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  • 51.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Fabian, Wallen
    Svenska citroner: Åtta fräscha idéer som lämnade en sur eftersmak2013Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 52.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Fölster, Stefan
    Experiment med välfärden2013Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, nr 2, s. 16-27Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 53.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    Are high-growth firms one-hit wonders?: Evidence from Sweden2015Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 361-383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most firms do not grow, and a small number of high-growth firms seem to create most new jobs. These firms have therefore received increasing attention among policymakers. The question is whether high-growth tends to persist? We investigate this question using firm-level data from Sweden during 1997–2008. We find that high-growth firms had declining growth rates in the previous 3-year period, and their probability of repeating high growth rates was very low. Thus, these are essentially “one-hit wonders,” and it is doubtful whether policymakers can improve economic outcomes by targeting them.

  • 54.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Landström, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Why do politicians implement central bank independence reforms?2013Ingår i: Atlantic Economic Journal, ISSN 0197-4254, E-ISSN 1573-9678, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 427-438Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate why politicians around the world have chosen to give up power to independent central banks, thereby reducing their ability to fine-tune the economy. A new data-set covering 132 countries, of which 86 countries had implemented such reforms, was collected. Politicians in non-OECD countries were more likely to delegate power to independent central banks if their country has been characterized by a high variability in historical inflation and if they faced a high probability of being replaced. No such effects were found for OECD countries.

  • 55.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Johansson, Dan
    Elert, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm; Örebro Universitet.
    Economic Contribution of High-growth Firms: Do Policy Implications Depend on the Choice of Growth Indicator?2014Ingår i: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 337-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 56.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Jonas, Nordström
    Thunström, Linda
    Habit Persistence in Food Consumption2011Ingår i: Oxford Handbook on the Economics of Food Consumption and Policy / [ed] Lusk, J.L., Roosen, J., and Shogren J, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, s. 770-790Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 57.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Landström, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Are central bank independence reforms necessary for achieving low and stable inflation?2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on the occurence of central bank independence (CBI) reforms in 131 countries during 1980-2005, we test whether they were important in reducing inflation and maintaining price stability. CBI reforms are found to have reduced inflation on average 3.31% when countries with historically high inflation rates are included. But countries with lower inflation have reduced it without institutional reforms granting central banks more independence, undermining the theoretical time-inconsistency case for CBI. There is furthermore no evidence that CBI reforms have helped reduce inflation variability.

  • 58.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Lang, Åsa
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries2013Ingår i: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 33, nr 12, s. 1193-1205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the determinants of firm growth in the Swedish retail and wholesale industries during 2000–2004, we analyse a sample of 400 limited liability companies using quantile regression techniques. Firm growth was mainly found to depend upon time-invariant firm-specific effects, supporting Penrose's [1959. The theory of the growth of the firm (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press] suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on are important determinants of firm growth.

  • 59.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Bergman, Mats
    Stöd till service i glesbygd2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 60.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi. HUI Research.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    What Happens When IKEA Comes to Town?2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from 2000-2011, the effects of a new IKEA store on retail revenues, employment, and inflow of purchasing power in the entry municipalities, as well as in neighboring municipalities were investigated. A propensity score matching method was used to find non IKEA entry municipalities that were as similar as possible to the entry municipalities based on the situation before entry. Our results indicate that IKEA-entry increased entry-municipality durable-goods revenues by about 20% and employment by about 17%. Only small and, in most cases, statistically insignificant effects were found in neighboring municipalities.

  • 61.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    When IKEA enters: Do local retailers win or lose?2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    IKEA is one of the world’s largest retailers, but little is known about how IKEA impact incumbent retailers when deciding to enter a local market. Previous studies on the effects of big-box entry on surrounding retailers have also generated inconclusive results, and mainly been focused towards entry of Wal-Mart in the United States. We contribute to this literature by investigating the effects of IKEA entry on revenues and employment for incumbent retail firms in three Swedish municipalities during 2000-2010. Our results indicate that a new IKEA store increases average revenues for incumbent retailers within the entry municipality by 11%, but also that the effect is highly heterogeneous within the municipality. Retailers that were located up to 1 km from IKEA experienced a 26% increase in revenues when IKEA entered the municipality. However, the positive spillover effect of a new IKEA store on retail revenues diminished with the distance to IKEA, and turned insignificant for retailers in the city centers and those that were located 5-10 km from IKEA. The effects on employment were much less pronounced, and in most cases statistically insignificant.

  • 62.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Orth, Matilda
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Opening local retail food stores: a real-options approach2010Ingår i: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 10, nr 3-4, s. 373-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A real-options approach was used, incorporating uncertainty and irreversibility of investments, to study the number of stores entering the Swedish retail food market during the period 1994-2002. It was found that uncertainty affected the entry-decision. Entry was less frequent in highly concentrated local retail food-markets characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, whereas higher profit opportunities seem to have increased the probability of entry.

