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  • 1.
    Berggren, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Strömberg, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Granskning av riktlinjer vid Sveriges förlossningskliniker gällande sfinkterskada i samband med förlossning: Innehållsanalys med en kombination av en deduktiv och induktiv ansats2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sphincter injury is serious complication in connection to vaginal childbirth. Desire to avoid vaginal birth again is seen in women who previously suffered from a sphincter injury.

    Objective: To identify and evaluate obstetric guidelines in Sweden regarding sphincter injury in relation to childbirth

    Method: Content analysis with a combination of a deductive and inductive approach.

    Results: The most frequently occurring risk factors and prevention with help of perineal protection were described in the guidelines. The physician made diagnosis and repaired the sphincter injury at the theatre.  Complications such as coital pain and anal incontinence were described in the guidelines. Paracetamol and diclofenac was most common analgesic regimen given for pain. Prophylaxis such as antibiotic treatment and laxative were common. Information given to women was described. Follow-up by physician, midwife and physiotherapist was recommended after four weeks to six months. For future birth a cesarean section was recommended.

    Conclusion: The guidelines were constructed in the same way and had to a large extent similar content. The authors of the present work recommend a national guideline.

  • 2.
    Berglund, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Nilsson, Frida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Parent’s experiences of feeding their preterm infant in Neonatal Units in Sweden.: Ethnographic design2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Studies have shown that having a preterm infant may cause stress and powerlessness for parents. It is important to support parents around the feeding situation, and that the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) has appropriate space and place to help the family to bond to each other. For the healthcare professionals it is important to promote skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding; particularly for preterm infants. There are many studies on parent’s experiences of NICUs and a few studies on parent’s experiences of feeding their infant in the NICU.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore parents experiences of feeding their infant in the NICU.

    Design: The study was conducted using an ethnographic design.

    Results: A global theme of ‘The journey in feeding’ was developed from four organising themes: ‘Ways of infant feeding’; ‘Environmental influences’; ‘Relationships’ and ‘Emotional factors’. These themes illustrate the challenges mothers reported with different methods of feeding. The environment had a big impact on parent’s experiences of infant feeding. Some mothers felt that breastfeeding seemed unnatural because their infant was so tiny but breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact helped them to bond to their infant. The mothers thought it was difficult to keep up with the milk production by only pumping. Routines were not inviting parents to find their own rhythm. They also felt stressed about the weighing. Healthcare professionals had positive and negative influences on the parents.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates that while all parents expressed the wish to breastfeed, their ‘journey in feeding’ was highly influenced by method of feeding, environmental, relational and emotional factors. The general focus upon routines and assessing milk intake generated anxiety and reduced relationality. Midwives and neonatal nurses need to ensure that they emphasise and support the relational aspects of parenting and avoid over-emphasising milk intake and associated progress of the infant

  • 3.
    Björnhager, Erika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Heij Rose´n, Märet
    Närståendes upplevelser och behov av sjuksköterskans stöd och bemötande vid anhörigs psykossjukdom: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med närstående2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to illustrate relatives experiences and needs of support and professional approach from nurses associated with family members psychotic disorder.

    Method: This study was conducted as an empirical study with qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews. Relatives were asked to describe their previous experiences of support and professional approach from the nurse, when a family member suffers from a psychotic disorder. They also described which needs of support and professional approach they claimed to have.

    Results: The results showed that relatives of people with psychosis have no support from nurses and other health professionals. Experience of the nurse´s approach revealed deficiencies. The relatives felt extradited, rejected and without influence.

    . Relatives described their needs for support from the nurse to be relieved, valued and freed from guilt. They described a desire to be treated with care. It also emerged need to be more involved in the care of the family member, and to get advice and support. Mainly in the form of a contact person to turn to.

    Conclusion: Existing health care programs and guidelines need to be followed so relatives could receive the support they are entitled to. If the nurse involved relatives in health care, should relatives conditions for good health improve. It also contributes to relatives possibilities to support their sick family member to a better life.

  • 4.
    Boltenstern, Rebecca
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Granath, Ingrid
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Mammors upplevelser i samband med beskedet att det väntade barnet dött i livmodern2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Breivik, Mia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Midwives’ perceptions of HIV-positive women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights in urban Namibia: An interview study with ten midwives2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Namibia has challenges in the area of sexual and reproductive health and rights. Working with sexual and reproductive health care, midwives are an important facilitating factor for a better sexual and reproductive health in Namibia.

    Aim:

    To explore midwives’ perceptions of HIV-positive women's sexual and reproductive health and rights in urban Namibia.

    Method:

    A qualitative study with ten midwives at a hospital in Windhoek. Individual interviews were done using an interview guide. The method used for analysis was phenomenography. The phenomenon being studied was the sexual and reproductive health and rights of HIV-positive women and the phenomenon was studied through the perceptions of midwives.

    Findings:

    The midwives perceived that improvements of HIV-positive women’s reproductive health were obstructed. The midwives perceived that the HIV-positive women’s reproductive possibilities and decisions were related to HIV. According to the midwives’ perceptions, sexual relations could be complicated by HIV and it was difficult for HIV-positive women to use condoms.

    Conclusion:

    The findings of this study can be used to reflect on the current situation for HIV-positive women in Namibia. The midwives' perceptions highlight the need to reduce the remaining stigma related to HIV and to work towards the empowerment of HIV-positive women.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Sofri, Fatima
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Behandlingsmetoder och amningsförekomst vid bröstböld2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Amningens fördelar för mor, barn och samhälle är välkända. En komplikation vid amning är bröstböld. Medvetenhet om fördelar och nackdelar med olika behandlingsmetoder vid bröstböld och deras inverkan på fortsatt amning är viktig.

    Syftet: Att studera behandlingsmetoder och amningsförekomst vid bröstböld.

    Metod: Retrospektiv design från en journalgranskning genomförd på Södersjukhuset mellan januari 2006 och september 2008. Statistiska analyser genomfördes med Chi-två test, Independent samples T-test samt Fishers exakta test.

    Resultat: Totalt 139 kvinnor med bröstböld behandlades med nålpunktions-, pigtail- eller dränagebehandling, eller en kombination av dessa. Sextiotre procent pigtailbehandlades enbart och dessa behövde i mindre omfattning sjukhusinläggning jämfört med ej enbart pigtailbehandlade, samt resulterade i större andel av ett till tre sjukhusbesök. Enbart dränagebehandling och flera metoder resulterade i större andel sjukhusinläggningar än ej enbart dränagebehandling och en metod. Amningsförekomsten sjönk från 96 procent före behandling till 69 procent en månad efteråt.

    Konklusion: Enbart pigtailbehandling var den vanligaste metoden och resulterade i färre sjukhusinläggningar och sjukhusbesök. Förekomsten av amning hade sjunkit efter behandling av bröstböld

  • 7.
    Dahlkvist, Sara Erica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Molinder, Rosa-Lill Eleonor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Nepali men’s perceptions of the role of the man in family planning, during pregnancy and childbirth: A qualitative interview study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Nepal has a rich culture and tradition in which family life and marriage are generally controlled by patriarchal norms, sanctions, values and gender differences. Despite global efforts to initiate midwifery education beneficial to women’s reproductive health in Nepal, the initiation is still pending.

    Objective: To describe Nepali men´s perceptions of the role of the man in family planning, during pregnancy and childbirth.

    Methods: A qualitative interview study with open questions was conducted with 15 Nepalese men in urban and rural areas. The material was analyzed by inductive content analysis.

    Results: The main category was, `He leads – She follows´. Six subcategories were presented under the category `supporting women in family planning, during pregnancy and childbirth´. Six subcategories formed the category `withdraw from supporting women in family planning, during pregnancy and childbirth´.

