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  • 51.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    CERUM, Umeå university.
    Asymmetric information and distance: an empirical assessment of geographical credit rationing2005Ingår i: Journal of Economics and Business, ISSN 0148-6195, E-ISSN 1879-1735, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 39-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Does the geographical proximity between the borrowing firm and the lending bank, matter in credit risk management? If so, the bank might expose itself to a greater risk by lending to distant firms and should therefore respond by rationing them harder. In this paper, we incorporate geographical credit rationing in a simple theoretical model, and derive implications, which are empirically testable. We use data on corporate loans granted between the years of 1994 and 2000 by a leading Swedish bank, and find no evidence of geographical credit rationing.

  • 52.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    A stopping rule while searching for optimal solution of facility-location2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization, such as p-median problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The minimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. However, pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. A small branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to estimate the minimum and use the estimate for either stopping or evaluating the quality of the solution. In this paper we use test-problems taken from Baesley's OR-library and apply Simulated Annealing on these p-median problems. We do this for the purpose of comparing suggested methods of minimum estimation and, eventually, provide a recommendation for practioners. An illustration ends the paper being a problem of locating some 70 distribution centers of the Swedish Post in a region.

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  • 53.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Confidence in heuristic solutions?2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization problems frequently rely on heuristics to minimize an objective function. The optimum is sought iteratively and pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in operations research applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. Deterministic bounds offer a mean of ascertaining the quality, but such bounds are available for only a limited number of heuristics and the length of the interval may be difficult to control in an application. A small, almost dormant, branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to derive statistical bounds for the optimum. We discuss alternative approaches to derive statistical bounds. We also assess their performance by testing them on 40 test p-median problems on facility location, taken from Beasley’s OR-library, for which the optimum is known. We consider three popular heuristics for solving such location problems; simulated annealing, vertex substitution, and Lagrangian relaxation where only the last offers deterministic bounds. Moreover, we illustrate statistical bounds in the location of 71 regional delivery points of the Swedish Post. We find statistical bounds reliable and much more efficient than deterministic bounds provided that the heuristic solutions are sampled close to the optimum. Statistical bounds are also found computationally affordable.

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    Confidence in heuristic solutions
  • 54.
    Christiaan de Vries, Sander
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Potential threat of international student dissatisfaction in the Netherlands analysed by cross – cultural adaption theory: Examining the effect of racial abuse on international student satisfaction, host receptivity and host conformity.2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous research articles already touched upon the subject of racism in the Netherlands, the denial and ignorance of race and racism is however still there in Dutch society. The aim of this research paper was to determine whether or not the international students studying in the Netherlands feel welcome and satisfied in Dutch society. This was done by online questionnaires. This research examined how cross- cultural adaption (host receptivity and host conformity pressure) and international student encounters with racism affected their overall student satisfaction and likelihood to recommend the Netherlands as favorable country to study to others back in their home country. Out of the survey of 254 international students, 48 had experienced some form of racial abuse. The findings are presented, but it does have to be stated that the required sample size has not been met in this research (a required 382 sample size). Therefore the credibility and reliability of this research paper might be questioned. This also means that the results cannot be generalized to the population of international students in the Netherlands, or any other population. Furthermore, the non-representation of several nationalities might bias the results. The results however did indicate that racial abuse did affect the students’ likeliness to recommend the Netherlands as a favorable country to study to others. Also, the host receptivity score, host conformity pressure score and satisfaction with living and studying in the Netherlands was reported more negatively when the respondent was a victim of racism in the Netherlands.

  • 55.
    Cohen, Scott A
    et al.
    School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law , University of Surrey, UK.
    Duncan, Tara
    Department of Tourism , University of Otago , Dunedin , New Zealand.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Lifestyle Mobilities: The Crossroads of Travel, Leisure and Migration2015Ingår i: Mobilities, ISSN 1745-0101, E-ISSN 1745-011X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 155-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the mobilities paradigm intersects with physically moving as an ongoing lifestyle choice. We conceptualise a lens of ‘lifestyle mobilities’ that challenges discrete notions of and allows for a wider grasp of the increasing fluidity between travel, leisure and migration. We demonstrate how contemporary lifestyle-led mobility patterns contribute to and illustrate a breakdown in conventional binary divides between work and leisure, and a destabilisation of concepts of ‘home’ and ‘away’. We unpack issues of identity construction, belonging and place attachment associated with sustained corporeal mobility, and conclude by suggesting avenues for the further study of lifestyle mobilities.

