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  • 51.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Roszbach, Kasper
    Is Firm Interdependence within Industries Important for Portfolio Credit Risk?2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A drawback of available portfolio credit risk models is that they fail to allow for default risk dependency across loans other than through common risk factors. Thereby, thesemodels ignore that close ties can exist between companies due to legal, financial and business relations. In this paper, we integrate the insights from theoretical models of default correlation into a commonly used model of default and portfolio credit risk by allowing for dependency between firm default risk through both common factors and industry specific errors in a duration model. An application using pooled data from two Swedish banks’ business loan portfolios over the period 1996-2000 shows that estimates of individual default risk are little affected by including industry specific errors. However, accounting for these industry effects increases VaR estimates by 50-200 percent. A traditional model with only systematic factors, although able to fit the broad trends in credit losses, cannot match these fluctuations because it fails to capture credit losses in bad times, when banks are typically hit by large unexpected credit losses. The model we propose manages to follow both the trend in credit losses and produce industry driven, time-varying, fluctuations in losses around that trend. Consequently, this model will better aid banks and regulators in determining the appropriate size of economic capital requirements. Capital buffers derived from our model will be larger for periods with large ”aggregate” disturbances and smaller in better times, and avoid both overcapitalization in good times and undercapitalization in bad times.

  • 52.
    Espegren, Yanina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Olsmats, Carl
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Industriell ekonomi.
    Smart online grocery delivery and peri-urbanconsumers’ attitudes2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore consumers’ attitudes towards e-commerce, in particular online grocery shopping, and its delivery in non-dense areas for the purpose of designing smart last-mile solutions.

    Approach: The state-of-the-art of smart e-commerce delivery in dense areas was identified by a review of the literature. It was expected that this knowledge could be transferred to non-dense areas. This prediction was examined and explored further by making use of four focus groups recruited in a Swedish mid-sized town.

    Findings: Respondents were generally positive towards e-commerce, although mixed attitudes were found with regard to online grocery shopping. Further, the willingness to pay for flexible, smart and sustainable delivery was low, with a notable exception for local produce.

    Originality: The knowledge acquired and solution developed in dense areas is not readily transferred to non-dense areas. There is scope for developing new Business Models for the supply chain of local produce. For the prototype testing and roll-out of smart e-commerce delivery platforms, the online local produce market is recommended.

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  • 53.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    GRASP and Statistical Bounds for Heuristic Solutions to Combinatorial Problems2019Ingår i: International Journal of Management and Applied Science, ISSN 2394-7926, Vol. 5, nr 8, s. 113-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of a heuristic solution to a NP-hard combinatorial problem is hard to assess. A few studies have advocated and tested statistical bounds as a method for assessment. These studies indicate that statistical bounds are superior to the more widely known and used deterministic bounds. However, the previous studies have been limited to a few heuristics and combinatorial problems and, hence, the general performance of statistical bounds in combinatorial optimization remains an open question. This work complements the existing literature on statistical bounds by testing them on the metaheuristic Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures (GRASP) and four combinatorial problems. Our findings confirm previous results that statistical bounds are reliable for the p-median problem, while we note that they also seem reliable for the set covering problem. For the quadratic assignment problem, the statistical bounds have previously been found reliable when obtained from the Genetic algorithm whereas in this work they have been found less reliable. Finally, we provide statistical bounds to four 2-path network design problem instances for which the optimum is currently unknown.

  • 54.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Does euclidian distance work when location models are applied in rural areas?2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 55.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions induced by a shopping center2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies have focused on entire trips in a geographic region, while a few of them addressed trips induced by a city landmark. Therefore paper explores trips and their CO2 emissions induced by a shopping center from a time-space perspective and their usage in relocation planning. This is conducted by the means of a case study in the city of Borlänge in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall in its center are examined. We use GPS tracking data of car trips that end and start at the shopping center. Thereafter, (1) we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where temporal patterns reveal an hourly-based traffic emission dynamics and where spatial patterns uncover a heterogeneous distribution of traffic emissions in spatial areas and individual street segments. Further, (2) this study reports that most of the observed trips follow an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. In this respect, (3) we evaluate how well placed the current shopping center is through a comparison with two competing locations. We conclude that the two suggested locations, which are close to the current shopping center, do not show a significant improvement in term of CO2 emissions.

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  • 56.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions to and from a shopping center2013Ingår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 33, s. 135-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have focused on entire trips within a geographical region, while only a few have examined trips to and from a city landmark. This paper examines trips (and their CO2 emissions) to and from a shopping center from a time-space perspective, and it further considers how this information can be used in relocation planning. It is a case study in the Borlänge city in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall are scrutinized. We use GPS tracking data of car trips starting and ending at the shopping center. Firstly, we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where the temporal patterns reveal hourly-based traffic emission dynamics. The spatial analysis uncovers a heterogeneous distribution of areal traffic emissions as well as of single street segments. Secondly, we find the observed trips mostly agree with an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. Drawing on this finding, we thirdly evaluate the location of the current shopping center by comparing it to two competing locations. We conclude that the two competing locations, being in the vicinity of the current one, would induce an insignificant improvement in terms of CO2 emissions.