    Conclusion: The role of the man in Nepal was supportive and yet support was withdrawn in maybe the woman’s most vulnerable time of life.

    Clinical implications: With men playing such an important role in family planning, during pregnancy and childbirth, inviting him to knowledge sessions might improve women’s and girls’ sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Further research: Proposal for further research that could capture the whole picture should be implemented with a more extensive quantitative research in Nepal.

  • 8.
    Danielsson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Lind, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Barnmorskors strategier för att främja fysisk aktivitet under graviditeten: En Kvalitativ Intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity should be recommended to all women during pregnancy. Midwives have an important role in the health promotion practice. There are recommendations about physical activity during pregnancy, although studies show that few pregnant women actually follow them. The midwife experience difficulties in counselling and there is a need to find strategies that can be used to promote physical activity. The aim of this study was to describe the midwives strategies to promote physical activity during pregnancy. The study was conducted by qualitative method and semistructured interviews were used to collect data. The data was analysed by thematic analysis. Several strategies emerged that the midwives used to promote physical activity during pregnancy; To advice, To motivate, To seek support in the surroundings, To individualize, To take care of the relationship and To elaborate. Another finding in the study was that promotion of physical activity was perceived as important but difficult by the midwives. These strategies can be used by midwives and other healthcare providers to promote physical activity during pregnancy.

  • 9.
    Dragsten, Mirjam
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Salmonsson, Ingela
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Vårdpersonalens kunskapsläge i hjärtlungräddning samt följsamhet till det svenska hjärtlungräddningsregistret på ett länssjukhus i Mellansverige: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify the healthcare professional´s knowledge and training frequency of cardiopulmony resuscitation in a county hospital in central Sweden, and compliance of the Swedish Register of cardiopulmony resuscitation.

    Method: Survey with quantitative approach consisting of 177 respondents, as well as a retrospective observational study.

    Main results: Individuals answered correctly to all knowledge questions, but as a group, there were deficiencies in the knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. When comparing healthcare professional´s knowledge it was demonstrated that in four of the seven knowledge questions it was a significant difference in knowledge between the health professionals who have more regular training than those with fewer. Those who had more regular education had more right answers. A significant difference was also detected depending on when they had their latest CPR training, where those who have had their education more recently also had more right answers. Compliance of healthcare professional´s to register patients treated for cardiac arrest in hospital at the Swedish CPR registry, can be summarized by the deficiencies in reporting. Conclusion: It is important to create conditions for frequent training to health professionals to increase the knowledge and preparedness in CPR, which can also be seen as a quality assurance work. An improvement is necessary in order to improve compliance to registration.

  • 10.
    Ehrling, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Kvinnans individuella upplevelse av förlossningssmärta: En begreppsanalys2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Labor pain is a term used in education and healthcare, where women are cared for during pregnancy and in maternity wards. How the concept is defined is described in literature and how and what is covered by the concept is wide. Labor pain has great location within maternity care but as a concept it is relatively undefined. Aim: The aim was to describe the concept of labor pain through a concept analysis. Methods: A concept analysis with qualitative design. Five midwives were selected trough a convenience sampling and were interviewed; earlier a literature review was conducted. The result from the field study phase was brought together with the result from the theoretical phase. Results: After the analysis of the concept of labor pain the main results is that it is truly one unique experience of labour pain. Defined three dimensions sensory, affective and cognitive. The sensory dimension stands for physiology, the affective dimension for earlier experiences and the cognitive dimension for how a person thinks about pain and the experience of it. Pain in labour is a unique experience. Only the woman in labour knows how it feels like. Pain during labour is an individual experience and just like all other experience it has its unique and individual interpretation for the person involved. Conclusion: Labor pain can be identified as a complex concept adapted to each pregnancy based on the defined dimensions. Clinical applicability: Clarification of the concept is important in education of midwifery students.

  • 11.
    Ekborn, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Att föda barn i vatten: Kvinnors upplevelse av utdrivningsskedet när det sker i vatten. En kvalitativ intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To give birth in water is still and has for a long time been questioned regarding the benefits and safety in many countries. In Sweden there is no longer any a restriction or recommendations about water births. The aim of this study was to investigate women´s experience of the second stage of labour in water.

    Method: Interviews were conducted with six women three to four months after the water birth. The interviews were analyzed qualitative.

    Result: Four categories were identified; Handle the pain, kept integrity, feeling secure and natural childbirth.

    None of the women had planned for a water birth but all had a wish to avoid medical pain relief and have a natural birth if possible. Their experience was that the bath made it easier to support natural child birth and the women were positive to stay in the bath as long as the midwife told them everything was fine. The primiparas expressed the pain in the second stage of labour as mainly positive. The multiparas thought the pain was equal as previous experience. The most psychological benefit was the experience of kept integrity in the bath. The women felt less exposed in the water compared with previous experiences or ideas. Women´s opinion of the midwife as skilled and calm had importance for the choice of a water birth.

    Conclusions: The women experienced the water as protective and a way to support natural birth. The primiparas expressed the pain in the second stage of labour as mainly positive. The multiparas thought the pain was equal as previous experience. The women expressed the kept integrity as most beneficial about water birth. High confidence with the midwife had importance for feeling safe in with the water birth.

  • 12.
    Ekenberg, Linda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Löwegren, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Tidig föräldrastress hos mammor med för tidigt födda barn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When an infant is born preterm (<37 gestational weeks) unexpected stresses affect the whole family. Significant improvements in the perinatal care has been made in the recent decades and now the chance of survival is high. To become a mother in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) entail consequences for the mother emotionally and in her care for her infant. Aim: To investigate parental stress and describe factors associated to early parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants at two months of corrected age. Method: The study was conducted in four NICUs in Sweden. The inclusion criteria were that the infant was born prematurely and had a hospital stay for at least 72 hours. To measure perceived parental stress, the mothers (n=276) answered the Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) at two months of corrected age. Results: Mothers whose infants were not cared for in a NICU with co-care, whose infants were cared for in an incubator, who were multiparous, older, who smoked and/or who were breastfeeding exclusively, experienced more stress than their counterparts in various dimensions explored. Conclusion: The study shows that factors relating to the environment and the mother are associated to parental stress among mothers’ of preterm infants. These findings show the need for improved support, both during the NICU stay and after discharge. These findings also highlight the need for improvements in the physical environment of the NICUs to reduce the risk for parental stress. 

  • 13.
    Ekendahl, Sigrid
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Johansson, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Barnmorskors erfarenheter av att stödja kvinnor i deras sexualitet första året efter förlossning: Intervjustudie med kliniskt verksamma barnmorskor i mödrahälsovården2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To apply knowledge on sexuality and relationships and providing support by dialogue is part of sexual and reproductive health, and part of the midwives’ competence.

    Research shows that women experience transition in their sexuality up to one year post partum, and that women express the need for support on the subject from health professionals.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe midwives’ experiences of giving support to women in their sexuality in the first year post partum.

    Method: The study was conducted through a qualitative method with an inductive approach.

    Data was collected from semi-structured individual interviews with eight midwives. The data was processed by qualitative inductive content analysis.

    Results: The result of the study showed that the midwives provided support in sexuality the first year post partum to women by dialogue, where the midwives approach was important. The dialogue support was provided by information and normalisation, investigation and consulting. The informants felt that further education in sexology was needed to give support to women in their sexuality the first year post partum.

    Clinical application: Through the experiences of the midwives in supporting women in their sexuality the first year post partum, this study might be used as inspiration for other midwives active in the field.