  • 56. Cohen, Scott
    et al.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Duncan, Tara
    Conceptualising Lifestyle Mobilities2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Being corporeally mobile as a lifestyle is now influenced by and through transnational ties, technologies of transport, knowledge and information, and changing socio-cultural outlooks that often characterise the (re)formation of the everyday. As such, moving as and for lifestyle has become increasingly complex. We offer the term 'lifestyle mobilities' as a conceptual lens to challenge current thinking on the intersections between tourism and migration. Contemporary research on lifestyle migration largely addresses permanent and seasonal lifestyle relocation, which fails to grasp temporal complexities and ambiguities that are found in various experiences of lifestyle mobilities. Using the mobilities paradigm, we conceptually explore some of the ways in which lifestyle mobilities are subsuming binaries of work/leisure, home/away and here/there. We discuss how experiences of corporeal movement as lifestyle produce, and are produced by, multiple identities and cultural hybridities that are affecting how some individuals may (dis)connect with place.

  • 57. Cohen, Scott
    et al.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Duncan, Tara
    Lifestyle Mobilities: A conceptual focus2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that mobilities is a key concept of contemporary society and the predominant way in which one engages with the world. At the same time, there has been a (re)focus on ideas of lifestyle within the social sciences. Consequently, there is a need to challenge current thinking about the corporeal organisation of movement to take into account the ambiguities and tensions that abound in the literature on both lifestyle and mobilities. This session seeks papers that highlight socio-cultural phenomena pertaining to lifestyle and mobility and invites papers that challenge existing thinking in these areas, including: - Negotiations of lifestyle and movement - Mobile methodologies - Affective possibilities and lifestyle - Mobility, lifestyle and tourism, recreation and/or leisure - Hybrid possibilities – migration/transnationalism/mobility - Cosmopolitanism, fluid identities and identity confusions - Moorings, movement and performance - Mobilities as the corporeal everyday - Lifestyle mobility and relationships to place

  • 58.
    Conti, Eugenio
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap. Mittuniversitetet.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Liminality in nature-based tourism experiences as mediated through social media2019Ingår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The intersection between social media, liminality and nature-based tourism experiences hasn't been the focus of previous tourism research. Such intersection, on the other hand, is illustrative of how social media relate to the constitution and performance of tourism spatialities, tourist identities, storytelling and place-making, and can lead to relevant theoretical contributes. We aim to investigate how liminality is expressed in relation to nature-based experiences by tourists on social media, and what role social media plays in mediating liminality during nature-based tourism experiences. The analysis is based on a participatory netnography of images and text posts, as well as online interviews with users of the popular social media Instagram. Findings show that the expression of tourism experiences in nature is closely related to specific notions of liminal otherness as opposed to the urban life and the everyday, where nature and wilderness are expressed as related to the genuine, the authentic and a true inner self. Creative combinations of pictures, captions and hashtags make it easier for tourists to express the contrast between the natural landscape and the everyday landscape once they returned home. These combinations also relate closely to performances of resistant and alternative selves and communities. At the same time, such performances are mediated and contested between freedom of self-expression, surveillance and social norms, an aspect that makes their liminal nature ambiguous.

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  • 59.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    What happens when IKEA comes to town?2017Ingår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 313-323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a new IKEA store on retail revenues, employment and inflow of purchasing power in the entry municipalities as well as in neighbouring municipalities were investigated using data from 2000–11. A propensity score-matching method was used to find non-IKEA entry municipalities that were as similar as possible to the entry municipalities based on the situation before entry. The results indicate that IKEA entry increased entry municipality durable goods revenues by about 20% and employment by about 17%. Only small and, in most cases, statistically insignificant effects were found in neighbouring municipalities.