  • 63.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Praski-Stahlgren, Ulrika
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Do high taxes lock-in capital gains?: Evidence from a dual income tax system2010Ingår i: Public Choice, ISSN 0048-5829, E-ISSN 1573-7101, Vol. 145, nr 1-2, s. 25-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to study whether investors' willingness to realize capital gains falls when the marginal tax rate on capital gains is raised. We use a rich register-based panel data set covering almost 8% of the Swedish population. The results indicate that a 10% increase in capital gains tax rate reduces the number of realizations of capital gains with 8.7% and the realized amount, given the decision to realize, with 1.9%. In addition, we find that wealthy individuals seem to respond more to changes in capital gains tax rates than less-wealthy.

  • 64.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Regeringsgatan 60, SE -103 29 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Regeringsgatan 60, SE -103 29 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does Shelf-Labeling of Organic Foods Increase Sales?: Results from a Natural Experiment2014Ingår i: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 804-811Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Can a simple point-of-purchase (POP) shelf-label increase sales of organic foods? We use a random-effects׳, random-coefficients׳ model, including a time adjustment variable, to test data from a natural experiment in a hypermarket in Gävle, Sweden. Our model incorporates both product specific heterogeneity in the effects of labeling and consumer adjustment to the labels over time. We find that the introduction of POP displays leads to an increase in sales of organic coffee and olive oil, but a reduction in sales of organic flour. All targeted products became less price-sensitive. The results reveal that product specific differences have to be accounted for, and in some cases consumers adjusted to labeling over time.

  • 65. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Leder högre skatter på kapitalvinster till inlåsningseffekter?2010Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 18-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Höga skatter på kapitalvinster kan leda till att investerare blir mindre benägna att realisera sina kapitalvinster. Tidigare studier har använt sig av data från USA och finner att det existerar en inlåsningseffekt, men storleken på effekten varierar mellan studierna. I en ny studie drar Daunfeldt m fl (2010) slutsatsen att högre skatter på kapitalvinster också är förknippade med en inlåsningseffekt i Sverige. Resultaten från studien indikerar att en höjning av kapitalvinstskatten med 10 procent i genomsnitt leder till att antalet realiseringar minskar med nästan 9 procent. Inlåsningseffekten tenderar dessutom att vara större för investerare med beskattningsbar förmögenhet, vilket indikerar att dessa individer i högre utsträckning använder sig av skatteplanering för att undkomma beskattningen av kapitalvinster.

  • 66.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI) , SE-103 29, Stockholm, Sweden; The Department of Economics , University of Gävle , SE-801 76, Gävle, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI) , SE-103 29, Stockholm, Sweden; The Department of Economics , University of Gävle , SE-801 76, Gävle, Sweden.
    Revenues as a Proxy for Profits: A Cautionary Note2009Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 16, nr 7, s. 679-681Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the entry literature, researchers sometimes use revenues as a proxy for profits because this is the only data available. Doing so could seriously bias the results.

  • 67.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle; HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Swedish Retail Inst HUI, SE-10329 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rämme, Ulf
    HUI.
    Congestion charges and retail revenues: results from the Stockholm road pricing trial2009Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 306-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the impact of the Stockholm road pricing trial on retail revenues. The analysis is performed using revenue data from 14 shopping malls, 9 within the tool area and 5 outside the tool area. The data also include revenue data from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets in Stockholm. The results show that the Stockholm road pricing trial did not negatively affect retail revenue, neither in shopping malls nor in the sample of retail stores.

  • 68.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Rämme, Ulf
    Congestion charges in Stockholm: how have they affected retail revenues?2013Ingår i: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 259-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Did the introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm city reduce retail revenues? Data from 20 shopping malls - 8 within the toll area, and 12 outside the tool area - and from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets was analyzed using an intervention-control approach. Favorable outcomes, such as reduced traffic, less emissions of carbon-dioxide, and perceived improvements in air quality and accessibility, do not seem to have been offset by reduced revenues for retailers located within the toll area.

  • 69.
    Elert, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    What determines entry? Evidence from Sweden2014Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 55-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I examined what conditions affected the entry of Swedish limited liability firms 2000–2008, while making a distinction between regular entrants and those that survive for at least 2 years. I used a dataset that makes it possible to trace entry geographically as well as in what industry it occurs down to the 5-digit NACE level. Results suggest that the conditions influencing regular entry were similar to those influencing surviving entry. Political variables, e.g., municipal tax rate and the ideology of local rule, were of limited importance. Meanwhile, municipalities with industries with high minimum efficient scale of production or high market concentration rates were considerably less likely to see new firm formation. Substantially, more entry occurred in municipalities with high-income and a well-educated population. The importance of the level of education appears stronger for surviving entrants than for regular entrants, pointing to the importance of human capital.

