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  • 51.
    Broman, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Lorenz, Klaus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Rapport ramprogram FOU 1993-96, Projektnr 930391-05 samt förslag till ramprogram solfångarutveckling och systemteknik FOU 1997-99 solfångarutveckling och systemteknik1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 52. Cheeze, David
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Haller, Y. Michel
    Hamp, Quirin
    Matuska, Tomas
    Sourek, Borivoj
    Mojic, Igor
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Report on prototype system’s energetic  performance and financial competitiveness - Deliverable 8.3 : MacSheep - New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2016Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 53. Chèze, David
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Betak, Jan
    Broum, Michal
    Heier, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Franz, Hengel
    Hamp, Quirin
    Poppi, Stefano
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Final report on Control strategies, fault detection and on-line diagnosis in WP6 - Deliverable 6.4: MacSheep -New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2015Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this work package was to investigate generic control strategies, generic fault-detection and on-line diagnosis algorithms that may apply to the developed prototypes of solar and heatpump systems within MacSheep. The results should lead toimproved reliability and/orincreased energy savings for the end-userthrough new controller features. The use of DHW consumption forecast was identified as a promising control strategy and a simple yet reasonably effective algorithm to get the water tapping behaviourof the userwas developed. Viessmannimplemented the ideas of this approach in an ICT solution for their controller to provide statistical tapping informationto the user who can then set the period when hot waterthatis expected to be used. The operationalstrategy based on DHW consumptionforecast for one hour was not implemented since the potential gains are small (~2%) and there is ahigh user discomfort risk in the case of an inaccurate forecastPrevious studies have shown that solar overheating of the building led to gas savings with solar gas combisystems. Using a similar strategy on the MacSheep reference system did not lead to significant savings, due to strong interactions between space and DHW heating and a higher share of HP operation time for DHW charging of the store, which has a lower efficiency.Another smart control strategy was investigated forvariable electricity pricesusing overheating of the building and/or the DHW volume of the store.The main conclusion of the study is that the combination of the two algorithms led to cost savings for the Austria (Graz) and France (Chambery) with both theSFH45 and SFH100 buildings.Since only the share related to user consumption varies during the day while the grid and transmission costs are usually constant, thecost savings were small, far below 1%.Among the proposed fault detection algorithms for solar and heat pump systems, detection of wrongly connected tubes in the solar collector loop was found interesting by Viesmmann and Regulus. It was implemented and tested in their respective prototype controller. Regulus also implemented the detection of wrong order phase connections in its heat pump prototype as well as threshold tests on abnormal temperature and pressure evolution.

  • 54. Chèze, David
    et al.
    Papillon, Philippe
    Leconte, Antoine
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Haller, Michel Y.
    Haberl, Robert
    Towards an harmonized whole system test method for combined renewable heating systems for houses2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is the development of harmonized efficiency test methods for combined renewable heating systems for houses, using a hardware-in-the-loop approach. An overview of the principles of the existing whole system test methods used by 3 research institutes involved in the project (MacSheep 2012) is given. Main objectives are realistic dynamic test sequence elaboration for solar and heat pump systems and comparison of results from tests achieved in different institutes. In order to reach these objectives, the first phase of the work aimed to harmonize the boundary conditions that comprise both the physical boundaries of the tested system as well as the climate and heat load definition, and this is presented in the first part of the article. The second part presents two methodologies to elaborate 12-days and 6-days whole system test sequences, validation results for solar and air source heat pump systems (SHP) and a methodology for achieving equal amount of space heat supplied by the tested system while at the same time providing a realistic response of the heat distribution system.

  • 55. Dahm, J
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Lorenz, Klaus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Dalenbäck, J-O
    Six-Day System Test and Component test and System Simulation for Combitanks with Internal heat Exchangers1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An international standard, ISO/DP 9459-4 has been proposed to establish a uniform standard of quality for small, factory-made solar heating systerns. In this proposal, system components are tested separatelyand total system performance is calculated using system simulations based on component model parameter values validated using the results from the component tests. Another approach is to test the whole system in operation under representative conditions, where the results can be used as a measure of the general system performance. The advantage of system testing of this form is that it is not dependent on simulations and the possible inaccuracies of the models. Its disadvantage is that it is restricted to the boundary conditions for the test. Component testing and system simulation is flexible, but requires an accurate and reliable simulation model. The heat store is a key component conceming system performance. Thus, this work focuses on the storage system consisting store, electrical auxiliary heater, heat exchangers and tempering valve. Four different storage system configurations with a volume of 750 litre were tested in an indoor system test using a six -day test sequence. A store component test and system simulation was carried out on one of the four configurations, applying the proposed standard for stores, ISO/DP 9459-4A. Three newly developed test sequences for intemalload side heat exchangers, not in the proposed ISO standard, were also carried out. The MULTIPORT store model was used for this work. This paper discusses the results of the indoor system test, the store component test, the validation of the store model parameter values and the system simulations.