  • 14.
    Elfstrand, Rebecka
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Karlsson, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Sexual and reproductive knowledge and perceptions in a school going population of youth in Kathmandu, Nepal: A questionnaire sample study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The sexual and reproductive health of youths is a topic that has been neglected around the world for a long time. The level of sexual and reproductive knowledge needs to increase and the achievements from the healthcare units has to be more accessible in order to prevent the transmission of sexual transmitted diseases, HIV included, prevent unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and teen births. Like many other countries in Asia Nepal just resent introduced sexual education in school. As well as youth friendly preventive healthcare services. The reason for this is that sex among youths is taboo in this culture.

    Aim: This study aimed to examine sexual and reproductive knowledge and perceptions of a school going population youth in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Method: A quantitative questionnaire sample study with 160 pupils in 10th to 12th grade was conducted in four schools in Kathmandu, the Capital city of Nepal. The youth answered a self-administrated questionnaire.

    Result: 1/3 of the youths did not know that it is possible to get pregnant at first intercourse. 2/3 of the girls and nearly 3/5 of the boys did know that it is possible to get infected with a sexual transmitted disease at first intercourse. More than half of the students did know at what period of the menstrual cycle it is easiest get pregnant. The boys have a subordinate amount of awareness in all of the sexual and reproductive knowledge questions except in methods to prevent pregnancy. Both boys and girls preferred primarily to receive their sexual and reproductive knowledge from friends and secondarily from the internet.

    Conclusion and clinical implication: For youths in this study it was more important to prevent unwanted pregnancies than to protect oneself from sexual transmitted diseases. Reliable internet and school information and education could be beneficial to youth regarding their sexual knowledge in Nepal.

  • 15.
    Falkenström, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Hein, Terese
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av fosterrörelser och upplevd anknytning med mindfetalness2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The movement pattern is unique to each individual child, and so even the woman's experiences of fetal movements. The patterns intensity and duration, provides important information about the unborn child's well-being. Different methods to document the child´s movement pattern, are used by pregnant women. The self-assessment method mindfetalness, means that you are paying attention to the fetal movement's strength, type and frequency.

     

    Aim: To examine women's experiences of fetal movements and perceived attachment with mindfetalness as self-assessment method.

     

    Method: Crossover trial with a qualitative and abductive approach. Systematic text condensation was used as analyzed method.

     

    Result: Three main categories and six subcategories could be identified in the results. Security was a major factor why the women wanted to feel fetal movements. Lightweight, stretchy and strong movements, was most abundant in the descriptions. Mindfetalness helped the women feel attachment with their child and create an expectation.

     

    Conclusion: Mindfetalness can be a good method to help women strengthen their connection to the unborn baby and her self-confidence. Living in the moment and take the time to get to know their child and its movements can be very helpful in the related process. Fetal movements are unique and the midwife can use mindfetalness, to get information about the movement pattern and the treatment of the woman.

     

    Clinical applicability: There is limited research on the topic mindfetalness and the authors believe that further research on the topic for it to be used in clinical practice.

  • 16.
    Fallqvist, Carolina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Persson N., Jennifer
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Att vårda patienter i rättspsykiatrisk vård som uppvisar självskadebeteende: sjuksköterskors erfarenheter och upplevelser2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberate self harm as defined pathologically as well as socially is becoming an increasing phenomenon within forensic psychiatry. Nurses working with patients who have self harm behaviour and are confined to forensic psychiatry face different challenges which affect their feelings and attitudes in different ways, in their nursing practice.

    Purpose: To explore nurses’ experiences of caring for patients who suffer from deliberate self harm behaviour and are confined to forensic psychiatry.

    Method: Qualitative semi- structured interview s from eight nurses working within the forensic psychiatric clinic. Interviews were analysed by using a qualitative content analysis.

    Results: They worked strategically and emphasized the importance of teamwork, good communication and urged for the need to get necessary education, staff focused tutoring and patient focused therapy.

    Conclusion: Need for necessary education, patient focused therapy and staff focused tutor is needed to empower staff working with patients who are confined within forensic psychiatry and suffer from deliberate self harm behaviour.

  • 17.
    Fredborg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Raninen Jansson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskestudenters skattade upplevelser av lärandemiljön före och efter inrättandet av Kompetenscentrum2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, an increasing number of clinical training centers for skill

    training is available to allow for a safe and secure learning environment with simulation

    opportunities for students and staff. Clinical skill training is an important part of nursing at

    University College of Dalarna (HDa) where learning environment at the center of excellence

    (KC) can contribute to an improvement in this part of the training.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the nursing students ' experiences through the

    estimation of learning environment of clinical skill training before and after the establishment

    of center of excellence.

    Method: The study was conducted as a survey with quasiexperimental design.

    The questionnaire was based on Saarikoski and Leino-Kilpis gauges CLES where questions

    were modified with the help of Delphi method based on the three different dimensions:

    educational environment, relationship and the teacher's role. The measurement before the

    establishment was carried out during autumn 2010 and the measurement after establishment

    occurred in autumn of 2011. A total of 266 students were included in the study, of which 198

    (74%) responded to the questionnaire.

    Result: Nursing students estimated the experience of learning environment more favorable

    after the establishment of center of excellence where the results show a significantly higher

    estimate in 8 of the 16 questions. Nursing students´ believe that the training environment is

    more realistic, they are more satisfied with skill training and that inspires them to work as a

    nurse. The relationship between them and the teacher is based on respect and that opens up to

    a more positive atmosphere during skill training. On the other hand, no significant difference

    in the student’s experience of the clinical teacher's role was noticed.

    Conclusion: It is clear that the learning environment is important for nurse student's

    integration of theoretical as well as practical knowledge and skills improvement and provides

    a good basis for work as a nurse. Strategies should be taken to maintain and develop the

    learning environment at KC and focus more on the integration of theory and practice.

  • 18.
    Gillenstrand, Sara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Hedblom, Fia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Barnmorskors erfarenheter och upplevelser kring postpartumsamtal2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research shows postpartum counselling beneficial, women value to talk about their childbirth experiences. Still, not all women are offered the option of postpartum counselling. Midwives find it beneficial for women to have a postpartum counselling. Midwives find they have a lack of knowledge to perform fulfilling postpartum counselling.

    Aim: The aim was to describe midwives’ experiences of postpartum counselling.

    Method: Three focus group interviews were conducted with midwives employed at the maternity ward. The interviews were semi-structured, based on a questionnaire. Qualitative content analysis was used as the analyze method.

    Results: One theme, four categories and 15 subcategories were identified. The theme was: Postpartum counselling today: To meet the need and challenges for the future. The categories were: The meaning of postpartum counselling for the woman, Postpartum counselling, not for everyone, To perform postpartum counselling, Conditions to perform postpartum counselling.

    Conclusion: The midwives’ experiences were that postpartum counselling was of importance to women, their partners but also for the midwive. The organization is in need for adjustment to be able to offer postpartum counselling based on the parents’ needs. Knowledge could be drawn from postpartum counselling for both professional development and care development. This could be one step closer to women centered care.

    Clinical application: The results of the study could lead to development of routines surrounding postpartum counselling. Yet there is a need for more research in the development of a postpartum counselling model. The model could clarify the content and how to perform postpartum counselling.

  • 19.
    Halldin, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Helinder, Lina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Barnmorskors erfarenheter av preventivmedelsrådgivning på ungdomsmottagning: - En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The midwife’s field of work today includes sexual,- reproductive,- and

    perinatal health and the core of the profession is to promote health. The midwife should have

    the knowledge, to provide information and teach about sexuality and relationships from a

    gender and lifecycle approach. The mission of the youth center is to work with sexuality and

    health and the prevention of unwanted pregnancies and STI’s.

    Aim: The aim was to describe midwives' experiences of contraceptive counseling at youth

    clinics.