  • 70. Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Nerhagen, Lena
    VTI, Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Smidfelt Rosqvist, Lena
    The Stockholm congestion - charging trial 2006: Overview of effects2009Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 240-250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm congestion charging trial in 2006 demonstrated the effects of a full-scale time-differentiated urban road toll scheme. Improvements in travel times were large enough to be perceived by the general public. This was pivotal to the radical change of public attitudes that occurred during the trial and that resulted in a positive outcome of a subsequent referendum on a proposal for making the system permanent. This paper summarises the effects of the trial and analyses to what extent targets were met. Effects on congestion reduction were larger than anticipated, which also resulted in favourable economic and environmental effects. The trial showed that a single-cordon toll could affect traffic within a large area, i.e., not just close to the zone limits.

  • 71.
    Elmashouky, Noha
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    The Environmental Kuznets Curve in Sweden: The relationship between Carbon Dioxide emissions and economic growth in Sweden through 170 years.2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, global warming becomes a scientifically proven problem. Where, the global warming contributes to increase the Earth’s average temperature, because of the release of the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) into the atmosphere, in particular the gas Carbon Dioxide (CO2). This empirical paper focuses on the investigation of the relationship between per capita Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions and per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Sweden. The study tests whether an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) relationship holds for Sweden, covering a time series over the period 1840-2010. The study employs the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) as an econometrics method to test three different models of the EKC. Our findings suggest that there is an existence of the common inverted U-shaped of EKC in Sweden and the estimated turning point (TP) is about 16 500 US$ per capita GDP.

  • 72.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys i regelgivningsarbetet: Avrapportering av inledande delprojekt2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportstyrelsen genomför konsekvensutredningar bland annat avseende förslag till förändringar i föreskrifter, framställan till regelförändringar och som en del i regeringsuppdrag. Myndigheten har under senare år identifierat ett behov av att vidga innehållet i konsekvensutredningarna för att kunna bedöma om nya och förändrade regleringar bidrar till en transport-försörjning som är samhällsekonomiskt effektiv. Ett utvecklingsarbete har pågått sedan myndigheten bildades 2009.

    Inom ramen för ett pågående forskningsprojekt genomfört av Centrum för Transportstudier (CTS) – Samhällsekonomisk analys av regleringar – studeras effekterna av de förändringar som genomförts. Syftet är att analysera de problem som uppkommer i det praktiska arbetet med genomförandet av konsekvensanalyser av samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och att, baserat på resultaten, utveckla en mer generell metodik för hur arbetet ska genomföras och vad som bör ingå i den samhällsekonomiska analysen.

  • 73.
    Gailis, Janis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    A Consumer Surplus Estimate of Peace & Love festival in Borlänge: A Travel Cost Approach2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis uses zonal travel cost method (ZTCM) to estimate consumer surplus of Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden. The study defines counties as zones of origin of the visitors. Visiting rates from each zone are estimated based on survey data. The study is novel due to the fact that mostly TCM has been applied in the environmental and recreational sector, not for short term events, like P&L festival. The analysis shows that travel cost has a significantly negative effect on visiting rate as expected. Even though income has previously shown to be significant in similar studies, it turns out to be insignificant in this study. A point estimate for the total consumer surplus of P&L festival is 35.6 million Swedish kronor. However, this point estimate is associated with high uncertainty since a 95 % confidence interval for it is (17.9, 53.2). It is also important to note that the estimated value only represents one part of the total economic value, the other values of the festival's totaleconomic value have not been estimated in this thesis.

  • 74.
    Ghisellini, Patrizia
    et al.
    Alama Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Ulgiati, Sergio
    Parthenope University of Naples, Bejiing Normal University.
    A review on circular economy: the expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems2016Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 114, s. 11-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years Circular Economy (CE) is receiving increasing attention worldwide as a way to overcome the current production and consumption model based on continuous growth and increasing resource throughput. By promoting the adoption of closing-the-loop production patterns within an economic system CE aims to increase the efficiency of resource use, with special focus on urban and industrial waste, to achieve a better balance and harmony between economy, environment and society. This study provides an extensive review of the literature of last two decades, with the purpose of grasping the main CE features and perspectives: origins, basic principles, advantages and disadvantages, modelling and implementation of CE at the different levels (micro, meso and macro) worldwide.