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  • 56. Dahm, Jochen
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Lorenz, Klaus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof
    Evaluation of storage configurations with internal heat exchangers1998Ingår i: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 62, nr 6, s. 407-417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An international standard, ISO/DP 9459-4A, 1996 has been proposed to establish a uniform standard of quality for small solar heating systems. In this proposal, system components are tested separately and total system performance is calculated using system simulations based on validated component model parameter values. Another approach is to test the whole system in operation under representative conditions, where the results can be used as a measure of the general system performance. Component testing and system simulation is flexible, but requires an accurate and reliable simulation model. The advantage of system testing is that it is not dependent on simulations and that it shows the actual system performance. Its disadvantage is that it is restricted to the boundary conditions for the test. The heat store is a key component concerning system performance. Thus, this work focuses on the storage system consisting of store, electrical auxiliary heater, internal heat exchangers (solar and load loops) and tempering valve. Four different storage system configurations with a volume of 7501 were tested in an indoor system test using a statistically generated six-day test sequence and a solar collector simulator. A store component test and system simulation was carried out on one of the four configurations, applying the proposed standard for stores, ISO/DP 9459-4A, 1996 and the MULTIPORT store model. Three test sequences for internal load side heat exchangers, not in the proposed ISO standard, were also carried out. This paper discusses the results of the indoor system test, the store component test, the validation of the store model parameter values and the system simulations. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 57. Dermentzis, G.
    et al.
    Ochs, F.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Calabrese, T.
    Siegele, D.
    Feist, W.
    Dipasquale, C.
    Fedrizzi, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    A comprehensive evaluation of a monthly-based energy auditing tool through dynamic simulations, and monitoring in a renovation case study2019Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 183, s. 713-726Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An energy auditing tool (PHPP) was evaluated against a dynamic simulation tool (TRNSYS) and used for the assessment of energy conservation measures in a demo case study. The comprehensive comparison of useful heating and cooling demands and loads included three building types (single-, multi-family house, and office), three building energy levels (before renovation and after renovation with a heating demand of 45 and 25 kWh/(m²·a)) and seven European climates. Dynamic simulation results proved PHPP (monthly energy balance) to be able to calculate heating demand and energy savings with good precision and cooling demand with acceptable precision compared to detailed numerical models (TRNSYS). The average deviation between the tools was 8% for heating and 15% for cooling (considering climates with a relevant cooling load only). The higher the thermal envelope quality was, i.e. in case of good energy standards and in cold climates, the better was the agreement. Furthermore, it was confirmed that PHPP slightly overestimates the heating and cooling loads by intention for system design. The renovation design of a real multi-family house was executed using PHPP as energy auditing tool. Several calculation stages were performed for (a) baseline, (b) design phase, and (c) verification with monitoring in order to calculate the corresponding heating demand. The PHPP model was calibrated twice, before and after the renovation. The necessity for tool calibration, especially for the baseline, was highlighted increasing the confidence with respect to a number of boundary conditions. In this study, PHPP was tested as an energy auditing tool aiming to be a versatile and less error-prone alternative to more complex simulation tools, which require much more expert knowledge and training. 

  • 58. Dipasquale, Chiara
    et al.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Ochs, Fabian
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Database of energy, environmental and economic indicators of renovation packages for European residential buildings2019Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 203, artikel-id 109427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the energy efficiency with a vast impact in the residential building stock requires retrofit solutions that can be exploited with respect to a wide range of different building typologies and climates. Several tools and methodologies are nowadays available both for the assessment of building demands and for the individuation of optimum retrofit solutions. However, they are usually either too complex to be adopted by professionals or, on the contrary, oversimplified to account for the full complexity of a deep envelope and HVAC system retrofit. In this context, this paper describes a methodology developed to generate reliable information on retrofit solutions for typical buildings in different climatic conditions. Detailed numerical models are used to simulate a number of combinations of envelope and HVAC systems retrofit measures and renewable energy integration. Energy performance results are gathered in a database that allows comparing solutions, spanning over a range of more than 250,000 combinations of building types, age of construction, climates, envelope performance levels and HVAC systems configurations. Economic feasibility is also derived for each of the combinations. In this way, the accurateness of a detailed and validated calculation is made available to assist during the decision making process, with minimum computational effort being required by professionals: the variety and density of evaluated combinations allows to easily assess the performance of a specific case by interpolating among instances previously assessed. The applicability of the results to different climates and similar building typologies is verified by a comparison of the database results with a specific case dynamic simulation.

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  • 59. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3a Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Method2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the primary objectives of the iNSPiRe project was to develop a tool that predicts the energy and cost saving impacts of various systemic retrofit interventions. This tool is now available for all those involved in the renovation of older buildings (from consulting offices, moving through construction companies and to decision makers) to use as a means of selecting which retrofit package will deliver the greatest costs savings and most improved energy efficiencies.To this purpose, we have produced three databases that provide valuable information about the energy performance of a variety of buildings in different climates, based on different energy requirements. These are the results of a three stage process:1. Collection of energy use data (statistics) for the whole of EU 27, the structuring of a building stock database and the definition of reference buildings that represent the most typical buildings of the building stock. Data for six different age categories were derived, including typical construction information and insulation standards for these periods. Seven climatic regions were also defined to cover the EU 27. The structured data are available in the Building Stock Statistics database.2. Derivation of a complete and consistent database of heating and cooling demands in residential and office buildings covering the whole of the EU 27 based on the simulation of the defined reference buildings in seven climatic regions. The simulations were calibrated against the energy use statistics, and are thus consistent with these, but offer the full range of heating and cooling demands for all climates and building types for six different age categories. The results are available in the Reference Building Simulation database.3. Definition of a range of retrofit measures for the reference buildings including climatic shell, HVAC system and heating/cooling distribution. The matrix of these measures was then simulated for all building types for the seven different climatic regions to provide data for the third database, the Systemic Renovation Packages database.

  • 60. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3b Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Single Family Houses2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the primary objectives of the iNSPiRe project was to develop a tool that predicts the energy and cost saving impacts of various systemic retrofit interventions. This tool is now available for all those involved in the renovation of older buildings (from consulting offices, moving through construction companies and to decision makers) to use as a means of selecting which retrofit package will deliver the greatest costs savings and most improved energy performance.The whole set of Renovation Packages in the published database includes results for a range of SFH typologies, from detached to row houses, with different external surface over building volume ratio.In order to compare the same Envelope Renovation when applied to different SFH typologies and climates, we adopted the detached constructions as the basis to define insulation, windows and mechanical ventilation measures that match the heating demand standards sought (15, 25, 40, 70 kWh/m2y). Since the solutions found are the most conservative, lower heating demands are obtained for semi-detached and row houses.The solutions elaborated in terms of window features, and walls/roof cross sections and materials, are reported in Deliverable 6.3a for the whole range of buildings and the 7 climates analysed.In this document we comment the results relative to the reference buildings built 1945-1970, renovated with four generation systems (AWHP, GWHP, gas boiler and biomass boiler) and three distribution systems (radiant ceilings, radiators and fan coils). In order to limit the number of solutions discussed, here we report results only for the detached SFHs. The full range of solutions is published on the iNSPiRe website.The generation plants are hybrid solutions designed to combine heat pumps or boilers with solar thermal and/or PV technologies. These combinations integrate multiple renewable energy sources, thus allowing to reach in the best cases the 50 kWh/m2y primary energy consumption limit that is the objective of the retrofit packages devised.