  • 60.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap. Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    A critical realist appraisal of authenticity in tourism: the case of the Sámi2019Ingår i: Journal of Critical Realism, ISSN 1476-7430, E-ISSN 1572-5138, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 437-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 61.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap. Multidimensional Tourism Institute (MTI), University of Lapland.
    Authenticity as a compromise: a critical discourse analysis of Sámi tourism websites2019Ingår i: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 249-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Authenticity is considered a very important means to attract tourists. Different enterprises and destinations compete for visitors and authenticity is an important factor for visitors’ travel decisions. Within the context of indigenous and cultural tourism, several studies have criticized the way in which indigenous and local populations are portrayed in order to attract tourists, since they often involve colonial images and descriptions that are no longer corresponding to the contemporary situation. This study presents an alternative perspective on the discussion on tourism marketing in relation to authenticity. Through critical discourse analysis and retroduction, this study has analysed the websites of Sámi tourism companies from Sweden. The discussion put forward in this study is not a generalizing picture of how the Sámi peoples choose to market themselves, but it problematizes how these particular enterprises relate to issues of authenticity in the representation of cultural heritage. This paper also presents a new approach to authenticity seen as a compromise. The results of this study present one side of a multifaceted discussion on the struggle between different discourses on representations and authenticity that are often the main channel to reach and attract potential visitors.

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  • 62.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Destination competitiveness, the environment and sustainability challenges and cases2017Ingår i: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1303-2917, E-ISSN 2156-6909, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 296-298Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 63.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    New approaches to heritage tourism research: a review of two recent volumes2019Ingår i: Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, ISSN 1476-6825, E-ISSN 1747-7654, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 239-245Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 64.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Sámi Indigenous Tourism Empowerment in the Nordic Countries through Labelling Systems: Strengthening Ethnic Enterprises and Activities2017Ingår i: Tourism and Ethnodevelopment: Inclusion, Empowerment and Self-determination / [ed] Ismar Borges de Lima, Victor T. King, Routledge, 2017, s. 200-212Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 65.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Tourism, Public Transport and Sustainable Mobility2018Ingår i: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, ISSN 1447-6770, Vol. 36, s. 119-120Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 66. de la Barre, Suzanne
    et al.
    Maher, Patrick
    Dawson, Jackie
    Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin
    Huijbens, Edwards
    Lamers, Machiel
    Liggett, Daniela
    Müller, Dieter
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Stewart, Emma
    Tourism and arctic observation systems: Exploring the relationships2016Ingår i: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

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  • 67.
    Della Lucia, Maria
    et al.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Coming to new life?: Envisioning sustainable development in industrial World Heritage Sites2020Ingår i: "Preceedings” of the Heritage, Tourism and Hospitality International Conference HTHIC2020: "Living Heritage and Sustainable Tourism" / [ed] Cantoni, L., De Ascaniis, S., & Elgin-Nijhuis, K. (Eds.), 2020, s. 187-198Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial areas having faced a collapse of their development model may have come to a new life by repositioning their material and immaterial professional-productive heritage in the local and global value chain and map. This contribution investigates the influence of socio-economic and institutional factors on the adoption of a new regeneration model through the process of rejuvenation of an industrial heritage site and an urban centre in the mining area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun, Sweden, a cultural World Heritage Site (WHS). Case evidence collected through the analysis of the qualitative data collection shows that the site had adopted a patronage model of regeneration. At the initial stage of its development, both local interest groups and UNESCO’s recommendations were inspired by a conservation-oriented approach. Value creation were confined within the mine site and proceeded mainly through educational activities and traditional cultural tourism. Clearly, this path dependency needs to be reconciled with new narratives including an empowerment of wider local community to participate in industrial heritage hybridization with creativity, extracting value from the site through creative and relational tourism and fostering spill over effects in the surrounding areas.

  • 68.
    Duncan, Tara
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Om mobilitet och turismens geografier2019Ingår i: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, Vol. 139, s. 119-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    Duncan, Tara
    et al.
    Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Cohen, Scott A
    School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Lifestyle mobilities: Intersections of Travel, Leisure and Migration2014Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 70. Duncan, Tara
    et al.
    Scott, David
    Baum, Tom
    The mobilities of hospitality work: An exploration of issues and debates2013Ingår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 41, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we highlight the contribution which an understanding of mobilities brings to an analysis of hospitality work. The complex mobilities of hospitality employees are playing an increasing role within global tourism and hospitality sectors. Our discussion explores notions of voluntary mobility as motivated by work and lifestyle factors. We challenge the commonplace conceptualisation of tourism and hospitality employment which has been predicated upon the nature of the work itself rather than on the diverse experience backgrounds; social and geographical origins; and motivating attributes of those who work in the sector. In taking this approach, we question conventional management discourses of hospitality labour processes and illustrate the value of adopting a mobilities framework within tourism and hospitality studies.