    Results evidence that CE origins are mainly rooted in ecological and environmental economics and industrial ecology. In China CE is promoted as a top-down national political objective while in other areas and countries as European Union, Japan and USA it is a tool to design bottom-up environmental and waste management policies. The ultimate goal of promoting CE is the decoupling of environmental pressure from economic growth. The implementation of CE worldwide still seems in the early stages, mainly focused on recycle rather than reuse. Important results have been achieved in some activity sectors (e.g. in waste management, where large waste recycling rates are achieved in selected developed countries). CE implies the adoption of cleaner production patterns at company level, an increase of producers and consumers responsibility and awareness, the use of renewable technologies and materials (wherever possible) as well as the adoption of suitable, clear and stable policies and tools. The lesson learned from successful experiences is that the transition towards CE comes from the involvement of all actors of the society and their capacity to link and create suitable collaboration and exchange patterns. Success stories also point out the need for an economic return on investment, in order to provide suitable motivation to companies and investors. In summary, the CE transition has just started. Moreover, the interdisciplinary framework underpinning CE offers good prospects for gradual improvement of the present production and consumption models, no longer adequate because of their environmental load and social inequity, a clear indicator of resource use inefficiency

  • 75. Giannantoni, Corrado
    et al.
    Cialani, Catia
    University of Florida.
    Mansueti, Alberto
    “G. D’Annunzio” University, Pescara.
    Analysis of investments based on the trilateral externality approach (firm, citizen, state)2002Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 2, nr 1-2, s. 27-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trilateral Externality Approach takes its origin from a several year integration activity of various evaluation methodologies (Energetic, Exergetic, Emergetic, Economic, etc.) and aims at giving a rigorous synthesis of such an integration process in the context of Neo-Classical Economics through the fundamental category of externality, in its extensive and intensive meaning.

    After having shown the different (but complementary) perspectives of elaborating a unifying concept of externality (bottom-up and top-down approaches), the paper presents a limited set of synthetic Indicators for possible strategies of investment (at a regional and national level). An example of application devoted to Hydrogen technologies will show how renewable (or “equipollent”) Sources are already widely “competitive” with respect to fossil fuel technologies, obviously if analyzed in the light of such a general evaluation approach, which involves a unique trilateral relationship between firm, citizen and state.

    In this context it will be thus much easier to show why the so-called “incentives” (in their several different possible forms) are nothing but a “remuneration” of positive externalities that a firm produces in favor of the collectivity, whereas the state recuperates such “incentives” because of a consequential increase in economic activities induced by those primary externalities, in a non-zero sum global process.

  • 76.
    Gkoutsampasoulis, Nikolaos
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Euroland - The effect of Euro on international trade: Are there winners and losers in this ''Euro-game''?2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether European Monetary Union (EMU) countries share fairly the effect of their membership in Eurozone (EZ) or whether are winners and losers in this ''Euro-game''. By using panel data of 27 European Union (EU) Member States for the period 2001-2012 in the context of a gravity model, we focus on estimating the Euro’s effect on bilateral trade and we detect whether this effect differs across the Member States of EZ. Two estimation methods are applied: Pooled OLS estimator and Fixed Effects estimator. The empirical results come to the conclusion that the individual country effects differ and are statistically significant, indicating that EMU’s effect on trade differs across the Member States of EZ. The overall effect of the Euro is statistically insignificant, regardless the estimation method, demonstrating that the common European currency may have no effect on bilateral trade.

  • 77. Granlund, David
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Consumer information and pharmaceutical prices: theory and evidence2011Ingår i: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 73, nr 2, s. 230-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of a reform that increased consumer information on brand name and generic pharmaceutical prices is analysed both theoretically and empirically. The theoretical results show that an increase in information likely reduces the price of brand name pharmaceuticals, while the results regarding generics are less clear. In the empirical part of the article, the introduction of the substitution reform in the Swedish pharmaceuticals market in October 2002 is used as a natural experiment regarding the effects of increased consumer information. The results clearly show that the reform has lowered the price of both brand name and generic pharmaceuticals.

  • 78. Granlund, David
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Does Increased Price Competition Reduce Entry of New Pharmaceutical Products?2011Ingår i: Advances in Management and Applied Economics, ISSN 1792-7552, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2002 a substitution reform was introduced in the Swedish Pharmaceuticals market. In this paper, the effects of increased price competition due to the reform on the entry of new pharmaceutical products was studied. The results show that the reform did affect the entry behavior of generic manufacturers as they became more prone to enter new package sizes into the market after the reform, but also that there is considerable heterogeneity in entry behavior between different ATC-code groups for both brand name and generic products.

  • 79.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    The prescribing physician's influence on consumer choice between medically equivalent pharmaceuticals2012Ingår i: Review of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0889-938X, E-ISSN 1573-7160, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 207-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study of the prescribing physician's influence on consumers' choice between medically equivalent pharmaceuticals. The study was performed using a dataset of 666,000 observations in which consumers were asked whether they were prepared to pay the price difference in order to obtain the prescribed pharmaceutical instead of the cheapest available substitute. The main results support the hypothesis that prescribing physicians have an impact on consumers' choice between medically equivalent pharmaceutical products.

