was excellent for both pieces of equipment, with ICCs ranging from 0.963 to 0.947 (CI 95% between 0.103 and 0.041) for GRIP-it and from 0.979 to 0.968 (CI 95% between 0.087 and 0.042) for Grippit.

    Relationships between Grippit and GRIP-it

    There was a significant difference between the measured values derived from Grippit and GRIP-it for both the dominant hand (P < 0.001) and the non-dominant hand (P < 0.01). Grippit gives in general a higher grip force measurement than GRIP-it which is also indicated by the slope (β1) of the regression lines that deviates from 1. However, there were no substantial differences in the grip force when comparing the measurements for the dominant hand with the non-dominant hand for either Grippit (P = 0.071) or GRIP-it (P = 0.404). Based on these non-significant differences between hands and the fact that the model estimates for the intercept (β0) and the slope (β1) are contained within the confidence intervals of the model estimates for the opposite hand, a combined model was derived. The linear regression analysis, with grip force measurements for both hands included, gives: GRIP-it = 49.0 + 0.779 · Grippit. This explains 89.6% of the variance in grip force analyzed by GRIP-it (P < 0.001) see Figure 2. To enable an estimation of grip force measured by Grippit based on GRIP-it values a regression analysis with Grippit as dependent variable gives: Grippit = -18.1 + 1.15 · GRIP-it, which explains 89.6% of the variance in grip force analyzed by Grippit (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: This study showed that GRIP-it has excellent test-retest reliability. Measurements of grip force with GRIP-it are strongly related to those from the original Grippit. The newly developed GRIP-it shows great potential for use in the assessment of hand function and the evaluation of hand rehabilitation.

  • 55.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. School of Business and Engineering, Department of Exercise Physiology, Biomechanics and Health, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Department of Research and Education, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Carina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden 7 Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarstrom, Sweden.
    Differences in muscle activity during hand dexterity tasks between women with arthritis and a healthy reference group2014Inngår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Impaired hand function is common in patients with arthritis and it affects performance of daily activities; thus, hand exercises are recommended. There is little information on the extent to which the disease affects activation of the flexor and extensor muscles during these hand-dexterity tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during such tasks in subjects with arthritis and in a healthy reference group.

    Methods. Muscle activation was measured in m. extensor digitorium communis (EDC) and in m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface electromyography (EMG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 20), hand osteoarthritis (HOA, n = 16) and in a healthy reference group (n = 20) during the performance of four daily activity tasks and four hand exercises. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured to enable intermuscular comparisons, and muscle activation is presented as %MVIC.

    Results. The arthritis group used a higher %MVIC than the reference group in both FCR and EDC when cutting with a pair of scissors, pulling up a zipper and—for the EDC—also when writing with a pen and using a key (p < 0.02). The exercise “rolling dough with flat hands” required the lowest %MVIC and may be less effective in improving muscle strength.

    Conclusions. Women with arthritis tend to use higher levels of muscle activation in daily tasks than healthy women, and wrist extensors and flexors appear to be equally affected. It is important that hand training programs reflect real-life situations and focus also on extensor strength.

  • 56.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Department of Research and Education, Halmstad Central Hospital.
    Thorstensson, Carina
    Lunds universitet.
    Bremander, Ann
    Lunds universitet.
    Hand flexor and extensor muscle activity in daily activities and hand exercises in women with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis2012Inngår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 71, nr s3, s. 754-754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 57.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Parker, James
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Grip force and muscle activity are associated with kinematics in the golf swing2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 58.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Petersson, Johan
    Riggberger, Kenneth
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Unilateral Strength Training With Maximal Velocity Improves Lower Body Power Outcome And Movement Velocity2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 59.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Thorstensson, C.
    Nilsdotter, A.
    Bremander, A.
    Two different sets of hand exercises: improved grip strength after eight weeks in patients with arthritis2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 60.
    Brändström, Sara
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Olika chans beroende på födelsemånad: En kvantitativ undersökning av relative age effect på svenska längdskidgymnasier2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om relative age effect förekommer på svenska längdskidgymnasier bland antagna elever och hur eventuell förekomst ser ut bland flickor och pojkar samt hur det ser ut vid Riksidrottsgymnasierna och de Nationell Idrottsutbildningarna.

    Metod

    För att besvara syftet har statistisk data analyserats med hjälp av ett Pearson Chi2-test. Analysen har skett genom att undersöka födelsemånad, kön och inriktning bland antagna elever vid svenska längdskidgymnasier mellan åren 2010-2015.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att det finns signifikanta bevis på att relative age effect förkommer på svenska längdskidgymnasier (p= <0,05). Vid uppdelning av respektive utbildningsinriktning kunde det endast konstateras förekomst av relative age effect vid Riksidrottsgymnasierna, vid uppdelning av kön går det inte att säkerställa en signifikant förekomst av relative age effect.

    Slutsatser

    Studiens resultat visar att det förekommer relative age effect på svenska längdskidgymnasier, dock varierar den mellan de analyserade undervariablerna. Tydligast förekommer relative age effect vid Riksidrottsgymnasierna, medan det vid Nationell Idottsutbildning, kunde det inte konstateras bevis för en signifikant överrepresentation av elever födda under första kvartalet. När flickor och pojkar analyserades separat kunde ingen relative age effect konstateras.

    Det behövs mer forskning inom området för att få en överblick av konsekvenserna av relative age effect på längdskidgymnasier men även konsekvenserna för svensk längdskidåkning i stort.

  • 61.
    Bäckfors, Rhonja
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Niebl, Viktoria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hur kan en personlig tränare påverka motivationen till regelbunden träning? Utifrån kunders och personliga tränares uppfattningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Under det senaste decenniet har efterfrågan av personliga tränare ökat då individer behöver få hjälp med motivationen gällande fysisk aktivitet. Om den personliga tränaren kan anpassa tränarskapet efter individen behov kan det stärka kundens motivation till att träna regelbundet.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att jämföra hur kunden respektive den personliga tränaren uppfattar vad som motiverar till regelbunden träning. Vad finns det för likheter och skillnader mellan hur personliga tränare motiverar samt hur kunden upplever motivationen från tränaren?

    Metod: Studien utgick från en kvalitativ metod med intervju som datainsamlingsmetod. Totalt intervjuades fem individer: tre personliga tränare anställda på gym X samt två kunder som tränade på gym X tillsammans med en personlig tränare. Materialet analyserades med inspiration av IPA (Interpretativ fenomenologisk analys).