  • 57.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Jiang, Bin
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH.
    An empirical study on human mobility and its agent-based modeling2012Ingår i: Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, ISSN 1742-5468, E-ISSN 1742-5468, artikel-id P11024Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to analyze the GPS traces of 258 volunteers for a better understanding of both the human mobility patterns and the mechanism. We report the regular and scaling properties of human mobility from several aspects, and importantly we find its levy flight characteristic which is consistent with the previous studies. We further assume two factors that may govern the levy flight property: (1) the scaling and hierarchical properties of the purpose clusters which serve as the underlying spatial structure, and (2) the individual preferential behavior. To verify the assumptions, we implement an agent-based model with the two factors, and the simulated agents indeed reproduce the same levy flight pattern as the observed one. In order to enable the model to reproduce more mobility patterns, we add the model a third factor, the jumping factor which means the probability that one person may cancel the regular mobility schedule and visit a random place. With this factor, our model could cover a relatively wide range of human mobility patterns with exponent values from 1.55 to 2.05.

  • 58.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    A Food Price Volatility Model for Country Risk Classification2018Ingår i: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision makers require risk models which satisfies their preferences in decision making processes. A methodological approach to presenting a decision model that satisfies the preferences of the decision maker and aids the decision maker to classify countries into crisis groups based on the price volatility of food staple criteria is discussed in this paper. The price volatility of food staples is obtained from time series plots and a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis method, the UTilitdditives DIScriminantes (UTADIS) classification methodological framework is applied on the price volatility data to develop a food price volatility classification model which suits the decision maker’s preferences. The methodological framework is better applied in this paper by aiding the decision maker to make informed judgements on the price volatility of food staples in predefining their risk classes. This introduces efficiency in the application of the methodological classification framework, by reducing to the barest minimum level, the misclassification errors between the decision makers preferred classification and the UTADIS method’s classification which estimates the utility function or classification model and the utility threshold or cut-off points which would classify the country alternatives into their authentic or original classes with the execution of the methodological framework just once. The resulting utility function or classification model is thus accurate enough to satisfy the preferences of the decision maker in classifying future datasets.

  • 59.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Sensitivity analysis of a risk classification model for food price volatility2018Ingår i: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 374-382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensitivity analysis to vary the weights of an accurate predictive classification model to produce a mixed model for ranking countries on the risk of food price volatility is carried out in this paper. The classification model is a marginal utility function consisting of multiple criteria. The aim of the sensitivity analysis is to derive a mixed model to be used in ranking of country alternatives to aid in policy formulation. Since in real-life situations the data that goes into decision making could be subjected to possibilities of alterations over time, it is essential to aid decision makers to vary the weights of the criteria using both subjective and objective information to introduce imprecision and to generate relative values of the criteria with a scale to form a mixed model. The mixed model can be used to rank future relative alternative value data sets for policy formulation.

  • 60.
    Lindgren, Charlie
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Huq, Asif
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Li, Yujiao
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Current practices of CSR around the globe: An exploratory text mining study2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 61.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    How to decide upon stopping a heuristic algorithm in facility-location problems?2014Ingår i: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2013 Workshops: WISE 2013 International Workshops BigWebData, MBC, PCS, STeH, QUAT, SCEH, and STSC 2013, Nanjing, China, October 13-15, 2013, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Zhisheng Huang, Chengfei Liu, Jing He, Guangyan Huang, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, Vol. 8182, s. 280-283Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization, such as p-median problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The minimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. However, pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. In this paper we compare the methods proposed previous literate of estimating minimum, and propose some thought of it.

  • 62. Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    How do administrative borders affect accessibility to hospitals? The case of Sweden2018Ingår i: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 33, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper, we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional administrative borders and hospital accessibility. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population's spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants' distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 63.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    On administrative borders and accessibility to public services:: The case of hospitals in Sweden.2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service such as hospitals? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional borders. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population’s spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants’ distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

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  • 64.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Li, Yujiao
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach. How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Using  data  from  2001–2012,  the  effects  of  IKEA  entry  in  four  Swedish  municipalities,   2004–2007,   on   labor   productivity   in   durable   goods   retailing   is   investigated  using  synthetic  control  methods.  We contribute  to  the  literature  on  synthetic   control   methods   by considering   parametric   specifications   of   the   intervention effect, which in our case arguably improves the likelihood of identifying the intervention effect of IKEA entry on labor productivity. As inference relies on a single  treated  observational  unit  (i.e.,  a  single  IKEA-entry  municipality),  statistical  testing  is  a  challenge,  and  randomization  and  replication  for  inference  is  done  with  regard to the pool of control municipalities. Our results indicate that in three out of four  entry  municipalities,  labor  productivity  increased  more  than  in  their  synthetic  counterparts after IKEA entry, and that the size of the positive effect is related to the size of the new IKEA relative to the size of the existing durable goods retail sector in the entry municipalities, with larger positive effects found in municipalities where the new IKEA was large relative to the existing durable goods retail market.