  • 80. Gåverud, Henrik
    et al.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Ökad efterfrågeflexibilitet nödvändig för en fullständigt avreglerad elproduktionsmarknad2010Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 5-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska elmarknaden omreglerades 1996. Produktion av och handel med el konkurrensutsattes medan elnätsverksamhet, som är ett naturligt monopol, förblev reglerat. Staten är dock än idag en aktör på elproduktionsmarknaden eftersom den systemansvariga myndigheten är ålagd att upphandla en s k effektreserv. Effektreserven förbättrar den kortsiktiga försörjningstrygghetsnivån avseende eleffekt, men riskerar samtidigt att störa marknadens funktion, både på kort och lång sikt. En avveckling av statliga interventioner riskerar dock att skapa större problem än den löser. Fram till dess att mer efterfrågeflexibilitet är aktiverad på elmarknaden kommer en fullständigt avreglerad elproduktionsmarknad att generera en samhällsekonomiskt ineffektivt låg nivå på försörjningstryggheten avseende eleffekt.

  • 81.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Svenska flygplatser och marginalkostnadsprissättning2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is commissioned by the Swedish Civil Aviation Authority. The aim is to update the knowledge regarding the price relevant costs of aviation. We distinguish between marginal costs caused by airport activities and those caused by the external effects of pollution and noise. The review shows that vital data is missing regarding the activities and effects of aviation in order to perform solid marginal cost calculations. In the report we have calculated approximative values for two types of airplanes. Marginal costs related to airport services are divided into those related to passenger services and those related to congestion services. We conclude that the Swedish charges are at least twice as high as marginal costs. We do, however, lack any estimation of the congestion-related marginal costs. Regarding the external effects, today's charges concerning the landing and take-off cycle are sufficient although partly mischarged since they only reflect NOx-emissions. Moreover it should be examined if emissions during flying should be charged or not. The conclusion of this report is that more research is needed in this area. This concerns studies dealing with Swedish airports as well as making cost data publicly available.

  • 82.
    Haubeltova, Libuse
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Case study of Airbnb listings in Berlin: Hedonic pricing approach to measuring demand for tourist accommodation characteristics2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this degree project is to reveal the Airbnb customer’s preferences and quantify the impact of non-market factors on the market price of tourist accommodation in Berlin, Germany. The data retrieved from Airbnb listings, publicly available on Inside Airbnb (2017), was supplemented on indicator of sharing economy accommodation using machine learning method in order to distinguish between amateur and business-running professional hosts. The main aim is to examine the consumers’ preferences and quantify the marginal effect of "real sharing economy" accommodation and other key variables on market price.

    This is accomplished by model approach using hedonic pricing method, which is used to estimate the economic value of particular attribute. Surprisingly, our data indicates the negative impact of sharing economy indicator on price. The set of motivations of consumers, which determine their valuation of Airbnb listings, was identified. The trade-off between encompass and parsimony of the set was desired in order to build an effective model. Calculation of proportion of explained variance showed that the price is affected mainly by number of accommodated persons, degree of privacy, number of bedrooms, cancellation policy, distance from the city centre and sharing economy indicator in decreasing order.

  • 83.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Co-creation of IT-services to finance nature based tourism: A study on willingness to pay for cross-country skiing services in Sweden2011Ingår i: Exploring Co-creation / [ed] Clarke, Alan, London: Pearson , 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 84.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Co-creation of IT-services to finance nature based tourism: A study on willingness to pay for cross-country skiing services in Sweden2010Ingår i: International conference on "Exploring Co-creation", University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 85.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Economic impact analysis of a horse event: Landsmót 2016 - The National Icelandic Horse Competition2018Ingår i: Human-horse relationships in work and play: Interspecies encounters in business, tourism and beyond, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the demand and the economic impact for an event is crucial knowledge not only for the event managers and host organization but also for public planners of the region where the event takes place.

    The present study measures the direct economic spending of visitors to the event Landsmot Hestamanna, The National Icelandic horse competition, which hosted in Hólar in mid June2016. The study is based on data from 404 respondents answering an on-site survey within the event arena. The key variables for the LM economic impact analysis consist of total number of visitors divided by visitor type and the average spending of the different types.

    Following the recommended approach by Sun et al. (2010) segmenting visitors by loding type the preliminary findings indicate a total for the Economic impact of Landsmót 2016 to 159,7 MISK. However, there are uncertainties regarding total number of visitors to the event as well as the division of visitors in lodging type. Moreover, the study finds that international tourists spend on average approximately 30 percentages more compared to national visitors.

  • 86.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Exploring the value of an event: comparing consumer surplus, willingness to pay and values of subjective wellbeing for the Peace & Love music festival in Sweden2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 23st Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research: The values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, A, Möckel, M., and Gyimóthy, S., 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the values and impact for a hallmark event is crucial knowledge not only for the event managers but also for the public planners of the host region.

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare values of a music event using on the one hand two non-market valuation techniques; and on the other hand individual measures of subjective well-being or happiness.  