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att individernas motivation till att träna regelbunden samt hur de motiverades under träningens gång var individuellt. Både kunderna och de personliga tränarna ansåg att tränarens personlighet, kunskaper och flexibilitet i tränarrollen var påverkande faktorer för att bibehålla motivationen till regelbunden träning.

    Slutsats: Resultatet kunde kopplas till tidigare forskning inom motivation, där författarna tolkade många av informanternas svar som motivationsfaktorer. Som tränare är det viktigt att tycka om sitt arbete, kunna känna av människor, vara engagerad och anpassa träningen utifrån kundens behov och önskningar, annars kan det leda till att kunden väljer att avsluta sitt samarbete med tränaren då den inte får tillräckligt med motivation.

  • 62. Cardinale, Daniele
    et al.
    Cardinale, Marco
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Comparison between single and combined data collection methods in loaded squat jump power output2017Inngår i: Gazzetta Medica Italiana, ISSN 0393-3660, E-ISSN 1827-1812, Vol. 176, nr 6, s. 315-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare linear position transducer force plate-based methods and more complex combinations of those for calculation of power output in loaded squat jump.

    METHODS: Eight methods were used simultaneously in data collection: vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), ground reaction forces (GRF), 1 linear position transducer (1LPT), 1LPT and VGRF (1LPT+VGRF), 2 linear position transducers (2LPTs), 2LPTs and VGRF (2LPTs+VGRF), 5 linear position transducers (5LPTs), 5LPTs and GRF (5LPTs+GRF). Power output was calculated for each lift according to the sensor or sensors used and the results were compared.

    RESULTS: Power output calculated separately with LPTs and GRF method did not differ significantly from combined methods such as 1LPT+VGRF, 2LPTs+VGRF. No significant differences were found when comparing power output between 5LPTs+GRF and combined methods such as 2LPTs+VGRF.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that test methodology with a simple single linear position transducer setup and or force platform suffice when recording vertical jump such as loaded squat jump.

  • 63.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    Stockholms universitet.
    Björkholm, Eva
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The meaning of knowing what is to be known2015Inngår i: Education et Didactique, ISSN 2111-4838, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 193-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to an articulated language of knowing, which we consider as a key aspect of teachers professional work. We describe three examples of how the meaning of knowing some specific learning objects can be studied and described. The three learning objects are: to be able to evaluate technical solutions, to be able to perform a house-hop and to be able to act with presence.

    Phenomenographic analyses of data from the pre-tests carried out within the frame of so called Learning Studies resulted in descriptions of different ways of knowing as well as different aspects of the specific knowns that must be discerned in order to develop the knowing.

  • 64.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Från ord till rörelser och dans: en analys av rörelsekunnandet i en dansuppgift2015Inngår i: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, nr 14, s. 24-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln redovisar vi ett exempel på hur kunnande, som kommer till uttryck då elever redovisar en dansuppgift, kan analyseras och bidra till vår förståelse av detta kunnande såväl som till ett artikulerat språk att använda vid utvecklingen av undervisningen. En utgångspunkt är att kunskaper om kunnande är en nödvändig grund för att förbättra undervisningen. En annan utgångspunkt är att det råder brist på sådan kunskap. Eleverna (ca 12 år gamla) var indelade i tre grupper som fick en uppgift där de med utgångspunkt i två meningar skulle skapa en dans genom att översätta varje ord till en rörelse och därefter sammanfoga ord-rörelserna. Vi presenterar resultaten av en fenomenografisk analys som grundar sig på en videoinspelning av dessa redovisningar.

  • 65.
    Carlsson, Amanda
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Lindström, Camilla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Skador inom svensk judo: Skadade strukturer, skadefrekvens, köns- och åldersskillnader.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Judo är en komplex sport som ställer stora krav på judokas, detta medför att det finns en skaderisk inom idrotten.

    Syftet med studien är att analysera hur manliga och kvinnliga judokas upplever skador och skademekanism inom svensk judo. Detta genomfördes genom att en enkät lades ut på en judo-grupp på Facebook.com. Tidigare insamlade data och data från Provins Insurance AB användes.

    Flest skador sker på träning och oftast under tachi waza och främst tachi waza randori. Achi waza var den skademekanism som orsakade flest skador för kvinnor och för män var det achi waza och te waza.

    De mest skadedrabbade teknikerna var O soto gari som orsakade ligamentskador i knäet, och Seoi nage som orsakade olika sorters skador.

    På tävling var te waza den vanligaste skademekanismen för både män och kvinnor. Kastteknikerna var Seoi nae och Tai otoshi.

    Med denna studies resultat, tidigare data och statistik från Provins Insurance AB i kombination med tidigare studier går det att till viss del dra slutsatser om vilka skador som är de mest frekventa inom judo och hur dem uppstår. Det går även att dra slutsatser över hur deltagarna påverkades i vardagslivet efter skadan. Detta kan ge en inblick om vilka skador som idrottsrörelsen bör lägga fokus på att försöka motverka.

  • 66.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Elitlängdskidåkningens fysiologiska krav2016Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 22-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Physiological demands of competitive elite cross-country skiing2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Researchers have, for decades, contributed to an increased collective understanding of the physiological demands in cross-country skiing; however, almost all of these studies have used either non-elite subjects and/or performances that emulate cross-country skiing. To establish the physiological demands of cross-country skiing, it is important to relate the investigated physiological variables to the competitive performance of elite skiers. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was, therefore, to investigate the external validity of physiological test variables to determine the physiological demands in competitive elite cross-country skiing.

    Methods The subjects in Study I – IV were elite male (I – III) and female (III – IV) cross-country skiers. In all studies, the relationship between test variables (general and ski-specific) and competitive performances (i.e. the results from competitions or the overall ski-ranking points of the International Ski Federation (FIS) for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races) were analysed. Test variables reflecting the subject’s general strength, upper-body and whole-body oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake and work intensity at the lactate threshold, mean upper-body power, lean mass, and maximal double-poling speed were investigated.

    Results The ability to maintain a high work rate without accumulating lactate is an indicator of distance performance, independent of sex (I, IV). Independent of sex, high oxygen uptake in whole-body and upper-body exercise was important for both sprint (II, IV) and distance (I, IV) performance. The maximal double-poling speed and 60-s double-poling mean power output were indicators of sprint (IV) and distance performance (I), respectively. Lean mass was correlated with distance performance for women (III), whereas correlations were found between lean mass and sprint performance among both male and female skiers (III). Moreover, no correlations between distance performance and test variables were derived from tests of knee-extension peak torque, vertical jumps, or double poling on a ski-ergometer with 20-s and 360-s durations (I), whereas gross efficiency while treadmill roller skiing showed no correlation with either distance or sprint performance in cross-country skiing (IV).