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  • 61. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3c Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Multi-Family Houses2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we comment the results relative to the reference buildings built within the first age (1945-1970), and renovated with 4 generation systems (air to water heat pump, ground water heat pump, gas boiler and biomass boiler) and 3 distribution systems (radiant ceilings, radiators and fan coils).According to the buildings classification (see D2.1a and D2.1c), two different Multi Family Houses typologies are identified, small Multi Family House (s-MFH) and large Multi Family House (l-MFH). In the published database, only s-MFHs are included, varying the number of floors (3, 5 and 7 floors) and, consequently, the surface over volume (S/V) ratio.As well as for the SFHs, we adopted a reference S/V ratio as the basis to define insulation, windows and mechanical ventilation measures to match the sought heating demand targets (15, 25, 45, 70 kWh/m²y), that is 5 floors and 10 apartments.

  • 62.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Persson, Jannika
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Gustavsson, Marcus
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Femenías, Paula
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Lundin, Michelle
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Larsson, David
    Solkompaniet.
    Miljontak Delprojekt 2: Sammanfattning av litteratursammanställning2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 63.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Optimisation method for solar heating systems in combination with pellet boilers/stoves2007Ingår i: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 325-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study an optimisation method for the design of combined solar and pellet heating systems is presented and evaluated. The paper describes the steps of the method by applying it for an example system. The objective of the optimisation was to find the design parameters that give the lowest auxiliary energy (pellet fuel + auxiliary electricity) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for a system with a typical load, a single family house in Sweden. Weighting factors have been used for the auxiliary energy use and CO emissions to give a combined objective function. Different weighting factors were tested. The results show that extreme weighting factors lead to their own minima. However, it was possible to find factors that ensure low values for both auxiliary energy and CO emissions, and suitable weighting factors are suggested.

  • 64.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Nordlander, Svante
    Comparison of carbon monoxide emissions and electricity consumption of modulating and non-modulating pellet and solar heating systems2007Ingår i: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 31, nr 10, s. 915-930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emission and electricity consumption are important aspects of a pellet heating system. Low noxious emissions, particularly carbon monoxide, are a measure of a well-performing system. High carbon monoxide emissions are often caused by unnecessary cycling of the burner, poor adjustment of the combustion air and insufficient maintenance. The carbon monoxide output, the thermal performance and the electricity consumption for modulating and non-modulating operation mode have been investigated by simulations of four stoves/boilers as part of combined solar and pellet heating systems. The systems have been modelled with the simulation programme TRNSYS and simulated with the boundary conditions for space heating demand, hot water load and climate data as used in earlier research projects. The results from the simulations show that operating the pellet units with modulating combustion power reduces the number of starts and stops but does not necessarily reduce the carbon monoxide output. Whether the carbon monoxide output can be reduced or not depends very strongly on the reduction of starts and stops and how much the carbon monoxide emissions increase with decreased combustion power, which are in turn dependent on the particular settings of each pellet burner and how the heat is transferred to the building. However, for most systems the modulating operation mode has a positive impact on carbon monoxide emissions. Considering the total auxiliary energy demand, including the electricity demand of the pellet units, the modulating combustion control is advantageous for systems 1 and 4 for the used boundary conditions. The study also shows that an appropriate sizing of the stove or boiler has a huge potential for energy saving and carbon monoxide emission reduction.

  • 65.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Thür, Alexander
    Design method for solar heating systems in combination with pellet boilers/stoves2006Ingår i: EuroSun 2006, Glasgow, UK, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study an optimization method for the design of combined solar and pellet heating systems is presented and evaluated. The paper describes the steps of the method by applying it for an example of system. The objective of the optimization was to find the design parameters that give the lowest auxiliary energy (pellet fuel + auxiliary electricity) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for a system with a typical load, a single family house in Sweden. Weighting factors have been used for the auxiliary energy use and CO emissions to give a combined target function. Different weighting factors were tested. The results show that extreme weighting factors lead to their own minima. However, it was possible to find factors that ensure low values for both auxiliary energy and CO emissions.

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  • 66.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Vestlund, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Erfahrungen mit einem neu entwickelten kombinierten Pellet- und Solarheizungssystems2008Ingår i: 18. Symposium Thermische Solarenergi, Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 67.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Vestlund, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Monitoring results of combined pellet and solar heating system2007Ingår i: ISES Solar World Congress 2007, ISES 2007, 2007, Vol. 2, s. 867-871Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the monitoring results of prototype installation of a recently developed solar combisystem have been evaluated. The system, that uses a water jacketed pellet stove as auxiliary heater, was installed in a single family house in Borlänge/Sweden. In order to allow an evaluation under realistic conditions the system has been monitored for a time period of one year. From the measurements of the system it could be seen that it is important that the pellet stove has a sufficient buffer store volume to minimize cycling. The measurements showed also that the stove gives a lower share of the produced heat to the water loop than measured under stationary conditions. The solar system works as expected and covers the heat demand during the summer and a part of the heat demand during spring and autumn. Potential for optimization exists for the parasitic electricity demand. The system consumes 680 kWh per year for pumps, valves and controllers which is more than 4% of the total primary heating energy demand.

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  • 68.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Nordlander, Svante
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Thermal performance of combined solar and pellet heating systems2006Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 73-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Various pellet heating systems are marketed in Sweden, some of them in combination with a solar heating system. Several types of pellet heating units are available and can be used for a combined system. This article compares four typical combined solar and pellet heating systems: System 1 and 2 with a pellet stove, system 3 with a store integrated pellet burner and system 4 with a pellet boiler. The often lower efficiency of pellet heaters compared to oil or gas heaters increases the final energy demand. Consequently heat losses of the various systems have been studied. The systems have been modeled in TRNSYS and simulated with parameters identified from measurements. For almost all systems the flue gas losses are the main heat losses except for system 3 where store heat losses prevail. Relevant are also the heat losses of the burner and the boiler to the ambient. Significant leakage losses are noticed for system 3 and 4. For buildings with an open internal design system 1 is the most efficient solution. Other buildings should preferably apply system 2 or 3. The right choice of the system depends also on whether the heater is placed inside or outside of the heated area. Unlike the expectations and results from other studies, the operation of the pellet heaters with modulating combustion power is not necessarily improving the performance. A large potential for system optimization exists for all studied systems, which when applied could alter the relative merits of the different system types.