    We use survey data collected from 716 visitors to the Peace & Love music festival held in Borlänge, Sweden, in 2011. The survey contains questions about the actual behaviour of the respondents such as expenditure patterns and travel behaviour but also questions on individuals’ subjective wellbeing (SWB) and willingness to pay (WTP) for certain features of the festival like “other people attending” and “length of the festival”. These data allow us to estimate consumer surplus for the event by applying the travel cost method but also average and individual measures of SWB. The latter can be used to explore correlations between individual’s SWB and individual socio economic characteristics but also consumer behaviour patterns.

    The preliminary findings of our study are that the consumer surplus value indicates an overall consumer value between 27 - 89 MSEK for the festival. The measure of happiness shows an average subjective wellbeing of 7.94 (likert scale 0-10) and correlations with a number of interesting variables. This paper contributes to the literature on valuation of tourism and events by highlighting the potential for using measures of consumer surplus in combination with actual visitor data on preferences to understand current and future impact and values of an event. 

  • 87.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Financing recreational infrastructure with micropayments and donations: a pilot study on cross-country ski track preparations in Sweden2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 386-394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings of a natural field experiment in which cross-country skiers had the option to use their mobile phones to call in a donation to fund ski track preparations. This paper takes the Right of Public Access as given and investigates the extent to which donations or voluntary contributions can be used to finance recreational infrastructure. The purpose of the study was to look at how different types of bonus services and offers, as well as the introduction of a trail pass, affected the willingness of individuals to make donations to ski track preparations at a Swedish ski resort. The study’s main finding was that it is not possible to rely on a simple voluntary approach when introducing a new system for financing recreational infrastructure using micropayments and new IT services.

  • 88.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Financing recreational public goods for tourism development: Is there a case for voluntary contributions?2009Ingår i: International Conference “Central Europe and Tourism Competitiveness”, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary,, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 89.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Planning for bicycle tourism: estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two Swedish regions2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development strategies. However, who should bear the cost of such infrastructure investments, the national, regional or local level authorities?      

    The starting point for this paper can be found in the conflicting interests in bicycle tourism and how these should be handled in infrastructure planning in Sweden. Who benefits from a developed bicycle trail network and how large can such benefits be? This paper aims at estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two specific destinations in Sweden; Varberg and Gotland. We use data collected on site at the two destinations using a self-complete questionnaire following a mixed-stratified sampling strategy to be able to segment the visitors spending based on lodging types. In total 483 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The main finding is that there is a surprisingly large difference in visitor spending between the two regions and that the segmenting of visitor spending based on lodging gives a more reliable estimate of the economic impact from bicycle tourism compared to the most commonly used measure “average guest night spending”.  

  • 90.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Planning for bicycle tourism: estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two Swedish regions2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 22st Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Bodø & Lofoten Islands, Norway, 24-27 September, 2013: Innovation and value creation in experience‐based tourism / [ed] Lindberg, Frank, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development strategies. However, who should bear the cost of such infrastructure investments, the national, regional or local level authorities?      

    The starting point for this paper can be found in the conflicting interests in bicycle tourism and how these should be handled in infrastructure planning in Sweden. Who benefits from a developed bicycle trail network and how large can such benefits be? This paper aims at estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two specific destinations in Sweden; Varberg and Gotland. We use data collected on site at the two destinations using a self-complete questionnaire following a mixed-stratified sampling strategy to be able to segment the visitors spending based on lodging types. In total 483 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The main finding is that there is a surprisingly large difference in visitor spending between the two regions and that the segmenting of visitor spending based on lodging gives a more reliable estimate of the economic impact from bicycle tourism compared to the most commonly used measure “average guest night spending”.  

  • 91.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Tourism economic impact of a horse race venue: the case of harness racing at DalaTravet Rättvik, Sweden2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 24th Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-3 October, 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Harness racing events in Sweden attracts in between 5 000 to 10 000 visitors each weekend during summertime with the Solvalla International “Elitlopp” in Stockholm as the biggest event with 50 000 visitor over two days. 

    For smaller regional harness racing venues the industry and its events is quite often used as part of destination marketing. However there are no previous examples of the overall significance of the industry at regional levels and specifically the tourism economic impact of the industry at regional level.

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the tourism economic impact of harness racing at regional levels using the case of DalaTravet (DT) Rättvik, in Sweden as a case. The study uses register based data as well as data from a questionnaire study conducted at six of the DT Rättvik events during summer season 2014. In total a sample of 444 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The results of the study indicates that the turnover related to the harness racing industry at the regional level amounts to approximately 31.1 Million SEK of which 11.1 MSEK is counted as tourism economic impact.

    This paper contributes to the literature on tourism impact analysis of specific events in smaller regional areas. The results of the study may be of use for tourism and regional planners in regions with a harness racing venue. 