    Conclusion The results in this thesis show that, depending on discipline and sex, maximal and peak oxygen uptake, work intensity at the lactate threshold, lean mass, double-poling mean power output, and double-poling maximal speed are all externally valid physiological test variables for evaluation of performance capability among elite cross-country skiers; however, to optimally indicate performance capability different test-variable expressions should be used; in general, the absolute expression appears to be a better indicator of competitive sprint performance whereas the influence of body mass should be considered when evaluating competitive distance performance capability of elite cross-country skiers.

  • 68.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Assarsson, Hannes
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race2016Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, s. 11-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5–S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1–S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race.

  • 69.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Styrketräning för äldre: mirakelkur för individen, familjen och samhället?2008Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 14-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 70.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Granath, Johan
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna.
    Westergren, Jens
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Validation of off-season physiological tests with ski ranking in elite male junior cross-country skiing2012Inngår i: Book of Abstract: Supplement to Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Volume 44, Number 5, May 2012, 2012, s. 353-353Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Granath, Johan
    Westergren, Jens
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Validation of off-season physiological tests with ski ranking in elite male junior cross-country skiing2012Inngår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 44, nr s2, s. 516-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 72.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Malm, Christer
    Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Prediction of race performance of elite cross-country skiers by lean mass2014Inngår i: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 1040-1045Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between race performance and lean mass (LM) variables, as well as to examine sex differences in body composition in elite-standard cross-country skiers. 

    Methods: Thirty-four elite cross-country skiers (18 men and 16 women) underwent a dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry body composition test to determine LM, fat mass, and bone mineral content. For both sexes, performance data were collected from a sprint prologue and a distance race. 

    Results: The absolute expression of LM variables [whole body (LMWB), upper body (LMUB), and lower body (LMLB)] was significantly correlated with finishing time in the sprint prologue independent of sex. Distance-race performance was significantly related to LMWB, LMUB, and LMLB in women; however, no correlation was found in men. Men had a significantly higher LM and lower fat mass, independent of expression (absolute or relative), for the whole body, arms, trunk, and legs, except for the absolute fat mass in the trunk. 

    Conclusions: The absolute expressions of LMWB, LMUB, and LMLB were significant predictors of sprint-prologue performance in both sexes, as well as of distance-race performance in women only. Compared with women, male skiers have a higher LM in the body segments that are major contributors to propelling forces. These results suggest that muscle mass in the lower and upper body is equally important for race performance; thus, more focus of elite skiers’ training should be directed to increasing whole-body muscle mass to improve their competitive performance capability.

  • 73.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Time trials predict the competitive performance capacity of junior cross-country skiers2014Inngår i: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 12-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigated whether there is a correlation between time-trial performance and competitive performance capacity of male and female junior cross-country skiers and sought to explain sex-specific competitive performance capacity through multiple-regression modeling.

    Methods: The International Ski Federation's (FIS) junior ranking points for distance (FISdist) and sprint (FISsprint) competitions were used as performance parameters. A total of 38 elite junior (age 18.5 +/- 1.0 y) cross-country skiers (24 men and 14 women) completed 3 time-trial tests: a 3-km level-running time trial (TTRun), a 2-km moderate uphill (1.2 slope) roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique (TTDP), and a 2-km uphill (2.8 slope) roller-skiing time trial using the diagonal-stride technique (TTDiag). The correlations were investigated using Pearson correlation analysis, and regression models were created using multiple-linear-regression analysis. Results: For men, FISsprint and FISdist were correlated with the times for TTRun, TTDP, and TTDiag (all P < .001). For women, FISsprint was correlated with the times for TTRun (P < .05), TTDP (P < .01), and TTDiag (P < .01), whereas FISdist was correlated only with the times for TTDP (P < .01) and TTDiag (P < .05). The models developed for FISdist and FISsprint explained 73.9-82.3% of the variance in the performance capacity of male junior cross-country skiers. No statistically valid regression model was found for the women.

    Conclusions: Running and roller-skiing time trials are useful tests for accurately predicting the performance capacity of junior cross-country skiers.

  • 74.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tiivel, Toomas
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Validation of physiological tests in relation to competitive performances in elite male distance cross-country skiing2012Inngår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 1496-1504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish which physiological test parameters reflects the distance performances in the Swedish National Championships in cross-country skiing (SNC) and the International Ski Federation's ranking points for distance performances (FISdist). The present study also aimed to create multiple regression models to describe skiing performance for the SNC distance races and International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking. Twelve male, Swedish, national elite, cross-country skiers (maximal oxygen consumption [(V) over dotO(2)max] = 5.34 +/- 0.34 L.min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. Their results in the 2008 SNC (15 km race [SNC15] and 30 km race [SNC30]) and FISdist points were used as performance data. On the week preceding the Championship, subjects completed a test battery consisting of 7 physiological tests: isokinetic knee extension peak torque (PT), vertical jumps (VJ), lactate threshold (LT), (V) over dotO(2)max, and 3 double poling tests of different durations (DP20, DP60, and DP360). Correlations were established using Pearson's correlation analysis, and models to describe skiing performance were created using standard multiple linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between the performance parameters and test parameters derived from LT, (V) over dotO(2)max, and DP60 tests. No correlations with any performance parameter were found for PT, VJ, DP20, and DP360 tests. For FISdist and SNC15, the models explain 81% and 78% of the variance in performance, respectively. No statistically valid regression model was found for SNC30. The results of this study imply that the physiological demands in male elite distance cross-country skiing performances are different in different events. To adequately evaluate a skier's performance ability in distance cross-country skiing, it is necessary to use test parameters and regression models that reflect the specific performance.

  • 75.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Winternet, Boden, Sweden .
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub‑techniques predicts sprint performance in elite male cross‑country skiers2014Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, nr 12, s. 2587-2595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate the relationship between sprint-prologue performance (using the classical technique) and the oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold ( V˙O2obla), maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O 2max), and mean oxygen uptake during double poling ( V˙O 2dp).

    Methods. Eight elite male cross-country skiers [age 24.8 ± 4.8 years, (mean ± SD)] completed two treadmill roller-skiing tests using the diagonal-stride technique and a 60 s double-poling test on a ski-ergometer to determine their V˙O2obla, V˙O 2max, and V˙O 2dp. Performance data were generated from a 1.25 km sprint prologue. Power-function modelling was used to predict the skiers’ race speeds based on the oxygen-uptake variables and body mass.