    Method: Interviews were conducted with nine midwives in youth clinics. In time of the

    interview a questionnaire was used and semistructured questions were asked. Qualitative

    content analysis was used as analyze method.

    Results: Four categories and 15 subcategories were identified. The categories were as

    follows: Importance of experience and knowledge, the Clinical approach, Moderating factors

    and Challenges.

    Conclusion: Midwives feel they have good knowledge and experience of young people and

    contraceptive counseling at the youth clinic and has experience that it is a dynamic work that

    contributes to constant development. When they meet contraception seeking young people

    they wish to meet them at an individual level. The midwives had experiences in that there are

    moderating factors and challenges for the contraception counselling and compliance in

    contraceptive use, this means that contraceptive counselling for young people is complex.

    Clinical application: The result of the study could mean greater understanding for the work

    in youth clinics and create a basis for meeting the challenges that midwives face in their daily

    work.

  • 20.
    Hellman, Daniela
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Söderström, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Barnmorskans uppfattning om indikationer och effekter av förlossning med elektiva kejsarsnitt på humanitär indikation utifrån arbetslivserfarenhet: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Statistics show an increased number of elective caesarean section internationally and nationally. A caesarean section can save the life of mother and child if complications arise, elective caesarean section in common with other major surgeries involve risk of complications. The number of elective caesarean sections on humanitarian indication has increased in Sweden and about 17% of all deliveries via caesarean section. To care and support women before, during and after a cesarean is an essential part of midwifery work. Objective: The aim of the study is to describe midwives' perception of indications and effects of childbirth by elective caesarean section on humanitarian indication illuminated on the basis of work experience. Method: A qualitative approach: semi structural interviews with nine midwives, phenomenographic analysis in seven steps was used for analysis of data. Results: Four descriptive categories emerged, elective Caesarean section on humanitarian indication is an ethical dilemma, elective Caesarean section on humanitarian indication is major surgery, elective Caesarean section on humanitarian indication affect the organization and midwives working environment and elective Caesarean section on humanitarian indication affect the woman's birth experience. Further nine categories that describe midwive´s perceptions emerged. Conclusion: Midwives perceived elective ceaserean section as something complex, that with their professional skills they support the natural part in caesarean sections on humanitarian indication and they lacked mandate to support and strengthen women's informed choice regarding elective Caesarean section on humanitarian indication. Clinical applicability: The result can be used in education regarding midwives supportive and caring role in deliveries with caesarean section. In addition the result can be used in discussions at delivery wards and antenatal care units regarding improving midwives mandate for their supportive and informative tasks.

  • 21.
    Hirvonen, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av prehospital förlossning: En intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several hundred women have an unplanned birth outside hospital in Sweden each year but limited knowledge exists about their experience. The purpose of this study is to describe eight women's emotional experiences of prehospital birth and semi-structured in-depth interviews were chosen as method. The data were analyzed qualitatively using a phenomenological analysis.The essential meaning of the phenomenon of unplanned birth outside hospitals can be understood as a dual experience; at one hand the strength and pride to cope with the situation, on the other hand disappointment. The women were taken by surprise by their bodies, but found in the moment of birth power and focus that, despite the circumstances, guided them through childbirth and in taking care of their newborns. Relief and pride arose afterwards when they knew that everything went well. The phenomenon was also imbued with disappointment that the expectations upon the health care system were not met. The event leaved a trace in the form of enhanced self-esteem, but also concern about giving birth in the future. These findings may provide a basis for further research in the area but also provide the opportunity for a customized treatment and follow-up in the health care system.

  • 22.
    Hjorth, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Sylvén, Katarina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Test av patientenkät riktad till personer med levercirros i uppföljning vid leversjuksköterskemottagning:: En pilotstudie med mixad metod2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To test the patient questionnaire used in the evaluation of an intervention with nurse-led clinic for patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis to examine the experience of answering the questions as well as their relevance to the patient's situation.

    Method: The pilot study was conducted with a mixed method.

    Results: The variation of the participants' experience of anxiety/discomfort of the questionnaire was large (VAS 6-100 millimeters). Individuals with few disease symptoms had concerns about future development of the disease, in the case of long disease experience all the symptoms was familiar. Following alcohol induced disease thoughts of past behavior occurred. A smaller variation (VAS 66-92 millimeters) was seen regarding the experience of how important/essential the questions felt. Questions about treatment were considered important and affected the perception of care. Questions about individualized information was requested as well as the experience of participation in the exchange of information. The participants showed a high appreciation (VAS 73-95 millimeters) that the disease/situation was highlighted by the survey. The visits to the nurse differed from appointments to physicians. The nurse focused on self-care and more time was available for information. For one informant the intervention increased the total number of hospital visits, coordination meant advantages and disadvantages. Symptoms of fatigue and impaired concentration made the questionnaire experienced as too long, a two-parted questionnaire was requested, the size was not strain in mild disease. The language was easy to understand and the content perceived relevant. The open issues brought nothing for the three informants.

  • 23.
    Hällsten, Lisa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Svensson, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Gravida kvinnors tankar om amning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, the frequency of breastfeeding in today`s Sweden is high, but has declined somewhat in recent years. Studies showed that attitudes to breastfeeding were positive, but the difficulties associated with breastfeeding and lack of information and support also emerged. The aim of this master essay was to examine pregnant women`s thoughts about breastfeeding, breastfeeding information and support. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach and, data was collected through focus group interviews with 18 pregnant women in autumn 2012. Data was analysed with a qualitative content analysis. The analysis yielded an overall theme; Balance between individual expectations and difficulties. Five categories emerged; Being aware of breastfeeding benefits, Being aware of the difficulties of breastfeeding, To plan for their next lactation, To be influenced by their surroundings and To have expectations of support for the next lactation. The result showed that pregnant women were aware of breastfeeding benefits and difficulties, that environment affected their thoughts, and that the women often felt that breastfeeding “dissolves naturally”, The results revealed most clearly women`s perceived lack of knowledge about breastfeeding problems and a desire to get breastfeeding information late in the pregnancy. Breastfeeding information given during pregnancy should be varied and, extensive and prepare parents that breastfeeding can be stressful. It is important to involve the partner in information and preparation for breastfeeding.

  • 24.
    Jonasson Lindegren, Carolina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Karlsson, Sara
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Internet- den nya barnmorskan?: En enkätstudie om hur gravida kvinnor söker information om graviditet och förlossning via Internet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Internet is used globally in many areas and current research shows that pregnant women use the Internet to search for information about pregnancy and childbirth.  A pregnancy holds many questions and women seek information to get a sense of security and assurance that everything is “normal” with their health and the baby.

    Purpose: To investigate pregnant women´s use of the Internet to receive information about pregnancy and childbirth.

    Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data was collected through a survey and were analyzed using descriptive and comparative approach.

    Results: Almost all women used the Internet for information about pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnant women seek information about child-development, diet/nutrition and gestational age to a great extent. Highly educated women have different criteria for credibility on websites than women with less education.

    Conclusion: Midwifes should be conscious to pregnant women`s usage of Internet and self-create an perception about the information the pregnant women read on the Internet. Our study shows that the midwives recommendation about websites on Internet has great significance to the pregnant women.