  • 69.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Reduction of co-emissions by combining pellet and solar heating systems2008Ingår i: Eurosun 2008, Lisbon, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions are an important aspect of a pellet heating system. High carbon monoxide emissions are often caused by unnecessary cycling of the burner when the burner is operated below the lowest combustion power. Combining pellet heating systems with a solar heating system can significantly reduce cycling of the pellet heater and avoid the inefficient summer operation of the pellet heater. The aim of this paper was to study CO-emissions of the different types of systems and to compare the yearly CO-emissions obtained from simulations with the yearly CO-emissions calculated based on the values that are obtained by the standard test methods. The results showed that the yearly CO-emissions obtained from the simulations are significant higher than the yearly CO-emissions calculated based on the standard test methods. It is also shown that for the studied systems the average emissions under these realistic annual conditions were greater than the limit values of two Eco-labels. Furthermore it could be seen that is possible to almost halve the CO-emission if the pellet heater is combined with a solar heating system.

  • 70. Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Nordlander, Svante
    Heat losses and thermal performance of commercial combined solar and pellet heating systems2004Ingår i: Eurosun 2004, Freiburg/Germany, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [un]

    Various pellet heating systems are marketed in Sweden, some of them in combination with a solar heating system. Several types of pellet heating units are available and can be used for a combined system. This article compares four typical combined solar and pellet heating systems: System 1 and 2 two with a pellet stove, system 3 with a store integrated pellet burner and system 4 with a pellet boiler. The lower efficiency of pellet heaters compared to oil or gas heaters increases the primary energy demand. Consequently heat losses of the various systems have been studied. The systems have been modeled in TRNSYS and simulated with parameters identified from measurements. For almost all systems the flue gas losses are the main heat losses except for system 3 where store heat losses prevail. Relevant are also the heat losses of the burner and the boiler to the ambient. Significant leakage losses are noticed for system 3 and 4. For buildings with an open internal design system 1 is the most efficient solution. Other buildings should preferably apply system 3. The right choice of the system depends also on whether the heater is placed inside or outside of the heated are. A large potential for system optimization exist for all studied systems, which when applied could alter the relative merits of the different system types.

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  • 71.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Thür, Alexander
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Furbo, Simon
    The actual status of the development of a Danish/Swedish system concept of a solar combisystem2005Ingår i: Northsun, Vilnius, 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of 2003 the four year long research project REBUS on education, research, development and demonstration of competitive solar combisystems was launched. Research groups in Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Latvia are working together with partners from industry on innovative solutions for solar heating in the Nordic countries. Existing system concepts have been analyzed and based on the results new system designs have been developed. The proposed solutions have to fulfill country specific technical, sociological and cost requirements. Due to the similar demands on the systems in Denmark and Sweden it has been decided to develop a common system concept for both countries, which increases the market potential for the manufacturer. The focus of the development is on systems for the large number of rather well insulated existing single family houses. In close collaboration with the industrial partners a system concept has been developed that is characterized by its high compactness and flexibility. It allows the use of different types of boilers, heating distribution systems and a variable store and collector size. Two prototypes have been built, one for the Danish market with a gas boiler, and one for the Swedish market with a pellet boiler as auxiliary heater. After intensive testing and eventual further improvements at least two systems will be installed and monitored in demonstration houses. The systems have been modeled in TRNSYS and the simulation results will be used to further improve the system and evaluate the system performance.

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  • 72. Furbo, Simon
    et al.
    Thür, Alexander
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Rekstad, John
    Meir, Michaela
    Blumberga, Dagnija
    Rochas, Claudio
    Solar thermal components adapted to common building standards (SCAS)2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot versions of a solar heating/natural gas burner system, of a solar heating/pellet burner system and of a façade/roof integrated polymeric collector have been installed in the summer of 2006 in a number of demonstration houses in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. These three new products have been evaluated by means of measurements of the thermal performance and energy savings of the pilot systems in practice and by means of a commercial evaluation. The conclusion of the evaluations is that the products are attractive for the industry partners METRO THERM A/S, Solentek and SOLARNOR. It is expected that the companies will bring the products into the market in 2007. Further, the results of the project have been presented atinternational and national congresses and seminars for the solar heating branch. The congresses and seminars attracted a lot of interested participants. Furthermore, the project results have been published in international congress papers as well as in national journals in the energy field. Consequently, the Nordic solar heating industry will benefit from the project.

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  • 73. Furbo, Simon
    et al.
    Thür, Alexander
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Rekstad, John
    Meir, Michaela
    Blumberga, Dagnija
    Rochas, Claudio
    Schifter-Holm, Torbjörn
    Lorenz, Klaus
    Competitive Solar Heating Systems for Residential Buildings (REBUS)2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on solar combisystems for the Nordic and Baltic countries have been carried out. The aim was to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers and to educate experts in the solar heating field. The participants of the projects were the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden), SolarNor (Norway) and SIA Grandeg (Latvia). The project included education, research, development and demonstration. The activities started in 2003 and were finished by the end of 2006. A number of Ph.D. studies in Denmark, Sweden and Latvia, and a post-doc. study in Norway were carried out. Close cooperation between the researchers and the industry partners ensured that the results of the projects can be utilized. The industry partners will soon be able to bring the developed systems into the market. In Denmark and Norway the research and development focused on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus was on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo studied solar collectors of various types being integrated into the building.

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  • 74. Furbo, Simon
    et al.
    Thür, Alexander
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings2005Ingår i: Northsun, Vilnius, 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 75. Furbo, Simon
    et al.
    Thür, Alexander
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Miljöteknik.
    Rekstad, John
    Meir, Michaela
    Blumberga, Dagnija
    Rochas, Claudio
    Karlsson, Björn
    Nordic Energy Research Cooperation on Solar Combisystems2006Ingår i: Eurosun 2006, Glasgow, UK, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing research on solar combisystems for the Nordic and Baltic countries carried out within the projects "Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings" and "Solar thermal components adapted to common building standards". The aim of the projects is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers and to educate experts in the solar heating field.