    Results. There were correlations between the race speed and the absolute expression of the V˙O2obla (r = 0.79, P = 0.021), V˙O 2max (r = 0.86, P = 0.0069), and V˙O 2dp (r = 0.94, P = 0.00062). The following power-function models were established for race-speed prediction: 1.09 · V˙O 2obla0.21, 1.05 · V˙O 2max0.21, and 1.19 · V˙O 2dp0.20; these models explained 60 % (P = 0.024), 73 % (P = 0.0073), and 87 % (P = 0.00073), respectively, of the variance in the race speed. However, body mass did not contribute to any of the models (P = 0.97, 0.88, and 0.21, respectively).

    Conclusions. Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub-techniques is an indicator of elite male sprint-prologue performance. The absolute expression of the investigated oxygen-uptake variables should be used when evaluating elite male sprint-prologue performances; if skiers oxygen uptake differs by 1 %, their performances will likely differ by 0.2 % in favour of the skier with higher oxygen uptake.

  • 76.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Olsson, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Peak hand-grip force predicts competitive performance in elite female cross-country skiers2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 77.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet; Dala Sports Academy.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet; Dala Sports Academy.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Dala Sports Academy.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna.
    Malm, Christer
    Idrottsmedicin, Umeå Universitet.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing2016Inngår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 2138-2144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and VO2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and VO2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the VO2max expressed absolutely (P = 0.0040), Vmax (P = 0.012), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (P = 0.048), VO2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (P = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (P = 0.046), and VO2peak expressed absolutely (P = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (mL·min·kg) (P = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by VO2max and VO2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  • 78.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The acute effects of a short technique-intense training period on side-foot kick performance among elite female soccer players2019Inngår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 59, nr 9, s. 1442-1449Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previously, it was shown that elite soccer teams were 24% more likely to win matches if their passing effectiveness were increased by 1%. However, research interventions aiming to improve passing performance are scarce. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of a short technique-intense training period on side-foot kick performance among elite female soccer players.

    METHODS: Four side-foot kick tests were completed before and after a training period: kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS), passing the ball on the move using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS), and repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB). The players were assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions with five side-foot kick exercises. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired-samples t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively.

    RESULTS: The intervention group improved the performance in the RBRS and RRB tests (both P < 0.05), but no differences were found for the SBRS and SBMS tests (both P > 0.05). No improvements were found for the control group independent of test condition (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for the RBRS and RRB tests (both P < 0.05), whereas no differences were found for the SBRS and SBMS tests (both P > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball was improved in elite female soccer players by a short technique-intense training period.

  • 79.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The effect of training on side foot-kick performance among swedish first league women´s soccer players2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    THE EFFECT OF TRAINING ON SIDE FOOT-KICK PERFORMANCE AMONG SWEDISH FIRST LEAGUE WOMEN’S SOCCER PLAYERS

    Carlsson, M.1, Isberg, J.1, Nilsson, J.1, Carlsson, T.1 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden)

    Introduction

    A high completion rate for passes is important for success in soccer, because longer passing sequences are related to more scored goals (Hughes & Franks, 2005). In a recent study, it was found that female players had a lower pass-completion rate than male players at the highest competitive standard of European soccer, which suggests that elite female players in general do not have the same technical characteristics as elite male players (Paul S. Bradley et al., 2014). The purpose of the study was investigate the effect of a 2-week training intervention on side foot-kick performance among Swedish first league women’s soccer players.

     Methods

    To investigate the effect of training on side foot-kick performance, a pre-post-intervention study was implemented where four side foot-kick tests were performed before and after a 2-week training period. The side foot-kick accuracy were investigated when kicking a stationary ball using match-relevant ball speed (SBRS) and maximal ball speed (SBMS) as well as subsequent to a 5-m run with the ball from different approach angles (0°, 30°, and 60°) to a predetermined position, where passing of the ball on the move was executed using match-relevant ball speed (RBRS). The fourth test comprised repeated side-foot kicks onto a rebound-box with continuously increasing passing distance (RRB).

    Based on the results from the pre-tests, the players were assigned to either the intervention group (INT) or the control group (CON). The training intervention consisted of six 55-min training sessions. In each session, two rounds of five exercises focusing on improvement of side foot-kick accuracy were executed. Within-group and between-group differences were investigated using paired samples Student’s t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively.

    Results

    Prior to the training intervention, there were no significant differences between the groups for any of the investigated test variables. The INT group improved RBRS (P = 0.036) and RRB (P = 0.010) during the training intervention, whereas no significant within-group changes were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05). No within-group differences were found for any of the test variables in the CON group (all P > 0.05). Significant between-group differences were found for RBRS (P = 0.040) and RRB (P = 0.005), whereas no differences were found for either SBRS or SBMS (both P > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    The fundamental soccer skill of passing a moving ball could be improved in elite women players by a 2-week training period focusing on improving   side foot-kick performance.

    References

    Bradley PS, Carling C, Diaz AG, Hood P, Barnes C, Ade J, Boddy M, Krustrup P, Mohr M (2013) Hum Mov Sci, 32, 808-821.

    Hughes M, Franks I (2005) J Sports Sci, 23, 509-514.

  • 80.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hellström, John
    Svenska Golfförbundet.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, nr 2, s. 186-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4 °C, 18 °C, 32 °C, and 46 °C) for 24 h prior to the test and each temperature group consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine the club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the groups were investigated using a one-way analysis of variance. The results indicated that ball-speed and carry-distance differences occurred within the four groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The post hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures of 18 °C and 32 °C had greater ball speeds and carry distances than balls at 4 °C and 46 °C (all p < 0.05). The intervals for the between-group differences were 0.6–0.7 m s−1 and 2.9–3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively. Hence, the results showed that ball temperature influences both the ball speed and the carry distance. Based on the findings in this study, standardization of ball temperature should be factored into governing body regulation tests for golf equipment.

  • 81.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Betydelse av syreupptag och kroppsmassa för prestation i längdskidåkning2016Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 25-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 82.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet.
    The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Performance in cross-country skiing is influenced by the skier’s ability to continuously produce propelling forces and force magnitude in relation to the net external forces. A surrogate indicator of the “power supply” in cross-country skiing would be a physiological variable that reflects an important performance-related capability, whereas the body mass itself is an indicator of the “power demand” experienced by the skier. To adequately evaluate an elite skier’s performance capability, it is essential to establish the optimal ratio between the physiological variable and body mass. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the importance of body-mass exponent optimization for the evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing.