  • 92.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Social Approval and Framing in the Field: Behaviour of Snowmobilers in Sweden2009Ingår i: 4th Nordic Conference on Behavioral and Experimental Economics, Oslo, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 93.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Skoterturismen och utvecklingen i Funäsdalsfjällen: En uppföljning av projektet "Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdalsfjällen"2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdalsfjällen” pågick under 1999-2001 och har både nationellt och internationellt omskrivits som ett lyckosamt och banbrytande projekt med målsättning att utveckla skoterturism i den svenska fjällvärlden utan att konflikter och störningar uppstår som kan försämra förutsättningarna för andra turismgrenar i området. Syftet med denna rapport är att redovisa resultaten från en uppföljningsstudie av projektet ”Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdals¬fjällen”. Projektets olika delmål har följts upp dels via en enkätstudie riktad till ett urval av skoter- och turskidåkare som besökt Funäsdalsfjällen, dels via ett antal djupintervjuer med företrädare för de olika lokala intressegrupperna. Dessutom har skoterturismens effekter på den lokala ekonomin specialstuderas inom ramen för ett examensarbete. Vi bedömer att projektet har varit lyckat och uppfyllt de målsättningar som satts upp för projektets verksamhet på kort sikt. En viktig förklaring till detta har varit projektets utgångspunkt i konsensusbeslut. Från intervjustudien blir det tydligt att de olika grupperna av aktörer och intressenter har olika syn på hur utvecklingen i Funäsdalsfjällen ska se ut på lång sikt. Vissa vill exempelvis fortsätta att utveckla skoterturismen medan andra anser att gränsen för skoteråkningens påverkan i området är nådd. För fortsatt hållbar utveckling i området är det sannolikt mycket viktigt att alla intressegrupper fortsätter att delta i arbetet med att utveckla Funäsdalfjällen.

  • 94.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Klerby, Anna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Peace & Love 2010: Värderade och icke-värderade ekonomiska effekter2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till at kartlägga samt värderat och presenterat ekonomiska effekter koppladetill Peace & Love festivalen 2010. Utgångspunkten är en definition av festivalens intressenter.Uppskattningen av de ekonomiska effekter som presenterats är baserade på enkätsvar från 519festivalbesökare. Resultaten från studien pekar på att festivalbesökare definierade som turister igenomsnitt spenderar drygt 2000 kr i samband med sitt besök exklusive utgifter för resa ochfestivalbiljett. Den totala festivalkopplade konsumtionen beräknas till 154 Mkr genom attmultiplicera siffrorna för genomsnittlig festivalkonsumtion för en besökare med det totala antaletbetalande besökare. Studien visar också att det finns ett betydande läckage ur den regionalaekonomin till följd av att försäljare inom festivalområdet kommer från andra delar i Sverige.Peace & Love-festivalens bidrag till den lokala ekonomin inklusive biljettintäkter beräknas istudien till 89 Mkr. Slutligen pekar studien på att fördjupade studier innehållande en mernoggrann uppskattning över besökargruppernas andelar respektive konsumtion krävs vid nästaårs festival för att säkerställa de resultat denna studie redovisar.

  • 95.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Klerby, Anna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Peace, love and well-being: Volunteering at the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden2014Ingår i: Event Volunteering: International Perspectives on the Volunteering Experience at Events / [ed] Smith, K. A., Lockstone-Binney, L., Holmes, K. and Baum, T., Routledge, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on research on how volunteering contributes to people’s subjective well‐being, this study uses the case of the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden, the largest music and societal cohesion city festival in Sweden, to suggest an individual, organizational, and societal cost-benefit model, including intangible values such as subjective well-being and social capital. Previous studies on the festival’s audience correlated an individual’s subjective well‐being and their voluntary engagements. Does this relationship hold for the volunteers?

     

    The festival calls for about 6,000 volunteers. Their contribution, in traditional economic terms, is about SEK 18 million (€2.1 million), corresponding to about 20 percent of the festival’s net turnover. Volunteers seem to be necessary to make ends meet financially. Volunteer motives, ranging from rational choice to pure altruism, are addressed. For a teenager, the weekly pass is quite expensive: as a result, some people only volunteer to get festival access. Such participants usually require more supervision than altruistic volunteers. However, the societal return may be large for this group considering the amount of young, first-time volunteers introduced to civil engagement. The festival volunteers report an average subjective well-being of 8.2 compared to the festival visitors averaging 7.6 on a scale 0–10, where 10 is the maximum, implying positive effects on the intangible values.