  • 76.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Techno-economic analysis of three HVAC retrofitting options2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting for around 40% of the total final energy consumption, the building stock is an important area of focus on the way to reaching the energy goals set for the European Union. The relatively small share of new buildings makes renovation of existing buildings possibly the most feasible way of improving the overall energy performance of the building stock. This of course involves improvements on the climate shell, for example by additional insulation or change of window glazing, but also installation of new heating systems, to increase the energy efficiency and to fit the new heat load after renovation. In the choice of systems for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), it is important to consider their performance for space heating as well as for domestic hot water (DHW), especially for a renovated house where the DHW share of the total heating consumption is larger.

    The present study treats the retrofitting of a generic single family house, which was defined as a reference building in a European energy renovation project. Three HVAC retrofitting options were compared from a techno-economic point of view: A) Air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR), B) Exhaust air heat pump (EAHP) with low-temperature ventilation radiators, and C) Gas boiler and ventilation with MVHR. The systems were simulated for houses with two levels of heating demand and four different locations: Stockholm, Gdansk, Stuttgart and London. They were then evaluated by means of life cycle cost (LCC) and primary energy consumption. Dynamic simulations were done in TRNSYS 17.

    In most cases, system C with gas boiler and MVHR was found to be the cheapest retrofitting option from a life cycle perspective. The advantage over the heat pump systems was particularly clear for a house in Germany, due to the large discrepancy between national prices of natural gas and electricity. In Sweden, where the price difference is much smaller, the heat pump systems had almost as low or even lower life cycle costs than the gas boiler system. Considering the limited availability of natural gas in Sweden, systems A and B would be the better options. From a primary energy point of view system A was the best option throughout, while system B often had the highest primary energy consumption. The limited capacity of the EAHP forced it to use more auxiliary heating than the other systems did, which lowered its COP. The AWHP managed the DHW load better due to a higher capacity, but had a lower COP than the EAHP in space heating mode. Systems A and C were notably favoured by the air heat recovery, which significantly reduced the heating demand.

    It was also seen that the DHW share of the total heating consumption was, as expected, larger for the house with the lower space heating demand. This confirms the supposition that it is important to include DHW in the study of HVAC systems for retrofitting.

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  • 77.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. KTH.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Energy performance comparison of three innovative HVAC systems for renovation through dynamic simulation2014Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, s. 512-519Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic simulation was used to compare the energy performance of three innovativeHVAC systems: (A) mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) and micro heat pump, (B) exhaustventilation with exhaust air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, and (C) exhaust ventilationwith air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, to a reference system: (D) exhaust ventilation withair-to-water heat pump and panel radiators. System A was modelled in MATLAB Simulink and systems Band C in TRNSYS 17. The reference system was modelled in both tools, for comparison between the two.All systems were tested with a model of a renovated single family house for varying U-values, climates,infiltration and ventilation rates.It was found that A was the best system for lower heating demand, while for higher heating demandsystem B would be preferable. System C was better than the reference system, but not as good as A or B.The difference in energy consumption of the reference system was less than 2 kWh/(m2a) betweenSimulink and TRNSYS. This could be explained by the different ways of handling solar gains, but also bythe fact that the TRNSYS systems supplied slightly more than the ideal heating demand.

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  • 78.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Dipasquale, C.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bellini, A.
    Fedrizzi, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Ochs, F.
    Sié, M.
    Holmberg, S.
    Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation packages for European office buildings2017Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 148, s. 155-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the buildings in Europe are old and in need of renovation, both in terms of functional repairs and energy efficiency. While many studies have addressed energy renovation of buildings, they rarely combine economic and environmental life cycle analyses, particularly for office buildings. The present paper investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of energy renovation packages for European office buildings. The renovation packages, including windows, envelope insulation, heating, cooling and ventilation systems and solar photovoltaics (PV), were evaluated in terms of life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) through dynamic simulation for different European climates. Compared to a purely functional renovation, the studied renovation packages resulted in up to 77% lower energy costs, 19% lower total annualized costs, 79% lower climate change impact, 89% lower non-renewable energy use, 66% lower particulate matter formation and 76% lower freshwater eutrophication impact over a period of 30 years. The lowest total costs and environmental impact, in all of the studied climates, were seen for the buildings with the lowest heating demand. Solar PV panels covering part of the electricity demand could further reduce the environmental impact and, at least in southern Europe, even reduce the total costs. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 79.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Comparison of two HVAC renovation solutions: A case study2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aging building stock of Europe, there is great potential of saving energy through renovation and upgrading to modern standards, and to thereby approach the internationally set goals of lower energy use. This paper concerns the planned renovation of the building envelope and HVAC systems in a multi-family house in Ludwigsburg, Germany. Five systemic HVAC solutions were compared, with special focus on two systems: A) Balanced ventilation with HRC + Micro heat pump, and B) Forced exhaust ventilation + Heat pump with exhaust air HRC + Ventilation radiators. Given the predicted heating demand and ventilation rate of the house after renovation, the performance of the two systems was compared, alongside three common systems for reference. Calculations were made using TMF Energi, a tool developed by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.

       Both systems A and B were found to have the lowest electrical energy use together with the ground source heat pump system for the assumed conditions. For other assumptions, including different climate and degree of insulation, some differences between these three systems were noted. Most significant is the increased electrical use of system B for higher heating loads due to limitations in the power available from the heat source, exhaust air, which is dependent on the ventilation rate.

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  • 80.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. KTH.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Birchall, Sarah
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Calabrese, Toni (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    University of Innsbruck.
    Report on auditing tool for assessment of building needs2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 81.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. KTH.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Performance of Studied Systemic Renovation Packages – Office Buildings2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    fulltext
  • 82.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. KTH.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Falu Energi och Vatten.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family houseManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings plays an important part in the work towards European climate and energy goals. The present paper treats energy efficiency renovation measures for a district heated Swedish multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Five HVAC systems were studied in combination with three renovation levels, starting from basic renovation to maintain functionality and then adding 1) better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, and 2) additional insulation on roof and façade. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump. Life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO₂ emissions and non-renewable energy use were assessed for all combinations.