  • 71.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Kurbits affärsutveckling 10 år: Vad tycker deltagarna?2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 72.
    Engström, Christina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Boluk, Karla
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    The battlefield of the mountain: exploring the conflict of tourism development on the Three Peaks in Idre, Sweden2012Ingår i: Tourism planning & development, ISSN 2156-8316, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 411-427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the conflict between a Swedish Sami community and a local tourism company eager to exploit traditional Sami land. The aim of the paper is to illustrate the Sami approach and how they negotiated during a conflict concerning the planning process of a large scale tourism development. Three research questions frame the study. How did the stakeholders involved in the conflict communicate and mediate? How were the various objectives prioritized? What is the major contribution this conflict can offer future conflicts? Published text was analysed as a way to map out the conflict and demonstrate how such conflicts are currently managed. Specifically, newspaper articles, letters to editors and authoritative documents were reviewed. A text analysis was employed to scrutinize the published text. Furthermore, the researchers carried out a critical discourse analysis for the purpose of analysing the published and empirical data. Key findings of this study indicate that there is a strong hierarchal order among the different interests of land use. Furthermore, traditional claims to the land are not always considered as superior to economically driven plans. Instead, objectives consolidated by the state government are an important factor in such types of conflicts.

  • 73.
    Engström, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Leffler, Frida
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Perceptions of climate change at ski resorts in midsouth of Sweden2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringar som ett fenomen, kommer att innebära nya risker för skidindustrin. Intergovernmental Panal on Climate Change presenterar tre framtida scenarion, under perioden mellan 1990-2100, i form av ökade temperaturer, ökning av havsnivån och förändrade säsongsmönster, variablar av vilka två har direkta effekter på skidindustrin. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka och jämföra attityder mot klimatförändringar mellan fem skiddestinationer lokaliserade i mellersta och södra Sverige. Det var gjort med djupgående intervjuer både på plats och per telefon. Resultatet av den här studien var att alla valda skiddestinationer var medvetna om klimatförändringar som ett fenomen, men är inte än helt övertygade om dess konsekvenser. Alla skiddestinationer använder sig av metoder för att bibehålla skidåkandet som produktion av konstsnö men detta görs inte på grund av klimatförändringar. 

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  • 74.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Madelaine
    Linköpings universitet.
    User involvement in Swedish residential building projects: a stakeholder perspective2015Ingår i: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 313-329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One factor influencing quality in the building industry is the ability of users, such as residents, to identify and express their requirements for the product, i.e. the residential building. However, the handling of communication with users in building projects has been insufficiently specified and studied. Drawing on a study of user involvement in building project design, production, and management, this paper examines user involvement in Swedish residential projects. To map current perceptions and approaches, building industry actors met in four focus groups. Group participants were asked to reflect on the definition of users, communication handling, how information from users is used, and challenges and opportunities in user involvement. Our initial emphasis was front-end activities, but focus group results revealed that user involvement was a continuous process extending from project initiation to evaluating the finished project as a basis for future projects. Discussions indicated confusion about who constituted users in various situations but, regardless of level of experience, focus group participants agreed on the importance and potential of user involvement and on the need for specific methods to acquire useful input.

  • 75.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    A social representations theory approach to destination collaboration2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 76. Farsari, Ioanna
    A Soft Approach to Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Tourism Policy Making With the Use of Mental Models2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technologies in tourism has been a rapidly expanding field. However, most of the relevant applications relate to the transaction processing systems than decision support systems, which are designed to handle procedural tasks, such as airline and hotel reservation systems or destination management systems. These computer tools are of little support in decision situations involving uncertain, unknown or conflicting information while computerised systems to support sustainable tourism policy making are rather absent. Different decision support approaches are explored to identify the one that better matches sustainable tourism policy making needs. Sustainable tourism policy making is perceived as a complex domain involving various issues which have to be managed simultaneously with often competing goals. It is argued here that soft decision support systems, based on knowledge capturing and representation in the form of mental models could have an important contribution to the improvement of sustainable tourism policies.  A cognitive mapping method to elicit, analyse and represent the mental models that policy makers in Greece hold for sustainable tourism policies is presented. Findings are discussed to reveal the complexity of the domain being investigated and highlight the contribution of mental models to the development of a decision support system to assist policy making for sustainable tourism.