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  • 65.
    Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Nääs, Ola
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    High school student's summer jobs and their ensuing labour market achievement2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 66. Wang, Yu
    et al.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Nääs, Ola
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Är kommunala sommarjobb en gräddfil till arbetsmarknaden?2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 67.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Dan, Zhiguang
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Network density and the p-median solution2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-medianmodel is commonly used to find optimal locations of facilities for geographically distributed demands. So far, there are few studies that have considered the importance of the road network in the model. However, Han, Håkansson, and Rebreyend (2013) examined the solutions of the p-median model with densities of the road network varying from 500 to 70,000 nodes. They found as the density went beyond some 10,000 nodes, solutions have no further improvements but gradually worsen. The aim of this study is to check their findings by using an alternative heuristic being vertex substitution, as a complement to their using simulated annealing. We reject the findings in Han et al (2013). The solutions do not further improve as the nodes exceed 10,000, but neither do the solutions deteriorate.

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  • 68.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data2017Ingår i: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017, 2017, s. 323-334, artikel-id IAC201711035Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error of -10 km/h. Elevation measurements are unreliable with errors bigger than 100 meters.

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  • 69.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    An Evaluation of the Reliability of GPS-Based Transportation Data2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error

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  • 70.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    On assessing governmental sustainable residential planning and its alignment with residents’ and estate investors’ objectives2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are three key actors in forming the sustainable spatial distribution of residency in an area, (local) government, the estate investor and the resident, each with its own objective. Most urban planning studies have mainly focused on the ex-post evaluation of residential development by considering the objective of each actor separately. This paper outlines a conceptual model where the three key actors and their unique objectives are integrated with the aim of providing an ex-ante evaluation of residential development for government to make policies operational on a micro level. The methodology is implemented on a Swedish city, where sustainable residential development is in high need due to the influx of immigrants. The case study demonstrates that the model can integrate the macro and micro actors well. The model can provide noteworthy insights for the government on where the objectives of sustainability, livability and profit can be met. A sensitivity check of the parameter settings shows that the implementation of the model is robust for replication in other cities.

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  • 71.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Reliability of GPS based traffic data: an experimental evaluation2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS tracking of mobile objects provides spatial and temporal data for a broad range of applications including traffic management and control, transportation routing and planning. Previous transport research has focused on GPS tracking data as an appealing alternative to travel diaries. Moreover, the GPS based data are gradually becoming a cornerstone for real-time traffic management. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS devices are however susceptible to measurement errors – a neglected issue in transport research. By conducting a randomized experiment, we assess the reliability of GPS based traffic data on geographical position, velocity, and altitude for three types of vehicles; bike, car, and bus. We find the geographical positioning reliable, but with an error greater than postulated by the manufacturer and a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Velocity is slightly underestimated, whereas altitude measurements are unreliable.

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  • 72.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a city there are hotspots that attract the citizens and most of the transportation in the city arises when citizens move between their residence and the hotspots. However, the evaluation between energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has been found to be rather weak. In this paper, we propose an ex-ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility due to different residential plans implemented at various urban areas. The method is illustrated by a Swedish midsize city which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. On average, the CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA) to the suburban polycentric area (SPA) to the edge urbanization area (EUA), EUA is almost 3 times more than CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same sequence, the overall increase is more than 4 times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses.

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  • 73.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Residential planning, driver mobility and CO2 emission: a microscopic look at Borlänge in Sweden2017Ingår i: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 25, nr 9, s. 1597-1614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a city there are hotspots that attract citizens, and most of the transportation arises when citizens move between their residence and primary destinations (i.e. hotspots). However, an ex ante evaluation of energy-efficient mobility and urban residential planning has seldom been conducted. Therefore, this paper proposes an ex ante evaluation method to quantify the impacts, in terms of CO2 emissions induced by intra-urban car mobility, of residential plans for various urban areas. The method is illustrated in a case study of a Swedish midsize city, which is presently preoccupied with urban planning of new residential areas in response to substantial population growth due to immigration. In general, CO2 emissions increase from the continued urban core area (CUCA), to the sub-polycentric area (SPA), to the edge urbanization area (EUA), where CO2 emission of EUA is twice that of the CUCA. The average travel distances also increase in the same pattern, though the relative increase is more than four times. Apartment buildings could be more effective in meeting residential needs and mitigating CO2 emissions than dispersed single-family houses. 

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