    The system with the lowest cost and environmental impact was, in most cases, the one where district heating and heat pump were combined for both heating and DHW. Low-temperature heating improved the performance factor of the heat pump, but reduced the heat output and increased the need for backup heating. Changing windows and water taps was found to be profitable, while additional insulation reduced the environmental impact but increased the life cycle cost.

  • 83.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Holmberg, Sture
    Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house2016Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 177, s. 108-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump.Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the heat pump by up to 11% and reduced the environmental impact.

  • 84.
    Haberl, Robert
    et al.
    Institute for Solar Technology SPF, HSR University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Haller, Michell Y.
    Institute for Solar Technology SPF, HSR University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Papillon, Philippe
    CEA INES, France.
    Chèze,, David
    CEA INES, France.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Testing of combined heating systems for small houses: Improved procedures for whole system test methods: Deliverable 2.32015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic system test methods for heating systems were developed and applied by the institutes SERC and SP from Sweden, INES from France and SPF from Switzerland already before the MacSheep project started. These test methods followed the same principle: a complete heating system – including heat generators, storage, control etc., is installed on the test rig; the test rig software and hardware simulates and emulates the heat load for space heating and domestic hot water of a single family house, while the unit under test has to act autonomously to cover the heat demand during a representative test cycle. Within the work package 2 of the MacSheep project these similar – but different – test methods were harmonized and improved. The work undertaken includes: 

    • Harmonization of the physical boundaries of the unit under test.

    • Harmonization of the boundary conditions of climate and load.

    • Definition of an approach to reach identical space heat load in combination with an autonomous control of the space heat distribution by the unit under test.

    • Derivation and validation of new six day and a twelve day test profiles for direct extrapolation of test results.

     

    The new harmonized test method combines the advantages of the different methods that existed before the MacSheep project. The new method is a benchmark test, which means that the load for space heating and domestic hot water preparation will be identical for all tested systems, and that the result is representative for the performance of the system over a whole year. Thus, no modelling and simulation of the tested system is needed in order to obtain the benchmark results for a yearly cycle. The method is thus also applicable to products for which simulation models are not available yet.

    Some of the advantages of the new whole system test method and performance rating compared to the testing and energy rating of single components are: 

    • Interaction between the different components of a heating system, e.g. storage, solar collector circuit, heat pump, control, etc. are included and evaluated in this test.

    • Dynamic effects are included and influence the result just as they influence the annual performance in the field.

    • Heat losses are influencing the results in a more realistic way, since they are evaluated under "real installed" and representative part-load conditions rather than under single component steady state conditions.

     

    The described method is also suited for the development process of new systems, where it replaces time-consuming and costly field testing with the advantage of a higher accuracy of the measured data (compared to the typically used measurement equipment in field tests) and identical, thus comparable boundary conditions. Thus, the method can be used for system optimization in the test bench under realistic operative conditions, i.e. under relevant operating environment in the lab.

     

    This report describes the physical boundaries of the tested systems, as well as the test procedures and the requirements for both the unit under test and the test facility. The new six day and twelve day test profiles are also described as are the validation results.

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  • 85. Haller, M.
    et al.
    Paavilainen, J.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Konersman, L.
    Droscher, A.
    Frank, E.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Streicher, W.
    A Unified Model for the Simulation of Oil, Gas, and Biomass Space Heating Boilers for Energy Estimating Purposes: Part I: Model Development2011Ingår i: Journal of Building Performance Simulation, Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1940-1493, E-ISSN 1940-1507, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A unified model for the simulation of oil, gas, pellet and wood chip space heating boilers for energy estimating purposes has been developed based on a literature review and laboratory measurements on four different boilers. The model includes the influence of space heating return temperature, power modulation and condensation gains on the flue gas losses of the boiler, the simulation of a thermal boiler capacitance including its heat losses during standby and operation, and the ability to calculate carbon monoxide emissions and electricity use dependent on power modulation and number of burner starts. Some of the new features of the presented boiler model are the unification of models for oil, gas and biomass boilers into one model, and the combination of steady state calculation for the flue gas to water heat transfer with an explicit solution for the time dependent temperature change of the boiler’s thermal capacitance.

  • 86. Haller, M.
    et al.
    Paavilainen, J.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Konersman, L.
    Haberl, R.
    Droscher, A.
    Frank, E
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Streicher, W.
    A Unified Model for the Simulation of Oil, Gas, and Biomass Space Heating Boilers for Energy Estimating Purposes: Part II: Parameterization and Comparison with Measurements2011Ingår i: Journal of Building Performance Simulation, Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1940-1493, E-ISSN 1940-1507, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 19-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A semi-physical model for the simulation of oil, gas and biomass space heating boilers has been parameterized based on measurements on nine different boiler units and simulation results have been compared to results obtained from measurements in steady state and transient operation. Although the agreement between simulated and measured boiler efficiencies was within the range of measurement uncertainties in most cases, model improvements are expected to be possible concerning the heat capacitance modelling in cycling on/off operation as well as influences of start and stop behaviour on the overall efficiency. It is found that electricity consumption during cycling on/off operation of small pellets or oil space heating boilers may have a significant influence on the overall energy balance of these units. This influence increases strongly with decreasing heat load and increasing number of on/off cycles.

  • 87. Haller, M.
    et al.
    Yazdanshenas, E.
    Andersen, E.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Streicher, W.
    Furbo, S.
    A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses2010Ingår i: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 84, nr 6, s. 997-1007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices.

  • 88. Haller, Michel
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Streicher, Wolfgang
    Combined Solar and Pellet Heating Systems for Houses: Improvement of Energy Efficiency and Reduction of Boiler ON/OFF cycling2010Ingår i: Eurosun 2010, Graz, Austria, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Annual simulations of combined solar and pellet combisystems have been performed based on measurements of two pellet boilers and a burner integrated into a solar thermal energy storage (TES). The results show that the investigated burner integration is more energy efficient in comparison with the external pellet boiler solution. The flue gas losses were the predominant losses measured for steady state burner operation, but heat losses to the ambient were predominant in the annual simulation results. The number of ON/OFF cycles of the pellet burner depends to a high degree on the control strategy implemented to adapt the power modulation to the current demand, and varied from almost 3000/a in the worst case to less than 900/a in the best case simulated. Based on parametric simulation studies, it was determined that the fractional energy savings of both systems could be increased fromaround 20% to 30% for a house with 4.6 kW heat load at climate Zurich without increasing the area of 10 m2 flat plate collectors or the TES volume of 850 litres. A comparison with a hypothetical TES of the tank-in-tank design showed additional potential for improvement due to a smaller area of the TES that has to be kept at high temperatures for DHW use.