  • 77.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    A structural approach to social representations of destination collaboration in Idre, Sweden2018Ingår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 71, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration is a social activity shaped by interactions. Taking a structural approach in social representations theory, the present research used a cognitive mapping method to analyse and compare the mental models of actors regarding collaborations in Idre, Sweden. Tourism actors share a core system in their representations which develops around packaging and selling of the tourism product to an international market, indicative of a hegemonic representation. Issues of quality, shared responsibility, trust, inclusivity and power were also revealed and should be taken into account in planning tourism and collaborations in the area. Findings indicate that actors hold multiple representations of collaboration, which reflects the social complexity apparent in the tourism destination, and the evolutionary character of social representations. 

  • 78.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    An analytical framework of tourism education in an era of complexity and sustainability: evidence from Sweden2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 79. Farsari, Ioanna
    Analysing Policy Makers Cognitive Maps for Sustainable Tourism Policies in Hersonissos Crete2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems approaches to tourism studies have long been developed to denote the need for a holistic thinking in developing and managing tourism. However, during the last few years emphasis is being placed on the study of sustainable tourism in a complex systems approach to denote the need for understanding the complexity and non-linearities involved. Cognitive maps have been well examined in organisational learning, strategy formulation and policy analysis to structure and manage complex problems. However, their use in sustainable tourism studies is a rather unexplored field. In the present research cognitive maps of policy makers in Hersonissos, a tourist destination in Crete, Greece, were analysed to identify key issues in policies for sustainable tourism and explore their relationships. Subsequently, their emergent properties in terms of content and structure were compared across individual maps. Analysis and comparisons revealed perceived interrelatedness of policies, similarities and differences as to the key issues, relationships and perceived complexity of the domain investigated. Policy issues are interwoven into a net rather than following simple linear chains with a single outcome, with differences in their construal as perceived by different individuals. This suggests that policy formulation should consider potential nets instead of fragmenting policies. The whole analysis was based on both the structure and the content of the concepts with an emphasis being placed on the construal of the maps. In this way policies were examined and analysed as nets of interlinked issues contributing to the examination of sustainable tourism policy in a complex systems perspective illustrative of values and different pathways to achieve it.

  • 80.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Complexity Research in Leisure and Tourism: Developing Joint Research Agendas2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 81.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Development of Indicators for Fulufjället National Park Visitor Strategy2018Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 82. Farsari, Ioanna
    GIS based support for sustainable tourism planning and policy making2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information systems has long been introduced in the tourism industry resulting in a number of changes in the supply and the demand chain of the tourist product. However, their potential in tourism planning and policy making has rather been neglected. Information systems to assist decision making are even less apparent in the case of managing established popular destination, which are related to a mass form of tourism development, towards a more sustainable form of development. This paper addresses these shortcomings, arguing that information systems could contribute to various aspects of sustainable tourism. A category of information systems is the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) which are capable of handling geographical data. The potential of GIS to form the base of a decision support system for policy and decision making in sustainable tourism is explored. A literature review is performed on the topic of GIS applications in tourism as well as on GIS- based decision support literature to identify the capabilities and the shortcomings. In this way, issues of designing a decision support system for sustainable tourism as well as issues of further research are highlighted.

  • 83.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Technical Educational Institute of Crete, Greece.
    Mental Models in Decision Support and Knowledge Sharing for Sustainable Tourism Policy Making2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technologies in tourism has been a rapidly expanding field. However, most of the relevant applications relate to the transaction processing systems than decision support systems, which are designed to handle procedural tasks, such as airline and hotel reservation systems or destination management systems. These computer tools are of little support in decision situations involving uncertain, unknown or conflicting information while computerised systems to support sustainable tourism policy making are rather absent. Different decision support approaches are explored to identify the one that better matches sustainable tourism policy making needs. Research findings indicate that sustainable tourism policy making is a complex domain involving various issues which have to be managed simultaneously with often competing goals. It is argued here that soft decision support systems, based on knowledge capturing and representation in the form of mental models could have an important contribution to the improvement of sustainable tourism policies. Mental models have long being used in psychology, artificial intelligence and computer science to represent complex domains. Cognitive  mapping to elicit, analyse and represent policy makers’ mental models is discussed and findings from a previous research are discussed to reveal the complexity of sustainable tourism policies and highlight the role of cognitive maps to aid tourism policy making.