    Methods In total, 83 elite cross-country skiers (56 men and 27 women) volunteered to participate in the four studies. The physiological variables of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to a blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙l-1 (V̇O2obla) were determined while treadmill roller skiing using the diagonal-stride technique; mean oxygen uptake (V̇O2dp) and upper-body power output () were determined during double-poling tests using a ski-ergometer. Competitive performance data for elite male skiers were collected from two 15-km classical-technique skiing competitions and a 1.25-km sprint prologue; additionally, a 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique was used as an indicator of upper-body performance capability among elite male and female junior skiers. Power-function modelling was used to explain the race and time-trial speeds based on the physiological variables and body mass.

    Results The optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratios to explain 15-km race speed were V̇O2max divided by body mass raised to the 0.48 and 0.53 power, and these models explained 68% and 69% of the variance in mean skiing speed, respectively; moreover, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the body-mass exponents did not include either 0 or 1. For the modelling of race speed in the sprint prologue, body mass failed to contribute to the models based on V̇O2max, V̇O2obla, and V̇O2dp. The upper-body power output-to-body mass ratio that optimally explained time-trial speed was m-0.57 and the model explained 63% of the variance in speed.

    Conclusions The results in this thesis suggest that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass should be used as an indicator of performance in 15-km classical-technique races among elite male skiers rather than the absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression. To optimally explain an elite male skier’s performance capability in sprint prologues, power-function models based on oxygen-uptake variables expressed absolutely are recommended. Moreover, to evaluate elite junior skiers’ performance capabilities in 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trials, it is recommended that divided by the square root of body mass should be used rather than absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression of power output.

  • 83.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Felleki, Majbritt
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Heil, Daniel
    Montana State University.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Scaling maximal oxygen uptake to predict performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers2013Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 31, nr 16, s. 1753-1760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) establish the optimal body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) to indicate performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers; and 2) evaluate the influence of course inclination on the body-mass exponent. Twelve elite-standard men skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine O2max and performance data came from the 2008 Swedish National Championship 15-km classic-technique race. Log-transformation of power-function models was used to predict skiing speeds. The optimal models were found to be: Race speed = 7.86 · O2max · m −0.48 and Section speed = 5.96 · O2max · m −(0.38 + 0.03 · α) · e−0.003 · Δ (where m is body mass, α is the section's inclination and Δ is the altitude difference of the previous section), that explained 68% and 84% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. A body-mass exponent of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.77) best described O2max as an indicator of performance in elite-standard men skiers. The confidence interval did not support the use of either “1” (simple ratio-standard scaled) or “0” (absolute expression) as body-mass exponents for expressing O2max as an indicator of performance. Moreover, results suggest that course inclination increases the body-mass exponent for O2max.

  • 84.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Scaling of upper-body power output to predict time-trial roller skiing performance2013Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 582-588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the most appropriate allometric model to predict mean skiing speed during a double-poling roller skiing time-trial using scaling of upper-body power output. Forty-five Swedish junior cross-country skiers (27 men and 18 women) of national and international standard were examined. The skiers, who had a body mass (m) of 69.3 ± 8.0 kg (mean ± s), completed a 120-s double-poling test on a ski ergometer to determine their mean upper-body power output (W). Performance data were subsequently obtained from a 2-km time-trial, using the double-poling technique, to establish mean roller skiing speed. A proportional allometric model was used to predict skiing speed. The optimal model was found to be: Skiing speed = 1.057 · W 0.556 · m −0.315, which explained 58.8% of the variance in mean skiing speed (P < 0.001). The 95% confidence intervals for the scaling factors ranged from 0.391 to 0.721 for W and from −0.626 to −0.004 for m. The results in this study suggest that allometric scaling of upper-body power output is preferable for the prediction of performance of junior cross-country skiers rather than absolute expression or simple ratio-standard scaling of upper-body power output.

  • 85.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Lillehammer University College.
    Rønnestad, Bent R
    Lillehammer University College.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Optimal V. O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers2015Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 6, s. 353-360Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (V. O2max) as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for V. O2max among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their V. O2max. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classicaltechnique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for V . O2max to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be race speed = 8.83⋅(V . O2max m-0.53) 0.66 and lap speed = 5.89⋅(V . O2max m-(0.49+0.018lap)) 0.43e0.010age, which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that V. O2max divided by the square root of body mass (mL⋅min−1 ⋅kg−0.5) should be used when elite male skiers’ performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for V . O2max was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

  • 86.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Scaling oxygen consumption to body mass in real elite cross-country skiing performances2009Inngår i: Book of Abstracts: Sport sciences: Nature, Nurture and Culture / [ed] Loland, S., et al., 2009, s. 351-352Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Which are the main physiological differences between a successful and less successful cross-country skier? To our knowledgeno previous studies have examined a real elite cross-country ski competition. Main purpose of this study was therefore to validatecommonly used test parameters to skiing time and to International Ski Federation (FIS) overall seasonal ranking points and to createmultiple regression models to predict skiing performances.Methods: Twelve highly motivated male Swedish national elite cross-country skiers completed a test battery consisting of: isokinetic kneeextensor peak torque tests at three different velocities; three different vertical jumps tests; two-part treadmill roller skiing test determininglactate markers, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion; 60 and 360 s double poling tests determining meanupper-body power (DP60Pmean) (DP360Pmean) and mean oxygen consumption (DP60VO2mean) (DP360VO2mean).Performance data were collected from the Swedish National Championship (SNC) in cross-country skiing (13-17 March 2008): 15-km withindividual start in classical technique (SNC15); 30-km double pursuit with mass-start (SNC30); sprint prolog in free-style technique(SNCsprint). In addition to ski races, overall seasonal ski ranking points were collected from FIS 3rd Cross-Country Points List 2007/2008published before SNC for distance (FISdist) and sprint (FISsprint) races.Correlations between test parameters and performance data were established using Pearson´s correlation analysis. Prediction modelswere created using standard multiple linear regression analysis.Results: Time to exhaustion during the incremental treadmill roller ski test is best correlated with both SNC15 (r = -0.86, p < 0.001) andSNC30 (r = -0.81, p < 0.01). For SNC15 significant correlations were shown with VO2max both absolute and relative to body weight, lactatemarkers, DP60Pmean and DP60VO2mean. Corresponding correlations for SNC30 were: lactate markers, DP60VO2mean and percentagedecrease in mean knee extension peak torque when comparing highest and lowest velocities. Highest correlation coefficient forSNCsprint was found for DP60Pmean (r = -0.93, p < 0.05). Significant correlations for SNCsprint was also detected for DP360Pmean aswell as DP360VO2mean and jump height in squat jump.Prediction models explain 68, 91, 68, 77 and 82% of the variance in performance for SNC15, SNC30, SNCsprint, FISdist and FISsprint,respectively.Discussion: Correlations found in this study have validated several commonly used physiological tests with real elite cross-country skiingperformances. Frequently investigated test parameters like VO2max and anaerobic thresholds are of great importance for success incross-country skiing. Many recent research studies have focused on upper-body capacity and we could confirm that high mean powerproduction in double poling is necessary to be successful as elite skier in both sprint and distance races.