     

  • 25.
    Karlsson, Annica
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av läkemedelshantering till äldre i kommunal hälso– och sjukvård: En kvalitativ studie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskor inom den kommunala hälso – och sjukvården upplevde läkemedelshantering till äldre. Metod: Studien hade en kvalitativ design och data samlades in med enskilda intervjuer av fem sjuksköterskor och analyserades med hjälp av innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman. Resultat: Dataanalysen resulterade i fyra teman med underliggande kategorier. De teman som framkom var: Sjuksköterskan har en betydelsefull roll, att ha insikt och kompetens om äldres läkemedelsanvändning, att anpassa behandlingen till patientens förutsättning och att ha en fungerande verksamhet.  Resultatet visade att det fanns en ökad medvetenhet kring läkemedelsbehandling till äldre men det behövdes mer utbildning inom området. Att ha en fungerande verksamhet ansågs viktigt och det var betydelsefullt att ha ett bra samarbete med andra. Det upplevdes positivt med läkemedelsgenomgångar och i resultatet framkom att sjuksköterskorna tog ett stort ansvar för kvaliteten, var uppmärksamma och följde upp läkemedelsbehandlingar. Att anpassa läkemedelsbehandlingen till patientens förutsättningar ansågs viktigt för att undvika läkemedelsrelaterade problem. Det framgick av resultatet att läkarkontinuitet underlättade arbetet för sjuksköterskorna och höjde kvaliteten på äldres läkemedelsanvändning. Det fanns ett önskemål om en geriatriker inom verksamheten då en del sjuksköterskor upplevde att allmänläkarna saknade kunskap om läkemedelsbehandling till äldre.  Slutsats: Sjuksköterskan har en viktig roll och tar ett stort ansvar för läkemedelbehandlings kvalitet. Att anpassa läkemedelsbehandlingen till patientens förutsättningar är viktigt för att undvika läkemedelsrelaterade problem. Det finns ett behov av ökad kompetens inom området bland alla yrkesgrupper. Det är angeläget med ökad bemanning och god läkarkontinuitet i verksamheten för att höja kvaliteten på läkemedelsbehandlingen.

  • 26.
    Kilde, Therése
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Kling, Madeleine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Förutsättningar för att ge god och säker omvårdnad vid sekundärtransport av kritiskt sjuka patienter.: - En kvalitativ studie ur anestesisjuksköterskans perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The area of responsibility of nurse anesthetist include transporting critically ill

    patients to another hospital for care, inter-hospital transports, which is perceived as a difficult

    task. Research suggests that inter-hospital transport of critically ill patients can be risky and

    cause patient injury. Aim: To describe prerequisites to provide good and safe nursing for

    inter-hospital transports of critically ill patients from the nurse anesthetist perspective.

    Method: A descriptive exploratory design with qualitative focus group interviews and an

    inductive approach was used. Nineteen nurse anesthetist at a Regional Swedish hospital were

    interviewed in three focus groups. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed by content

    analysis. Codes close to the data, which briefly describes the content, were identified and

    later grouped in subcategories and categories. Results: The analysis revealed three

    categories that were considered to meet the needs at inter- hospital transports. The informants

    requested training, teamwork and structure to give them good pre-conditions to safely

    transport critically ill patients. Conclusion: By examining how the anesthesia nurses viewed

    the prerequisites to provide good and safe nursing for inter-hospital transports of critically ill

    patients knowledge was revealed, which in an extension can provide a basis for procedures

    including checklist, team training, continuous training and skills development through

    practical exercises to assure the quality of care for inter-hospital transports.

    Keywords:

  • 27.
    Kilde, Therése
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Kling, Madeleine
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Förutsättningar för att ge god och säker omvårdnad vid sekundärtransport av kritiskt sjuka patienter: En kvalitativ studie ur anestesisjuksköterskans perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The area of responsibility of nurse anesthetist include transporting critically ill patients to another hospital for care, inter-hospital transports, which is perceived as a difficult task. Research suggests that inter-hospital transport of critically ill patients can be risky and cause patient injury. Aim: To describe prerequisites to provide good and safe nursing for inter-hospital transports of critically ill patients from the nurse anesthetist perspective. Method: A descriptive exploratory design with qualitative focus group interviews and an inductive approach was used. Nineteen nurse anesthetist at a Regional Swedish hospital were interviewed in three focus groups. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed by content analysis. Codes close to the data, which briefly describes the content, were identified and later grouped in subcategories and categories. Results: The analysis revealed three categories that were considered to meet the needs at inter- hospital transports. The informants requested training, teamwork and structure to give them good pre-conditions to safely transport critically ill patients. Conclusion: By examining how the anesthesia nurses viewed the prerequisites to provide good and safe nursing for inter-hospital transports of critically ill patients knowledge was revealed, which in an extension can provide a basis for procedures including checklist, team training, continuous training and skills development through practical exercises to assure the quality of care for inter-hospital transports.

  • 28.
    Kruse, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Norén, Linnéa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Följsamhet till egenvård- utvärdering av patienter medhjärtsvikt som fått uppföljning i hemmet av ettmultidisciplinärt team: En registerstudie baserad på longitudinella enkätdata2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: At the hospital in the city off Hudiksvall there is a project that follow- up patients’ with heart failure that has been discharges from the heart unit. The follow up is home- based and carried out by a multidisciplinary team.Background: The most common reason that people over 65 is hospitalized is heart failure. Heart failure is due to an underlying disease, most common are myocardial infarction or hypertension.Self-care is important in heart failure, with specialized follow up/education patients self-care strategies is improved.Aim: To investigate the development of adherence of self-care in patients with heart failure who received home-based follow up from a multidisciplinary team before enrolling in the team and at discharge from the team after 6-8 weeks.Method: A register study based on longitudinal survey data.Results: Patients show improvement in adherence to self-care, improved or maintained NYHA class, a reduction of the number of admissions and days of hospitalization.Conclusion: The follow- up through the multidisciplinary team at Hudiksvalls hospital improved the patients’ adherence to self- care, reducing the number of admissions/ days of hospitalization and improves or maintains the patients NYHA class.

  • 29.
    Lindberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans åtgärder för att lindra oro och ångest i en vårdsituation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Lindberg, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Rundberg, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Förlossningsrädda kvinnors erfarenheter av Aurorasamtal ett till två år efter förlossning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About 5 % of all pregnant women suffer from severe fear of childbirth. Women with fear of childbirth are at higher risk for complications during and after pregnancy. In Sweden a lot of resources are being spent on Aurora counselling to help women with fear of childbirth. There is no comprehensive evaluation of Aurora counselling though. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the experience and impact of Aurora counselling for childbirth as well as the experience of the following birth among primipara and multipara women. Method: The study had a retrospective study design in which data was collected through a survey. The data was compiled in SPSS.

    Results: The majority of women felt that the Aurora counselling has helped them to experience a more positive birth experience. More primipara than multipara desired an elective caesarean section when they came to Aurora Clinic. Most of the women who desired to have a vaginal birth became vaginally delivered. More than half of the women who participated in the study were less afraid of childbirth 1 - 2 years after the birth than they estimated they were before the Aurora counselling and childbirth. Conclusion: Aurora counselling seems to have the greatest impact on multipara women as well as on women who desire vaginal birth.

  • 31.
    Lindblom, Emilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Jonsson, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Att möta oplanerat gravida unga kvinnor som beslutar sig för att genomgå en abort: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med barnmorskor på ungdomsmottagningar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The midwifery profession has developed from focusing solely on pregnancy and childbirth to a broader field of sexual and reproductive health, including also meeting young people at youth clinics. The midwife at the youth clinic works preventively against unplanned pregnancies and meet young women and men in conversations about pregnancy and abortion. Facing a positive pregnancy notice may be overwhelming and the midwife is central in supporting the young woman, her partner and family in order for her to carry out an informed decision.

    Objective: To describe the midwife's experiences in meeting unplanned pregnant young women at the youth clinic who decide to have an abortion.

    Design/Methods: Semi-structured individual interviews were used as the method of data collection and analysis was conducted using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Two categories and seven subcategories were identified: Being a listening partner; At the pregnancy announcement, In front of the abortion decision and After the abortion. Individualized support; To provide practical and knowledge based support related to the unplanned pregnancy, To consider the social context, Providing support for a continuing safe sexuality and Achieving support to support.