  • 84. Farsari, Ioanna
    Policy and Implementation Issues of Sustainable Tourism in the Mediterranean2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Mediterranean is one of the world’s leading destinations, integrative studies on implementational aspects of sustainable tourism in the region have been scarce. One of the reasons is that sustainable tourism has been traditionally considered as the opposite of mass tourism which is the dominant form in Mediterranean coasts. This study attempts to assemble and conceptualize practices and policies used or proposed in different Mediterranean destinations with a focus on mass tourism. Issues which appear of importance to policy makers in the Mediterranean are discussed to explore relevance with the concept of sustainable tourism. In this way shortcomings as well as interrelations between different strategies are identified. The ultimate aim is to contribute to the establishment of a framework for sustainable tourism policies.

  • 85.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Technical Educational Institute of Crete, Greece.
    The Development of a Conceptual Model to Support Sustainable Tourism Policy in North Mediterranean Destinations2012Ingår i: Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, ISSN 1936-8623, E-ISSN 1936-8631, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 710-738Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable tourism is a malleable concept that needs to be operationalized for successful implementation. Policies based on firm conceptualizations are needed in order to put sustainable tourism into practice. The present research develops a conceptual model to support sustainable tourism policy making. It brings together, into a single model, knowledge from diverse literature sources and structures it as a system of interrelated components using a holistic, adaptive, and complex systems' approach. In building the model it is the interrelationships of the elements that shape it and underline its contribution as something more than a listing of policy considerations. This comprehensive representation of interrelationships should help policy makers to navigate through the complexities of sustainable tourism and to make more knowledgeable decisions.

  • 86.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Technical Educational Institute of Crete, Greece.
    The Development of a Conceptual Model to Support Sustainable Tourism Policy Making in North Mediterranean Destinations2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable tourism is a malleable concept which needs to be operationalised for successful implementation. Policies based on firm conceptualisations are needed in order to put sustainable tourism into practice. The present research develops a conceptual model to support sustainable tourism policy making.  It brings together into a single model knowledge from diverse sources and structures it as a system of interrelated components using a systemic, holistic approach. A wide array of topics of tourism literature were retrieved and reviewed. These included policies undertaken in north Mediterranean countries, policy recommendations, principles and the discourse on sustainable tourism, tourism impacts and other specific issues revealed during the research process. Literature findings, treated as data, were coded and inductively analysed to identify themes and patterns and to classify them into categories, followed by interpretation to organise them into hierarchical constructs. No hypothesis or external analytical frameworks were imposed on them. Induction and interpretation followed an iterative process, during which initial categories found in the data were progressively refined and integrated to result in a hierarchical classification. In building the model it is the interrelationships of the elements that shape it and underline its contribution as something more than a listing of policy considerations. This comprehensive representation of interrelationships should help policy makers to navigate through the complexities of sustainable tourism and to make more knowledgeable decisions.

  • 87.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Tourism actors’ social representations of collaborations in Idre, Sweden: a cognitive mapping method2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of the research is to examine tourism actors’ perceptions of collaborations in Idre, Sweden, and reveal differences and similarities in the way that individual actors value the outcomes of collaborations, in what they consider as important in collaborations and how collaborations in the area take place.  This is examined with cognitive mapping taking a social representations theory approach.

    Theoretical perspective

    Social representations developed by Moscovichi are about a cognitive system at the social level allowing the members of a community to share a common understanding of things communicate and act cohesively (Nicolini 1999). Social representations in tourism have been used so far mainly in examining attitudes of host communities towards tourism. Social representations in the study of tourism place emphasis on the social construction of tourism allowing more power to the members of the community and thus enabling sustainable development (Moscardo, 2011).

    Cognitive mapping offers a method to elicit and analyse perceptions an individual holds about a particular domain. Comparisons between cognitive maps can reveal similarities and differences in the way the domain under investigation is constructed and understood while the analysis of the cognitive maps can reveal values and central constructs in individual cognition. These characteristics make cognitive maps particularly attractive in examining social representations. Surprisingly however, hardly any study has attempted to do so.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Using a key informants sampling technique together with snowballing, the study identified eight tourism actors in the area covering several types of tourism stakeholders. A cognitive mapping method based on SODA (Eden and Ackermann, 2001; Farsari, Butler and Szivas, 2010) approach using semi-structured interviews was used to study perceptions of tourism actors in Idre, Sweden, about collaborations. Data were analysed using Decision Explorer’s analytical tools. Value, hieset, potency, domain, centrality and cluster analysis were used to analyse cognitive maps and reveal goals, key issues and clusters in the perceptions of tourism stakeholders about collaborations in Idre. Consequently, the individual maps were compared against these findings to reveal similarities and differences in the perceptions of tourism actors.