  • 87.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Rønnestad, Bent
    Lillehammer University College.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå Universitet, Idrottsmedicin.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The importance of scaling VO2MAX to predict cross-country skiing performance2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A high maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is of importance for success in elite male competitive distance cross-country skiing (Carlsson et al. 2012). However, it is still debatable how VO2max should be expressed to best indicate skiing performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the optimal body mass exponent for VO2max to indicate performance in elite-standard male cross-country skiers. Methods Twenty-four elite-standard male cross-country skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller skiing test in diagonal stride technique determining VO2max. Performance data was compiled from a 15-km classic technique race. To predict performance a log-transformation of power-function model: Race speed = β0 • VO2max^β1 • m^β2 was used, where β0 to β2 are constants, and m is body mass. Statistical analyses used R version 2.13.2 (R Development Core Team, New Zeeland) and alpha was 0.05. Results Participants’ VO2max was 5.39 ± 0.57 l/min (mean ± s) and m was 75.5 ± 6.3 kg. Mean race speed was 5.83 ± 0.41 m/s. The model that best predicted performance was: Race speed = 8.829 • VO2max^0.663 • m^-0.355 = 8.829 • (VO2max • m^–0.535 )^0.663, that explains 69.2% of the variance in race speed for the 15-km classic technique race (P < 0.001). For the VO2max-to-mass ratio within the model, the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the body-mass exponent ranged from -0.947 to -0.122. Discussion The optimal body mass exponent for VO2max to indicate performance in elite-standard male cross-country skiers was -0.535. Moreover, the CI for the body-mass exponent does not support the use of simple ratio-standard scaling and absolute expression of VO2max as indicators of 15 km classic ski racing performance in elite-standard men skiers. 

  • 88.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The influence of task conditions on side foot-kick accuracy among swedish first league women’s soccer players2018Inngår i: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 74-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 89.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Hellström, John
    Svenska golfförbundet, Stockholm.
    Tinmark, Fredrik
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The effect of ball temperature on ball speed and carry distance in golf drives2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    THE EFFECT OF BALL TEMPERATURE ON BALL SPEED AND CARRY DISTANCE IN GOLF DRIVES

    Carlsson, T.1, Nilsson, J.1,2, Hellström, J.3, Tinmark, F.2, Carlsson, M.1. 1: Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden), 2: The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Stockholm, Sweden), 3: The Swedish Golf Federation (Stockholm, Sweden). 

    Introduction

    Previously it was reported that golf-ball temperature has influence on the golf balls’ coefficient of restitution, impact duration, and maximal deformation (Allen et al., 2012). They concluded that their research was the first step in a process for determining the effect of temperature on a golf drive. However, how large influence the golf-ball temperature has on golf drives remains to be investigated. The purpose was to investigate the effect of ball temperature on impact ball speed and carry distance during golf drives in a blind randomized test design. 

    Methods

    The balls were exposed to a temperature-controlled environment (4°C, 18°C, 32°C, and 46°C) for twenty-four hours prior to the test, and each of the four different ball-temperature groups consisted of 30 balls. The 120 drives were performed by an elite male golfer (handicap: 0.0) in an indoor driving range. All drives were measured by a Doppler-radar system to determine club-head speed, launch angle, spin rate, ball speed, and carry distance. Differences between the four ball-temperature groups were investigate using a one-way analysis of variance. 

    Results

    The results indicate that there are ball-speed and carry-distance differences within the four ball-temperature groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). The post-hoc analyses showed that the ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C had both greater ball speeds and carry distances compared to the balls in the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C (all P < 0.05); the intervals for the between-group differences were 2.0 to 2.4 km/h and 2.9 to 3.9 m for ball speed and carry distance, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The novel results of the current study show that the ball’s temperature has a significant effect on the ball speed after club-head impact and carry distance for drives performed by an elite golfer. The ball temperatures 18°C and 32°C gave significantly increased ball speeds and carry distances compared to the ball-temperature groups 4°C and 46°C. This knowledge could be used to maximise the carry distance and/or to minimise the carry-distance variability related to ball temperature.

    REFERENCES:

    Allen T, Bowley A, Wood P, Henrikson E, Morales E, James D. (2012) Procedia Eng, 34, 634-639.

  • 90.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers2016Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, s. 153-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V̇O2max (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V̇O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V̇O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min-1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105 ∙ VO -6.002maxand 6.95×1010 ∙ LM-5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V̇O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V̇O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher V̇O2max or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables to monitor skiers’ performance-related training adaptations linked to changes in aerobic power and anaerobic capacity.

  • 91.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    The effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling capacity of elite junior cross-country skiers2017Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 117, nr 8, s. 1523-1532Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To compare the effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling gross efficiency (GE), maximal speed (Vmax), peak oxygen uptake (V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak) for elite male and female junior cross-country skiers.

    Methods

    Thirty-three elite junior cross-country skiers completed a 6-week training-intervention period with two additional 40-min training sessions per week. The participants were matched in pairs and within each pair randomly assigned to either a strength-training group (STR) or a ski-ergometer-training group (ERG). Before and after the intervention, the participants completed three treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, Vmax, and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak. Mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to evaluate differences between and within groups. Paired samples t tests were used as post hoc tests to investigate within-group differences.

    Results

    Both groups improved their Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.01). For the gender-specific sub-groups, it was found that the female skiers in both groups improved both Vmax and V&#x02D9;O2peak" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-table; line-height: normal; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">V˙O2peakV˙O2peak expressed absolutely (all P < 0.05), whereas the only within-group differences found for the men were improvements of Vmax in the STR group. No between-group differences were found for any of the investigated variables.