    Conclusion and clinical applicability: The midwife captured the thoughts and feelings of the young woman and responded to her where she was. The midwife made it clear that the decision about abortion should be the young woman’s own and not to rush the decision. They stressed the importance of not pre-assume abortion as the only treatment option. By listening to the individual needs of support midwife could meet the support that the young woman was missing. To support the continued safe sexuality were considered important but a challenging aspect of the work evoked emotions, and therefore support to the midwife in the form of colleagues, training and guidelines is important. By increasing the knowledge of the midwives' meetings with unplanned pregnant young women, the authors hope to contribute to a better understanding of Midwifery work and challenges. Through training, field studies, clearer guidelines and support in post abortion contraceptive counseling the midwives can get more support in their work and thus the opportunity to improve person-centered care based on the young woman's needs.

  • 32.
    Lindblom, Kristina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Rask, Katarina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Karaktäristika för kvinnor i Norden som väljer en planerad hemförlossning: En jämförelse mellan Sverige och Norden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Endast ett fåtal kvinnor i Norden väljer en planerad hemförlossning. I Sverige har en studie gjorts för att undersöka vilka karaktärsdrag som går att urskilja hos dessa kvinnor men liknande studier saknas för Norden.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva vad som är karaktäristika för kvinnor i Norden som väljer en planerad hemförlossning samt jämföra karaktäristika hos kvinnor i Sverige med kvinnor från tre andra nordiska länder.

    Metod: Studien är en retrospektiv tvärsnittsstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Materialet är insamlat mellan 2009-2011 inom ramen för forskningsnätverket ”Nordic Homebirth” via enkätformulär på internetsidan www.nordichomebirth.com. Icke-parametriska analyser genomfördes med hjälp av Chitvå-test.

    Resultat: Totalt svarade 778 kvinnor på enkäten. Kvinnorna i Sverige var i genomsnitt två år äldre och i högre grad omföderskor och sammanboende/gifta. Fler kvinnor i Norden var ensamstående/ej sammanboende jämfört med de svenska kvinnorna. Ingen skillnad i utbildningsnivå fanns mellan kvinnorna i Sverige och Norden.

    Slutsats: Skillnader i karaktäristika för kvinnor som väljer en planerad hemförlossning i Norden finns avseende ålder, paritet, civilstånd och ursprungsland. Bättre registrering av planerade hemförlossningar behövs för att kunna göra säkrare undersökningar av denna grupp.

    Nyckelord: planerad hemförlossning, karaktäristika, kvinnor, Sverige, Norden

  • 33.
    Lithberg, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Hälsa och livskvalitet hos personer diagnostiserade med lungcancer: En deskriptiv enkätstudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka skattningen av hälsa och livskvalitet utifrån kön, ålder och rökvanor hos personer med lungcancer. Vidare syftade studien till att undersöka om det fanns samband mellan specifika sjukdomssymptom och personens skattning av hälsa, livskvalitet och förekomsten av rökning eller tidigare rökning. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en deskriptiv studie. Deltagarna (n=68) var samtliga diagnostiserade med lungcancer och bosatta i Dalarna, Sverige.

    Resultat: Ökade besvär av vissa sjukdomssymptom, däribland svårigheter att ta en långpromenad samt trötthet, hade ett signifikant samband med en lägre skattad hälsa. Vid ökade besvär av vissa sjukdomssymptom, däribland nedstämdhet och sömnsvårigheter, sågs samband med en lägre skattning av livskvaliteten. Personer som var, eller tidigare hade varit rökare, hade i högre utsträckning besvär av vissa sjukdomssymptom som andfåddhet och svårigheter att göra ansträngande saker.

    Sammanfattning: Studien visade att det fanns signifikanta samband mellan vissa sjukdomssymptom och hur personen med lungcancer upplever sin hälsa och livskvalitet. Detta är viktigt att bejaka i omvårdnaden av personer som drabbats för att kunna främja hälsa och livskvalitet. Det fanns även signifikanta samband mellan vissa sjukdomssymptom och förekomsten av rökning eller tidigare rökning. Detta är en indikation på att hälso- och sjukvården bör fortsätta att arbeta tobakspreventivt för att motiverat att arbeta för att personer ska sluta röka.

  • 34.
    Mattsson, Annika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Omvårdnad av patienter som vårdas enligt lagen om psykiatrisk tvångsvård (LPT) inom psykiatrisk slutenvård: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: All health care in Sweden is governed by the Health Care Act. Under certain circumstances, this law needs to be supplemented with the Compulsory mental care act. These people cared for within psychiatric inpatient care. Nursing aim is that the patient agrees to care and compulsory care may go to voluntary treatment. These people's problems are often complex and the nursing care experienced many difficulties.

    Aim: To describe nurses’ caring and experiences for patients under compulsory mental care act within psychiatric inpatient care.

    Method: Empiric qualitative study with descriptive design. The study is based on seven semi-structured interviews with nurses. These were analysed with manifest content analysis.

    Result: The results showed that a prerequisite for reach the goal of compulsory care through nursing was to establish alliance with the patient. Communication that included individualized information was a key factor to alliance building. Nursing included collaboration and nurses experienced a need for skills development.

    Conclusion: Nurses experiencing that caring according to compulsory mental care act is a challenge and is linked to a number of difficulties. Obtained competence, time for reflection and perceived safety in the working group does not care felt as an impossibility, but could be experienced as positive for both the caring and the cared for.

  • 35.
    Moberg, Inger
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Anhörigas upplevelser när en familjemedlem som drabbats av demens flyttar in på ett särskilt boende2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: När beslutet att flytta in på ett särskilt boende fattats förändras livssituationen för både den som drabbats av demens som för de anhöriga.

    Syftet: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att studera och beskriva anhörigas upplevelser i samband med att en person som drabbats av demens flyttar in på ett särskilt boende. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt. Litteratur­sökningarna gjordes i databaserna Medline och Cinahl efter relevanta artiklar. Sökord som användes var relatives, experience, caregivers burden, coping, dementia, nursing home, placement, decision, Sweden, family caregivers. Sexton vetenskapliga artiklar analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Analysen resulterade i fem olika kategorier: att skapa en relation att känna sig delaktig, att känna skuld, att känna osäkerhet samt att fatta rätt beslut. Resultat: Att ta beslutet att flytta en person som drabbats av demens var svårt, eftersom det ofta är förknippat med skuldkänslor, att inte känna sig delaktig, samt en känsla av osäkerhet, och en oro om att inte ha tagit rätt beslut. Slutsats: Rollen som anhörig till en person som drabbats av demens är svår och det innebär en hög belastning samt en hög nivå av stress. Det är viktigt att den anhörige får stöd och uppmuntran och där har vårdpersonalen en viktig roll.

  • 36.
    Neljesjö, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Strömkvist, Ingegerd
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Omvårdnadspersonals upplevelser av vård i livets slutskede: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how the nursing staff within themunicipality's special housing and short term care perceived their caring forpatients receiving palliative care.Method: The study is based on eight interviews with enrolled nurses. The datacollection method was based on the Critical Incident Technique. The analysis ofinterviews was carried out with qualitative content analysis.Result: Cooperation between the care team and the relatives had a great andsignificant impact on how care was delivered. At times the nursing staff felt thatthe nurse was not present during various nursing interventions. Distribution ofstaff during the day contributed to the continuity of the interaction. The enrollednurses expressed that different environmental factors were either helpful orobstacles in the interaction between the dying person and their relatives. Theenrolled nurses illuminated the importance of respecting the patient's wishes. Thenursing staff provided the families with support which contributed to a feeling ofcloseness. Furthermore, the enrolled nurses felt that their presence withoutdemands and stress were significant in the interaction between the dying personand their family. It was important that the dying patient and their families weresatisfied with symptom control. It was significant to provide a dignified treatmentafter death.Conclusion: The overall theme was that the nursing staff perceived that interactionand collaboration between the care team, family and the patient was of significantimportance for a secure and dignified end of life care.