    Expected Findings/Discussion

    This is still a work in progress. Results are expected to reveal key issues in collaborations between tourism actors in Idre, as well as similarities and differences in the way actors construct their perceptions of collaborations. This comparison will allow revealing well established notions in collaborations in the area as well as differences and gaps that might hinder them. Results are discussed in light of representations theory to highlight whether there is some consensus in the understanding of collaborations in the area.

    Conclusion/Contribution/Originality

    Practical implications include the identification of important aspects in actors’ collaborations. In this way collaborations might be strengthened enhancing sustainable tourism development in the area. Theoretical contribution of the research emanates from the studying of social representations in collaborations and moreover using a cognitive mapping method. Hardly any study has used cognitive mapping to examine social representations. This research aims at exploring the use of a specific cognitive mapping method to this direction and thus potentially  offer the ground for more research in the area. Very importantly, with this method, findings are not only based on the content but also on the way actors structure their perceptions allowing a more thorough understanding and studying of them.

  • 88.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Greece.
    Tourism in the Green Economy: Background Report2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 89. Farsari, Ioanna
    Διεθνείς και ελληνικές εμπειρίες σχεδιασμού2009Ingår i: Εναλλακτικές και Ειδικές Μορφές Τουρισμού: Σχεδιασμός, Μάνατζμεντ & Μάρκετινγκ / [ed] Μ. Σωτηριάδης και Ι. Φαρσάρη, Athens: Interbooks , 2009, 1st, s. 106-126Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 90. Farsari, Ioanna
    Εννοιολογικές προσεγγίσεις2009Ingår i: Εναλλακτικές και Ειδικές Μορφές Τουρισμού: Σχεδιασμός, Μάνατζμεντ & Μάρκετινγκ / [ed] Μ. Σωτηριάδης και Ι. Φαρσάρη, Athens: Interbooks , 2009, 1st, s. 37-54Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 91.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Τουριστική πολική και διακυβέρνηση για μία βιώσιμη τουριστική ανάπτυξη: Σύγχρονες προσεγγίσεις: Tourism Policy for Sustainable Tourism Development2017Ingår i: Τουρισμός, τουριστική ανάπτυξη: συμβολές ελλήνων επιστημόνων / [ed] Λυτρας Π. και Τσάρτας Π., Αθηνα: Ekdoseis Kapon, Athen, 2017, s. 153-179Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 92. Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Butler, Richard
    Prastacos, Poulicos
    Sustainable Tourism Policy for Mediterranean Mass Tourism Destinations: Issues and Interrelationships2007Ingår i: International Journal of Tourism Policy, ISSN 1750-4090, E-ISSN 1750-4104, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 58-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable tourism and related policies have been an understudied topic within a Mediterranean context despite an increasing number of studies published during the last few years on Mediterranean tourism. This paper explores policies for sustainable tourism development and potential interrelationships between policy considerations. Such policies have been characterised as ad hoc and incremental, lacking a clear orientation towards sustainable development, and the complex relationships underpinning them have rarely been considered in decision-making for sustainable tourism. The paper highlights the need to understand and improve tourism policies in the world’s leading destination.

  • 93. Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Butler, Richard
    Szivas, Edith
    Complexity in Policies: A Cognitive Mapping Approach2011Ingår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 1110-1134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses a study of policies for sustainable tourism developed at all four policy making levels in Greece using a complex systems approach. Complexity was examined between policy issues i.e. the elements constituting policy considerations. The mental models of policy makers were elicited, built and analyzed by applying appropriately developed cognitive mapping methods to reveal key policy considerations, valued outcomes and perceptions of complexity. Individual map analysis and comparisons of policy making at each level revealed greater structural differences than similarities. These findings indicate a complex domain with various ramifications perceived in different ways by individual policy makers. Despite structural differences, policies at all levels in Greece contained a clear focus on the economic sustainability of tourism, reflecting a rather parochial perspective on sustainable tourism.