    Conclusions

    Physiological and performance-related variables of importance for skiers were improved for both training regimes. The results demonstrate that the female skiers’ physiological adaptations to training, in general, were greater than those of the men. The magnitude of the physiological adaptations was similar for both training regimes.

  • 92.
    Dahlberg, Tom
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Kroppsideal via Instagram2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Dagens teknik har medfört en explosion av nätbaserade sociala medier där bilder av träning och kroppar är ett tydligt fenomen. Syftet med detta arbete har varit att undersöka hur kroppsideal skapas och framställs på internet och framförallt sociala medier. Till hjälp användes frågeställningarna: Hur gestaltar manliga fitness-profiler sig själv och sina kroppar på den nätbaserade tjänsten Instagram? Finns det kopplingar mellan dessa profilers kroppsgestaltningar och specifika kroppsideologier? (Rosenmann & Kaplan, 2014)

    Metod

    Arbetet utfördes med netnografisk metod i grunden, en metod specifikt fokuserad på kvalitativ forskning av internet. Tre manliga fitnessprofiler samt fem av varje profils bilder valdes utifrån popularitet på Instagram för att granskas och analyseras i relation till kroppsideal.

    Resultat

    Bilderna hade gemensamma egenskaper då dessa, ofta i gymmiljö, visade avklädda, extremt muskulösa kroppar med fokus på framsidan av överkroppen. Skilda egenskaper förekom, dock inte i någon signifikant bemärkelse. Kroppsideologin metrosexuella-och konsumentmaskuliniteten (Rosenmann & Kaplan, 2014) präglade profilerna.

    Slutsatser

    Dessa fitnessprofilers framställning av sina kroppar stämde väl överens med dagens rådande muskulära kroppsideal som innefattar en slimmad, muskulös, väldefinierad kropp. Tydliga kopplingar kunde också göras till Rosenmann’s och Kaplan’s (2014) kroppsideologi; metrosexuella-och konsumentmaskuliniteten.

  • 93.
    Dahlgren, Gereon
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Vinnare tack vare tidigt födelsedatum: En studie om relativa ålderseffekten inom svensk juniorishockey medfokus på TV-pucken2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 94.
    Dannberg, Isabella
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Ivarsson, Emma
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Alkoholutbildning på svenska riksskidgymnasium: En kvalitativ undersökning om hur skidgymnasietränare arbetar med att utbilda sina adepter i alkoholfrågor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om och i sådant fall hur specialidrottslärare/tränare på längdskidgymnasium arbetar med att utbilda adepter i alkoholfrågor. Studiens resultat syftar till att främja den svenska längdskidverksamheten och om möjligt sprida goda utbildningsexempel vidare till andra idrottsgymnasium.

    Metod

    En kvalitativ undersökning har genomförts genom en halvstrukturerad telefonintervju. Urvalet omfattade en totalundersökning på samtliga 16 riksskidgymnasielärare/tränare i Sverige inom idrotten längdskidåkning. Deltagarna kontaktades via ett informationsbrev och därefter bestämdes tid för intervju. Resultatet analyserades sedan med hjälp av en innehållsanalys.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visade att alla RIG-skidgymnasium i Sverige genomför någon form av undervisning via teorilektioner i mer eller mindre grad. Två av skidgymnasierna hade en mer specifik föreläsning om alkoholens effekter på prestationen. Förutom detta, kunde resultatet tyda att skidgymnasietränarna utbildade sina elever i betydligt större omfattning via den öppna dialogen mellan tränare och elev än genom teorilektioner. Detta genom att ha individuella utvärderingssamtal där tränaren informerar på ett djupare sätt vad alkoholintag har för konsekvenser på den idrottsliga prestationen och på så sätt försöker tränarna att skapa ett klimat där eleverna själva tar valet att avstå alkohol.

    Slutsatser

    Resultatet visade att samtliga RIG-skidgymnasium i Sverige arbetar med att utbilda sina adepter i alkoholfrågor genom teorilektioner men främst i den öppna dialogen mellan elev och tränare. Teorilektionerna är något som finns i kursplanen för specialidrott och berör alkoholens påverkan på prestationen. I den öppna dialogen utbildar tränarna eleverna på ett djupare sätt om alkohol, exempelvis genom individuella utvärderingssamtal.

  • 95.
    Dent, Jessica R.
    et al.
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand.;Auckland Univ Technol, Sch Sport & Recreat, SPRINZ, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Edge, Johann A.
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Dept Sport & Exercise Sci, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Hawke, Emma
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    McMahon, Christopher
    AgResearch Ltd, Ruakura Res Ctr, Hamilton, New Zealand..
    Muendel, Toby
    Massey Univ, Sch Sport & Exercise, Palmerston North, New Zealand..
    Sex differences in acute translational repressor 4E-BP1 activity and sprint performance in response to repeated-sprint exercise in team sport athletes2015Inngår i: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 730-736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The physiological requirements underlying soccer-specific exercise are incomplete and sex-based comparisons are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a repeated-sprint protocol on the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and sprint performance in male and female soccer players.

    Design: Cross-over design involving eight female and seven male university soccer players.

    Methods: Participants performed four bouts of 6x 30-m maximal sprints spread equally over 40 min. Heart rate, sprint time and sprint decrement were measured for each sprint and during the course of each bout. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken at rest, at 15 min and 2 h post-exercise. R

    esults: While males maintained a faster mean sprint time for each bout (P < 0.05) females exhibited a greater decrement in sprint performance for each bout (P < 0.05), indicating a superior maintenance of sprint performance in males, with no sex differences for heart rate or lactate. Muscle analyses revealed sex differences in resting total (P< 0.05) and phosphorylated (P< 0.05) 4E-BP1 Thr37/46, and 15 min post-exercise the 4E-BP1 Thr37/46 ratio decreased below resting levels in males only (P < 0.05), indicative of a decreased translation initiation following repeated sprints.

    Conclusions: We show that females have a larger sprint decrement indicating that males have a superior ability to recover sprint performance. Sex differences in resting 4E-BP1 Thr37/46 suggest diversity in the training-induced phenotype of the muscle of males and females competing in equivalent levels of team-sport competition.