  • 37.
    Olsson, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Winlöf, Viktoria
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Mammors upplevelse av att drabbas av HELLP syndrom och samtidigt mista sitt väntade barn: En kvalitativ fallstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det finns begränsad kunskap om hur mammor upplever att drabbas av HELLP syndrom och samtidigt mista sitt väntade barn. Ytterligare kunskap kan bidra till ökad förståelse och leda till bättre vård. Syfte: Att beskriva mammors upplevelser av att drabbas av HELLP syndrom och samtidigt mista sitt väntade barn. Metod: En kvalitativ fallstudie med djupintervjuer som analyserades genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Studien påvisade det kaos och den overklighetskänsla mammorna upplevde då insjuknandet och händelserna skedde i snabb takt. Det fanns ingen tid för reflektion, tillståndet var livshotande och en katastrofkänsla uppstod. Temat overkligt kaos formades. De svårt sjuka mammorna klarade inte att delta vid första omvårdnaden av sitt döda barn men kunde under vårdtiden vara tillsammans med barnet vid flera tillfällen vilket gav känslor av både glädje och sorg. Mammorna upplevde restsymtom av HELLP syndrom ett halvår efter händelsen. Slutsatser: Det snabba insjuknandet och händelseförloppet resulterade i ett overkligt kaos för mammorna. Det är viktigt att vårdpersonalen är tydliga i sin kommunikation och hela tiden närvarande hos mamman. Barnmorskan har en central roll i att hjälpa mammorna att möta och vara nära sitt döda barn så mycket som möjligt.

  • 38.
    Scholder, Linnéa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Stanizewski, Nina
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Kvinnans tillit till amning: En enkätstudie på BB och Eftervårdsmottagningen i Värmland2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breastfeeding frequency in Värmland decreases and is low compared with the national average. A contributing factor to the decline in breastfeeding rates is the lack of confidence in breastfeeding. It is important to identify women with low confidence to reverse the decline in breastfeeding frequency and strengthen her in her role as a mother.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate breastfeeding and self-efficacy in the Postnatal ward and Postnatal carecenter in Värmland. Using BSES-SF survey, women with low confidence in breastfeeding and women who need an increased breastfeeding support after delivery were identified.

    Design/Methods: The study was conducted with a quantitative approach. Data whas collected from BSES-SF, answered by 70 women in Postnatal ward and Postnatal carecenter in Värmland. All data were analyzed by SPSS.

    Results: Most women felt that it was very important to have a functioning breastfeeding and when the women estimated the importance of breastfeeding it showed a mean of 8.66, where 0 = not at all important and 10 = very important. Women who breastfed previously rated their perceived breastfeeding experience as very good. Every single question on BSES-SF whas compared between women who were treated in Postnatal ward and Postnatal carecenter. It showed a difference in eight questions, the women on the Postnatal carecenter estimated a higher confidence in breastfeeding compared with women in the Postnatal ward. The total sum of BSES-SF with a score range between 14-70, showed that trust in lactation whas estimated higher among women in the Postnatal carecenter (M = 56.54) than in the Postnatal ward (M = 49.88).

    Conclusion and clinical applicability: Primaparas and women with prior deliveries who now experienced a complicated childbirth may need extra breastfeeding support. The result of the study may leed to extra attention from the midwife to those women whose breastfeeding does not work and where additional support is needed to increase confidence. Based on the studys result BSES-SF can be a useful tool, especially in the Postnatal ward where women estimated a lower confidence in breastfeeding.

  • 39.
    Sjöberg, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Personcentrerad vård, fysioterapeuters uppfattningar inom akut slutenvård – en fenomenografisk intervjustudie.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Person-centered care (PCC) is strongly supported by Swedish law. Health care staff, including physiotherapists, value features in PCC, such as increased patient participation, but research indicates also difficulties to fully grasp and practice the concept.

    Aim: To explore and describe how physiotherapists perceive PCC in acute in-hospital care.

    Methods: Qualitative phenomenograpic design, using two different methods for data collection. Participant´s, registered physiotherapist´s and operative in acute in-hospital wards, were interviewed individually and in a focus group. Participant´s characteristics were; 27-53 years, 1.5-16 years in profession, 6 women and one male.

    Analysis: A phenomenographic data analysis in consecutive seven steps was performed.

    Result: The analysis resulted in two main descriptive categories, "The professional role is challenged" and "The patient role transforms" with three subcategories respectively.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, implementing PCC may imply a struggle within physiotherapist´s in acute in-hospital care, such as perceived challenges to the professional role and a perceived transformation in the patient role. Further research is needed to explore this.

  • 40.
    Skytt Becker, Caroline
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Nordenberg, Ida
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Från hopplöshet till liv; Förlossningsupplevelse efter förlängd latensfas2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many women may not get the quick and complication-free childbirth as they wish. The labor can instead be long and arduous. Research shows that various aspects affect a woman's birth experience, however there’s not much research on how a woman's birth experience is affected by a prolonged latent phase.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine how women feel about their birth after prolonged latent phase.

    Method: Qualitative method was used, based on interviews with focus groups and individual interviews. The material was then analyzed by content analysis.

    Results: A theme emerged; The balance between hope and despair, and three categories were identified; To feel vulnerable and exposed, Striving for control and Fatigue takes over. One of the key findings was that the support from the midwife is an important part of a woman's childbirth to get a positive birth experience.

    Conclusion: Vulnerability and fatigue are factors that characterize the birth experience after a prolonged latent phase. With good support and good analgesia women could regain control over the situation. Good information about the labor progress to women during childbirth was of great importance to get renewed energy.

    Clinical applicability: Women with prolonged latent phase is a group that needs more support during childbirth. A good midwife staffing is necessary to achieve this.

  • 41.
    Soras, Helinä
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Autentiskt möte: En litteraturstudie om sjuksköterska-patient relationen vid olika modersmål2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Sundberg, Cathrine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Eriksson, Cajsa
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Prenatal anknytning: En begreppsanalys2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mothers prenatal attachment, what it is influenced by and what the consequences might be and how the mothers experience their child during pregnancy are included in prenatal attachment. The concept is lacking clear definitions. Prenatal attachment has a great part within maternal health care but as a concept it's relatively undefined. Aim: The aim was to describe the concept of prenatal attachment through a concept analysis. Methods: A concept analysis with qualitative design. Five midwives were selected trough a convenience sampling and were interviewed, earlier a literature review was conducted. The result from the field study phase was brought together with the result from the theoretical phase. Results: The concept of prenatal attachment results in defined attributes. Fetal movement was a significant attribute. Other attributes were interaction, sharing, fantasies and emotions. The frame around the concept is set due to its conditions and consequences. Conclusion: Prenatal attachment can be identified as a complex concept adapted to each pregnancy based on the defined attributes.