  • 89.
    Haller, Michel
    et al.
    Institut für Solartechnik SPF, Hochschule für Technik HSR.
    Carbonell, Dani
    Institut für Solartechnik SPF, Hochschule für Technik HSR.
    Bertram, Erik
    Institut für Solarenergieforschung Hameln ISFH.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Institut für Wärmetechnik, Technische Universität Graz.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    System simulations2015Ingår i: Solar and Heat Pump Systems for Residential Buildings / [ed] Jean-Christophe Hadorn, John Wiley & Sons, 2015, 1, s. 274-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 90.
    Haller, Michel Yves
    et al.
    SPF Institut für Solartechnik, Hochschule für Technik.
    Haberl, Robert
    SPF Institut für Solartechnik, Hochschule für Technik.
    Persson, Tomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Kovacs, Peter
    Technical Research Institutue of Sweden.
    Chèze, David
    CEA, INES.
    Papillon, Philippe
    CEA, INES.
    Dynamic whole system testing of combined renewable heating systems: the current state of the art2013Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 66, s. 667-677Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: For the evaluation of the energetic performance of combined renewable heating systems that supply space heat and domestic hot water for single family houses, dynamic behaviour, component interactions, and control of the system play a crucial role and should be included in test methods.

    Methods: New dynamic whole system test methods were developed based on “hardware in the loop” concepts. Three similar approaches are described and their differences are discussed. The methods were applied for testing solar thermal systems in combination with fossil fuel boilers (heating oil and natural gas), biomass boilers, and/or heat pumps.

    Results: All three methods were able to show the performance of combined heating systems under transient operating conditions. The methods often detected unexpected behaviour of the tested system that cannot be detected based on steady state performance tests that are usually applied to single components.

    Conclusion: Further work will be needed to harmonize the different test methods in order to reach comparable results between the different laboratories.

    Practice implications: A harmonized approach for whole system tests may lead to new test standards and improve the accuracy of performance prediction as well as reduce the need for field tests.

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  • 91.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Martin, Viktoria
    Department of Energy Technology, KTH.
    Combining Thermal Energy Storage with Buildings: A Review2015Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 42, s. 1305-1325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been a topic of research for quite some time and has proven to be a technology that can have positive effects on the energy efficiency of a building by contributing to an increased share of renewable energy and/or reduction in energy demand or peak loads for both heating and cooling. There are many TES technologies available, both commercial and emerging, and the amount of published literature on the subject is considerable. Literature discussing the combination of thermal energy storage with buildings is however lacking and it is therefore not an easy task to decide which type of TES to use in a certain building. The goal of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of a wide variety of TES technologies, with a clear focus on the combination of storage technology and building type. The results show many promising TES technologies, both for residential and commercial buildings, but also that much research still is required, especially in the fields of phase change materials and thermochemical storage.

  • 92.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Martin, Viktoria
    Energy Efficiency through Thermal Energy Storage - Evaluation of the Possibilities for the Swedish Building Stock, Phase 12010Ingår i: Clima2010, Antalya, Turkiet, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As a first step in assessing the potential of thermal energy storage in Swedish buildings, the current situation of the Swedish building stock and different storage methods are discussed in this paper. Overall, many buildings are from the 1960’s or earlier having a relatively high energy demand, creating opportunities for large energy savings. The major means of heating are electricity for detached houses and district heating for multi dwelling houses and premises. Cooling needs are relatively low but steadily increasing, emphasizing the need to consider energy storage for both heat and cold. The thermal mass of a building is important for passive storage of thermal energy but this has not been considered much when constructing buildings in Sweden. Instead, common ways of storing thermal energy in Swedish buildings today is in water storage tanks or in the ground using boreholes, while latent thermal energy storage is still very uncommon.

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  • 93.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Martin, Viktoria
    Thermal energy storage in Swedish single family houses: a case study2012Ingår i: InnoStock The 12th International Conference on Energy Storage: Book of Abstract, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Nordic climate, space heating (SH) and domestic hot water (DHW) used in buildings constitute a considerable part of the total energy use in the country. For 2010, energy used for SH and DHW amounted to almost 90 TWh in Sweden which corresponds to 60 % of the energy used in the residential and service sector, or almost 24 % of the total final energy use for the country.

    Storing heat and cold with the use of thermal energy storage (TES) can be one way of increasing the energy efficiency of a building by opening up possibilities for alternative sources of heat or cold through a reduced mismatch between supply and demand. Thermal energy storage without the use of specific control systems are said to be passive and different applications using passive TES have been shown to increase energy efficiency and/or reduce power peaks of systems supplying the heating and cooling needs of buildings, as well as having an effect on the indoor climate. Results are however not consistent between studies and focus tend to be on the reduction of cooling energy or cooling power peaks. In this paper, passive TES introduced through an increased thermal mass in the building envelope to two single family houses with different insulation standard is investigated with building energy simulations. A Nordic climate is used and the focus of this study is both on the reduction of space heating demand and space heating power, as well as on reduction of excess temperatures in residential single family houses without active cooling systems. Care is taken to keep the building envelope characteristics other than the thermal mass equal for all cases so that any observations made can be derived to the change in thermal mass.

    Results show that increasing the sensible thermal mass in a single family house can reduce the heating demand only slightly (1-4 %) and reduce excess temperatures (temperatures above 24 degrees C) by up to 20 %. Adding a layer of PCM (phase change materials) to the light building construction can give similar reduction in heating demand and excess temperatures, however the phase change temperature is important for the results.