  • 96. Edge, J
    et al.
    Mundel, T
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Pilegaard, H
    Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism (CIM), Department of Molecular Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hawke, Emma
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Leikas, M
    Department of Renal Medicine, Wellington Hospital, New Zealand.
    Lopez-Villalobos, N
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    da Silva Fermino de Oliviera, R
    Victoria University, Australia.
    Bishop, D
    Victoria University, Australia.
    Ammonium chloride ingestion increases resting mRNA content but attenuates exercise-induced mRNA levels in human skeletal muscle2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikkel-id e0141317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80%  intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID) or calcium carbonate (PLA) the day before and on the day of the exercise trial in a randomized, counterbalanced order, using a crossover design. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), citrate synthase, cytochome c and FOXO1 was elevated at rest following ACID (P<0.05). During the PLA condition, the mRNA content of mitochondrial- and glucose-regulating proteins was elevated immediately following exercise (P<0.05). In the early phase (0–2 h) of post-exercise recovery during ACID, PGC-1α, citrate synthase, cytochome C, FOXO1, GLUT4, and HKII mRNA levels were not different from resting levels (P>0.05); the difference in PGC-1α mRNA content 2 h post-exercise between ACID and PLA was not significant (P = 0.08). Thus, metabolic acidosis abolished the early post-exercise increase of PGC-1α mRNA and the mRNA of downstream mitochondrial and glucose-regulating proteins. These findings indicate that metabolic acidosis may affect mitochondrial biogenesis, with divergent responses in resting and post-exercise skeletal muscle.

  • 97.
    Engström, Elin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Vem når eliten?: Talanglag och relativ ålderseffekt inom svenskelitdamfotboll2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    AimThe aim of this study was to investigate how many of the elite women's soccer players inSweden who have belonged to a Swedish talent-team when they were younger and also see ifthere is a presence of relative age effect (RAE).MethodA post-survey was sent together with a letter with information of the study and a replyenvelope to 26 teams in Elitettan and Damallsvenskan. A total of 538 players participated inthe study and 218 of them were included. The received responses were processed and codedbefore they got analysed in the analysis program SPSS.ResultsThe results showed that about 96 % of the players had belonged to a regional-team when theywere between 13-17 years and about 75 % of the players had belonged to the team at least 4years. About 50 % of the players who had belonged to a regional-team had also belonged to anational youth team. These in turn represent about half of the players from the respectivequarter. Among all players, 50 % had participated at both the elite-camp in Halmstad and anational- camp/gathering and 21 % had never participated at some of the camps. Both amongthe players who had belonged to a regional-team, national youth team and within all the eliteplayerstogether there was a presence of RAE, while most of the players were born at the firstquartile (January-March).ConclusionsThis study shows that nearly all players have belonged to a regional-team and also half ofthese players have belonged to a national youth team. Based on this we can see that earlyselection increases your opportunity to reach an elite level. This study also suggests that thereis a presence of RAE in the Swedish elite women's soccer. Early selection can be a problemfor coaches then it´s hard to distinguish between physical maturation and talent.

  • 98.
    Engström, Joakim
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Engström, Josefine
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Elevers uppfattningar av vad man bör uppnå efter avslutad kurs i Idrott och Hälsa A: En studie av två gymnasieskolor i årskurs 2 – ett elevperspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this work is to see if the students, on two separate high schools, understand what skills you should achieve after completing the course in physical education and health A 100 points. The entire study is based on a student perspective. In order to best answer the purpose, the questionnaire used in the "available groups" in schools. The questions for the work are: To what extent and how students perceive what they should achieve after completing the course in Sport and Health A?, Which is the goal, based on the curriculum in Physical Education, that students feel are important to achieve? and how do a comparison like between these two schools on the basis of what students perceive that they must achieve in Sport and Health A? The result shows that the main goal that finds support in the course objectives is an assertion; Has knowledge of what to eat to maintain or improve health, which over 90% of students had checked in. The least important goal was the claim 14; Know woods and fields and carry out outdoor activities, as 30% of students had checked in. The most important goal that does not find support in the course objectives is claim 10; to be reversed to the lessons, which was 88% in response rate among students. Here was the least important goal, claim 6; to be skilled in various ball games, which received 17% of student responses. The findings revealed that there is a clear health perspective in physical education in the studied groups at the two schools, one can also see that there is an uneven distribution of the elements included in the curriculum of Sport and Health A, and the outdoor life and dance is rare in the teaching of the groups studied at the two schools. Finally, it appeared that the lesson content and teaching are likely to have a significant role in student perceptions of course goals.

  • 99.
    Enlund, John
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Mattsson, Petter
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Fysiologiska skillnader mellan dominant och icke-dominant ben vid motviktad enbenscykling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:

    Motviktad enbenscykling är en ny träningsmetod som kan användas för att öka intensiteten. Tidigare studier har påvisat att det finns skillander mellan dominant och icke-dominant ben vid cykling med två ben. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka fysiologiska assymetrier vid motviktad enbenscykling. Metod: Åtta undersökningsdeltagare (ålder 24,1 ± 4,2 år, längd 177,0 ± 5,5 cm, vikt 74,6 ± 9,0 kg, vo2max 69,0 ± 6,4 ml/kg/min) deltog i studien. Undersökningsdeltagarna delades in slumpmässigt i två grupper (dominant eller icke-dominant). För att bestämma undersökningsdeltagarens dominanta ben användes Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire. Den dominanta gruppen utförde första intervallen vid testtillfälle två med sitt dominanta ben och den icke-dominanta gruppen med sitt icke-dominanta ben.Vid testtillfälle ett utfördes ett standardiserat nivåtest till utmattning på cykel. Testtillfälle två, som utfördes minst 48 timmar senare, bestod av fyra stycken tio minuters intervaller av motviktad enbenscykling, varannat ben. Testtillfälle två kördes blint. Resultat: Skillnader kunde observeras men dock inga signifikanta skillnader. Tendensen var att man uppmätte en högre effekt med dominant ben (dominant ben 168 ±18,9 W, icke-dominant ben 162 ±18,1W), men en högre kadens med icke-dominant ben (dominant ben 93 ± 12,7 rpm, icke-dominant ben 95 ± 10,3 rpm). Slutsats: Skillnader finns mellan dominant och icke-dominant ben vid motviktad enbenscykling, dock inga signifikanta skillnader. Vår slutsats är att inlärningseffekten påverkade resultatet i denna studie. För att motverka detta i framtida studier angående motviktad enbenscykling bör undersökningsdeltagarna genomgå en invänjningsperiod med träningsmetoden.

  • 100.
    Fagrell, Johannes
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Gymnasieelevers föreställningar kring manligt, kvinnligt och neutralt inom idrott och fysisk aktivitet2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Oppgave
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