  • 96.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Klerby, Anna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Volunteering at events - motives, costs and benefits: A Peace & Love case study2012Ingår i: Developing Tourism – Sustaining Regions: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Marcus Ednarsson, Fredrik Hoppstadius, Linda Lundmark, Roger Marjavaara, Dieter Müller, Kati Pitkänen and Ulrika Åkerlund, Umeå: Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University , 2012, s. 71-71Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on research on how volunteering contributes to people’s subjective well‐being, our research uses the case of the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden, the largest city festival (focusing on music and societal cohesion) in Sweden, to test a number of hypotheses. Previous studies on the festival’s audience have found a positive correlation between individual’s subjective well‐being and their voluntary engagements. Does this relationship hold also for the volunteers?

     

    Moreover, the festival on its own calls for about 5.000 volunteers. Their contribution, in traditional economic terms makes up to about 20 percent of the festival’s net turnover and seems to be necessary to make ends meet financially. The festival brings an opportunity to volunteer, with its positive effects of well‐being, increased social and cultural capital, but it may also have a downside. For a teenager the weekly pass is quite pricy and so far sold out before the festival starts, some people only sign up as volunteers to ascertain them access to the festival. According to the festival management such participants are more demanding to supervise than “voluntary volunteers”. However the societal return may be even larger considering the introduction of the involuntary volunteers into the world of volunteering. In this paper we also study motives for volunteering in relationship to both the individual and the festival management perspectives. 

  • 97.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    National and regional economic effects of the horse industry in Sweden Estimations from a BI-model for 2016: Estimations from a BI-model for 20162018Ingår i: Human-horse relationships in work and play: Interspecies encounters inbusiness, tourism and beyond, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first results from a newly developed BI (business intelligence) model for the Swedish horse industry. Compared to previous studies of the impact from the horse industry we are able to present both figures for the national level as well as a decomposition to regional levels.

    The size of the horse industry in Sweden for 2016, is measured departing from the expenditure approach, i.e. summing the final use of horse related goods and services. One implication of the approach is that results are comparable with overall GDP figures for a country and with other subsectors of an economy, e.g. the tourism industry or the car producing industry. The model has two main inputs. Firstly, estimates of the geographical position of all Sweden’s 355.500 horses of different type and use, based on JBVs statistics and postal codes from horse associations. Secondly, estimates of the horse owner’s consumption pattern related to their leisure or professional use. Other horse related activities like riding schools, education, race tracks, betting etc. is treated separately, measured and added to the overall calculation.

    The preliminary results indicate that the horse industry in Sweden amounts to somewhere in the interval of 26-32 Billion SEK corresponding to approximately 0,5-0,6 percentage of Swedish GDP. Looking at regional variations, the region of Skåne has most horses and consistently also the region with largest share of the horse industry.

  • 98.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Andersson, Hans
    SLU.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter av hästnäringen: Skattningar baserat på en B.I. – modell av hästnäringen för 20162018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar skattningar av den svenska hästnäringens samhällsekonomiska effekter på nationell och regional nivå. År 2016 uppskattades hästnäringen i Sverige generera en direkt omsättning på 31,3 miljarder kronor motsvarande en sysselsättning om ca 16 900 helårsarbetskrafter. Skattningarna bygger på en modell för hästnäringens samhällsekonomi som har sin utgångspunkt i summering av total konsumtion av hästrelaterade varor och tjänster i Sverige under ett år. Rapporten presenterar även den Business Intelligence (BI) lösning som ligger till grund samt hur bakgrundsdata har samlats in, lagrats och paketerats för att slutligen presenteras med hjälp av ett BI-verktyg (https://hastnaringen-i-siffror.se).

  • 99.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Estimating and comparing demand for a music event using stated choice and actual visitor behavior data2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 130-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the demand and the economic impact for a hallmark event is crucial knowledge not only for the event managers but also for the public planners of the host region, especially from the viewpoint of welfare evaluation. The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly to estimate the demand for a music event using two non-market valuation techniques; stated choice and travel cost method (TCM), and secondly to compare the welfare measures estimated from the two methods and discuss their relevance for event policy and management. We use survey data collected from 1005 visitors to the Peace & Love music festival held in Borlänge, Sweden, in 2012. The survey contains questions about the actual behaviour of the respondents such as expenditure patterns and travel behaviour but also a stated choice experiment (SCE). The latter asks the respondents to choose between different scenarios with varying levels of price, number of visitors and length of the festival in days. These data allow us to estimate consumer surplus for the event by applying both the TCM and SCE. The findings of our study are that the price effect, as expected, is negative and significant, more people attending the festival decreases the propensity to attend while longer duration of the festival increases the propensity to attend. This paper contributes to the literature on event impact analysis by highlighting the potential for using stated choice data on visitor preferences in combination with actual visitor data to understand current and future economic impact of an event. 

  • 100.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Turismens samhällsekonomiska betydelse2007Ingår i: Utveckla turistdestinationer – ett svenskt perspektiv / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus; Elbe, Jörgen, Uppsala: Uppsala publishing house. , 2007, s. 53-71Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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