  • 94. Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Butler, Richard
    Szivas, Edith
    The Use of Cognitive Mapping in Analysing Sustainable Tourism Policy: Methodological Implications2010Ingår i: Tourism Recreation Resarch, ISSN 0250-8281, E-ISSN 2320-0308, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 145-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of literature arguing for the need to examine sustainable tourism and policies for sustainable tourism within complexity theory. Methods which are particularly developed to study complex problems are needed in order to move from conceptualization and theory to understanding and operationalization of the complexity underpinning policies for sustainable tourism. This paper discusses the development of a cognitive mapping method to study sustainable tourism policy as a complex problem which has to be viewed holistically, with ethical implications, and with means and goals being intermingled in adaptive routes. A variation of SODA (Strategic Options Development and Analysis) approach to cognitive mapping is proposed and the decisions the researcher has to make regarding the method of elicitation, the coding and the analysis of the cognitive maps are discussed. This method is particularly useful to study complexity between policy issues as perceived by policy-makers and to build models in the form of cognitive maps. The method discussed here provides rich qualitative information capable of revealing goals, key policy considerations, and their interrelatedness in a holistic context. Complexity may be examined and structured, and policies can be studied as a set of interrelated policy issues. In this way, policies for sustainable tourism can be improved on the basis of knowledge and complexity management.

  • 95.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Technical Educational Institute of Crete, Greece.
    Mavrothalassiti, Anastasia
    Climbing Tourists’ Environmental Attitudes: Evidence from Kalymnos Island, Greece2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Kalymnos Island lagged in tourism development noticed in other Aegean islands. It was not before the 1997 that the first climbing routes were engraved. During the last decade, Kalymnos has become a popular worldwide climbing destination with more than 1200 routes in 77 climbing fields. Several commentators argue on the potential of climbing tourism for the sustainable development of the island. Climbing tourism is a niche market of adventurous tourism. Adventure tourists tend to value the environment of the destinations visited. However, little empirical research on the topic exists while no one has examined climbing tourism in Kalymnos. The present research aims to understand environmental attitudes of climbing tourists in Kalymnos and examine whether climbers are indeed aligned to alternative tourism. The New Ecological Paradigm Scale has been a widely used instrument to measure environmental attitudes and the endorsement of an ecological worldview.

  • 96. Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Prastacos, Poulicos
    Conceptualising tourism policies in north Mediterranean mass destinations2004Ingår i: Tourism Today, ISSN 1450-0906, Vol. 4, s. 89-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 97. Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Prastacos, Poulicos
    GIS applications in the planning and management of tourism2004Ingår i: A Companion to Tourism / [ed] A. Lew, M. Hall and A. Williams, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004, 1st, s. 596-607Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is a spatial phenomenon which involves tourist generating markets, the destination and the movement of tourists from one to another. Although geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used in spatial analysis, thir use in tourism planning is limited. In this chapter the potential of GIS in tourism planning is discussed with a special focus on sustainable tourism development of destinations. A thorough literature review is used to reveal trends and patterns in the use of GIS in tourism planning on the base of GIS’ functions. The aim is to reveal the potential from the use of GIS in tourism planning as well as to identify and opportunities for tourism research.

  • 98. Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Prastacos, Poulicos
    Sustainable Tourism Indicators for Mediterranean Established Destinations.2001Ingår i: Tourism Today, ISSN 1450-0906, Vol. 1, s. 103-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 99. Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Prastacos, Poulicos
    Sustainable Tourism Indicators: Pilot Estimation for the Municipality of Hersonissos2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of the present research is the pilot estimation of sustainable tourism indicators for the Municipality of Hersonissos in Crete. Indicators definition is based on the principles of sustainable development. Data sources, their format and functionality as well as limitations imposed by them regarding indicators estimation, are elements of this research. Moreover, indicators were examined in terms of their functionality, resulting in certain cases, in the definition of surrogate indicators in order to compensate the lack of data and complement their meaning respecting the needs of the application area.

  • 100. Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Prastacos, Poulicos
    Towards a framework for Establishing policy goals for sustainable tourism in Mediterranean Popular destinations2003Ingår i: Sustainable Planning and Development / [ed] E. Beriatos, C.A. Brebbia, H. Coccossis and A. Kungolos, UK: WIT Press, 2003, 1st, s. 441-451Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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