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    Thermal energy storage in Swedish single family houses
  • 94.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Sotnikov, Artem
    Ponomarova, Ganna
    Evaluation of a high temperature solar thermal seasonal borehole storage2011Ingår i: ISES Solar World Congress, Kassel, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A solar thermal system with seasonal borehole storage for heating of a residential area in Anneberg, Sweden, approximately 10 km north of Stockholm, has been in operation since late 2002. Originally, the project was part of the EU THERMIE project “Large-scale Solar Heating Systems for Housing Developments” (REB/0061/97) and was the first solar heating plant in Europe with borehole storage in rock not utilizing a heat pump. Earlier evaluations of the system show lower performance than the preliminary simulation study, with residents complaining of a high use of electricity for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation and auxiliary heating. One explanation mentioned in the earlier evaluations is that the borehole storage had not yet reached “steady state” temperatures at the time of evaluation. Many years have passed since then and this paper presents results from a new evaluation. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the current performance of the system based on several key figures, as well as on system function based on available measurement data. The analysis show that though the borehole storage now has reached a quasi-steady state and operates as intended, the auxiliary electricity consumption is much higher than the original design values largely due to high losses in the distribution network, higher heat loads as well as lower solar gains.

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  • 95.
    Heinz, Andreas
    et al.
    Institute of Thermal Engineering Graz University of Technology.
    Hengel, Franz
    Institute of Thermal Engineering Graz University of Technology.
    Mojic, Igor
    Institut für Solartechnik SPF Hochschule für Technik HSR.
    Haller, Michel Y.
    Institut für Solartechnik SPF Hochschule für Technik HSR.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Matuska, Tomas
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
    Sedlar, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
    Petrak, Jiri
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
    Final report on heat pump developments in WP 4 - MacSheep Deliverable 4.4: MacSheep -New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2015Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 96.
    Huang, Pei
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Lovati, Marco
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    A coordinated control to improve performance for a building cluster withenergy storage, electric vehicles, and energy sharing considered2020Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 268, artikel-id 114983Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 97.
    Huang, Pei
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Lovati, Marco
    EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy; University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Hallbeck, Sven
    NIBE Climate Solutions, Sweden.
    Becker, Anders
    Ferroamp Elektronik AB, Spånga, Sweden.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    LudvikaHem AB Bobutiken, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jan
    LudvikaHem AB Bobutiken, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Maturi, Laura
    EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy.
    Transforming a residential building cluster into electricity prosumers in Sweden: Optimal design of a coupled PV-heat pump-thermal storage-electric vehicle system2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 255, artikel-id 113864Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid is triggering the transformation of traditional electricity consumers into electricity prosumers. This paper reports a case study of transforming an existing residential cluster in Sweden into electricity prosumers. The main energy concepts include (1) click-and-go photovoltaics (PV) panels for building integration, (2) centralized exhaust air heat pump, (3) thermal energy storage for storing excess PV electricity by using heat pump, and (4) PV electricity sharing within the building cluster for thermal/electrical demand (including electric vehicles load) on a direct-current micro grid. For the coupled PV-heat pump-thermal storage-electric vehicle system, a fitness function based on genetic algorithm is established to optimize the capacity and positions of PV modules at cluster level, with the purpose of maximizing the self-consumed electricity under a non-negative net present value during the economic lifetime. Different techno-economic key performance indicators, including the optimal PV capacity, self-sufficiency, self-consumption and levelized cost of electricity, are analysed under impacts of thermal storage integration, electric vehicle penetration and electricity sharing possibility. Results indicate that the coupled system can effectively improve the district-level PV electricity self-consumption rate to about 77% in the baseline case. The research results reveal how electric vehicle penetrations, thermal storage, and energy sharing affect PV system sizing/positions and the performance indicators, and thus help promote the PV deployment. This study also demonstrates the feasibility for transferring the existing Swedish building clusters into smart electricity prosumers with higher self-consumption and energy efficiency and more intelligence, which benefits achieving the ‘32% share of renewable energy source’ target in EU by 2030.

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  • 98.
    Jordan, Ulrike
    et al.
    Kassel University.
    Vajen, Klaus
    Kassel University.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Cortés Forteza, Pau Joan
    SAMPOL Ingeniería y Obr.
    Frank, Elimar
    University for Applied Sciences Rapperswil.
    Furbo, Simon
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Kerskes, Henner
    Stuttgart University.
    Heinzen, Roland
    FSave Solartechnik GmbH.
    Luke, Andrea
    Kassel University.
    Martinez-Moll, Victor
    University of the Balearic Islands.
    Pietschnig, Rudolf
    Kassel University.
    Streicher, Wolfgang
    University of Innsbruck.
    Wagner, Waldemar
    AEE Intec.
    Witzig, Andreas
    Vela Solaris AG.
    SOLNET - PhD-Scholarships and courses on solar heating2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference-accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects will be hosted by six different universities and five companies from all over Europe.

  • 99.
    Jordan, Ulrike
    et al.
    Kassel University.
    Vajen, Klaus
    Kassel University.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Forteza, Pau Joan Cortés
    SAMPOL.
    Drück, Harald
    Stuttgart University.
    Frank, Elimar
    University for Applied Sciences Rapperswil.
    Furbo, Simon
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Heinzen, Roland
    FSave Solartechnik GmbH.
    Luke, Andrea
    Kassel University.
    Martinez Moll, Victor
    Balearic Islands University.
    Pietschnig, Rudolph
    Kassel University.
    Streicher, Wolfgang
    University of Innsbruck.
    Wagner, Waldemar
    AEE Intec.
    SolNet - PhD-scholarships and courses on Solar Heating2013Ingår i: ISES SWC2013, Freiburg, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference-accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, "SHINE", will be launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials will be offered, starting in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects will be hosted by six different universities and five companies from all over Europe

  • 100.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Svedung, Harald
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings2011Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, nr 12, s. 4655-4666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface heat-radiation properties of coil-coated steel cladding material on the energy efficiency of buildings in Nordic climate is addressed by parallel temperature and energy usage measurements in a series of test cabins with different exterior solar reflectivity and interior thermal reflectivity. During one year, a number of one- or two-week experiments with air conditioner cooling and electrical floor heating were made while logging air-, radiation- and surface temperatures, energy consumption and weather conditions. Measurements show significant energy savings in the test cabins by the use of high thermal reflectivity interior surfaces both during heating and cooling and a strongly reduced cooling demand by the use of high solar reflectivity exterior surfaces. Results are interpreted within the context of a steady-state energy flux model, to illuminate the importance of surface resistance properties (radiation and convective heat dissipation).

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