  • 43.
    Vildelöt, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Edman, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Personalens förväntningar inför sammanslagning av förlossnings-, BB- och neonatalavdelningen och att samtidigt införa samvård: Kvalitativ studie med fokusgruppsintervjuer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The bonding between child and parent is aided when child and parent can be together as soon as possible from delivery. Teamwork improves quality and contributes to a holistic-perspective on nursing. A good work environment and good cooperation between staff is important for the efficiency of family-centered care. It is significant to investigate the expectations of the staff before introducing a new way of working, since it may reflect in the quality of care later given.The aim of this study was to illustrate the staffs’ expectations on the fusion of care units and whilst introducing family-centered care.The method was a qualitative method, with three focusgroup interviews of a total of 14 participants. Data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.The result was summarized with the theme “safe and common or new and uncertain – the balance of change” that described the feelings of the staff before the fusion. The categories “achieving a good environment for parents and staff”, “to cooperate focusing on the family”, “uniting two clinics and cultures” and “to experience a change in establishment” described the expectations and fears of the staff.Conclusions: Results showed expectations of improved care- and work environment, and that the cooperation between clinics would become more efficient. It was important having a clear flow of information, to feel participant and to have a straight-forward management in order to create a functioning way of work in family-centered care.

  • 44.
    Wallenberg, Solveig
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Östlund, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    HUr ungdomar med självskadebeteende upplever vårdpersonals bemötande2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur ungdomar med självskadebeteende upplever bemötandet från vårdpersonalen. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt där sju kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar samt en kvantitativ vetenskaplig artikel användes. Datainsamlingen gjordes i databaserna PubMed, Psyc INFO och CINAHL Resultat: Resultatet av denna studie visade på att de flesta av ungdomarna med självskadebeteende inte sökte vård då de antingen var rädda för att förvärra sina problem eller för att de inte visste vart de skulle vända sig. De valde att i första hand söka hjälp hos sina vänner. Resultatet visade på tre kategorier. Dessa var: rädsla för vården, negativa upplevelser av bemötandet och positiva upplevelser av bemötandet. I resultatet framkom att av de som sökte hjälp inom sjukvården kände sig många missnöjda. Dessa ungdomar upplevde att det största problemet under vårdtiden var negativa attityder och dåligt bemötande från personalen. De ungdomar som tagit överdoser var övervägande positiva till det bemötande och den vård de fått till skillnad från de som inte tagit överdoser. Slutsats: Studien visade att ungdomar inte söker hjälp av sjukvården för sitt självskadebeteende då de är rädda för att deras problem ska förvärras eller att de inte ska bli förstådda eller tagna på allvar. De som ändå söker hjälp upplever att de får en annan hjälp än den de önskar.

  • 45.
    Westling, Caroline
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Rektorers erfarenheter av skolans sex och samlevnadsundervisning och samarbete med ungdomsmottagningen: En intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish schools sexual and relationship education should give adolescents´ knowledge about the body, sexuality, gender and relationships. The headmaster of each school is responsible for this education. Midwives at youth clinics around the country has over the year’s amassed extensive knowledge about adolescents´ conditions that are specific to the age group. The aim of this study was to describe the headmasters' experiences of sexual and relationship education and collaboration with the youth clinic. The study had a descriptive design. A convenience sample was applied as sampling method. Seven principals from schools in central Sweden participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to qualitative content analysis. The results were presented on the basis of six categories and 18 subcategories. The results showed that the headmasters´ had the experience of the teachers was a key factor for the sexual and relationship education to be good. Headmasters´ had the experience that young people's lifestyles and attitudes played a big role in how they transformed their theoretical knowledge of sex and relationship to practice. Headmasters´ had good experience of working with the youth clinic. The Headmasters´ highlighted socio-demographic challenges in sexual and relationship education. Headmasters´ had experiences that there was a lack of knowledge among the students in the subject. Headmasters´ felt that it was important that there was a balance between biology and value issues in sex education. Headmasters´ felt doubts about the form of the education.. The author's conclusion after interviewing seven headmasters is that Swedish schools need much clearer guidelines on how sexual and relationship education should be conducted so that the balance between biology and values can be created.

  • 46.
    Wickman, Fatima
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science. Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Patienters upplevelse av livskvalitet efter hjärtstopp samt hur livet påverkades hos närstående: En litteraturöversikt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna systematiska litteraturstudie var att beskriva hur patienter upplevde sin livskvalitet efter ett hjärtstopp samt hur närstående upplevde att livet påverkades efter en anhörigs hjärtstopp. Metod: Sökningar efter artiklar skedde via PubMed, CINAHL och Medline. Inklusionskriterierna var att artiklarna skulle vara skrivna på svenska eller engelska, primärkällor samt publicerade i vetenskapliga tidskrifter mellan 2000-2012. Huvudresultat: Livskvaliteten påverkades inom flera områden hos patienterna. Det aktiva dagliga livet (ADL) och/eller den fysiska förmågan var försämrad, dock rapporterades en tillfredsställande livskvalitet och en god ADL nivå 15 år efter hjärtstoppet. Trötthet var uttalat hos patienterna vilket påverkade livskvaliteten negativt. Även närstående upplevde en ökad trötthet med tillägg av andra fysiska symtom. Posttraumatiskt stressyndrom (PTSD) var vanligt hos patienterna men påverkade endast den fysiska upplevelsen av livskvalitet. Oro, ångest och depression var vanligt förekommande hos patienter och var korrelerat till en sämre livskvalitet. Dessa symtom var även vanliga hos närstående. Sociala relationer upplevdes som viktiga hos både patienter och närstående. Livskvalitet upplevdes i relation med närstående. Kvinnor upplevde en sämre social funktion än män. Närstående kände sig isolerade och var rädda för att uppröra sin partner. Slutsats: Att överleva ett hjärtstopp påverkar patientens livskvalitet både fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt. Även närstående påverkas i hög grad. Både patienter och närstående skulle vara behjälpliga av stöd och vägledning tiden efter hjärtstopp. Stödgrupper för närstående i liknande situationer ansågs kunna minska den psykiska påfrestningen. Sjuksköterskans roll var att tidigt försöka identifiera patienter och närstående i riskzonen för att utveckla stressyndrom.

  • 47.
    Wiker, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Pregnant women’s use of coping strategies during early labour: A qualitative interview study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Backgrund: Labour can be divided into different phases, the latent phase also named early labour can be the longest phase. During early labour, women may advantageously be at home. Different coping strategies can help women to more easily handle the situation.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the coping strategies that pregnant women used during early labour at home.

    Design: A qualitative study design with inductive approaches was used, and based on interviews with a total of 16 women. Content analysis was used.

    Results: After analysis of the interview data an overall theme was shown: Use of internal and external resources for handling the situation. The result was then divided into four categories: To prepare and plan for childbirth, To bring new energy, To seek support from others and To find your own strategies for handling the situation.

    Conclusions: Result showeds that the use of coping strategies can help women to better manage early labour at home. Women should be aware of that the using of coping strategies can help them to better manage their labour. It is also an advantage for the midwifery profession to know about different kinds of coping strategies that can be used in the home during early labour in order to give women adequate advice and support.

  • 48.
    Zadik, Tove
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Sterner, Kathy
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science.
    Exploring midwives’ experiences, attitudes and perceptions in relation to unsafe abortion and post abortion care: - a qualitative study with midwives in Kampala, Uganda.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the East African region abortion complications causes significant morbidity and mortality, impairing women´s and girls’ health and well-being. Health care provider shortages, physicians in particular, non-availability of safe and effective medicines and technology, and the fact that few midwives and nurses are trained in post abortion care (PAC), result in limited health care access. Stigma and legal repercussions further obstruct access to care and contributes to hesitance among health care providers to provide such care. Previous studies concerning women´s access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care in Uganda have revealed several barriers to health care access and limited quality of care. Aim: Exploring midwives´ experiences, attitudes and perceptions in relation to unsafe abortion and their experience of providing PAC. Method: In depth interviews were conducted with twelve midwives at Mulago Referall hospital, Uganda by using a semi- structured interview guide. The transcribed material was then developed through qualitative content analysis using a manifest approach. Result: The analysis resulted in two main categories: 1) stigma and social norms related to women´s sexuality and abortion and 2) quality of post abortion care. The result showed that unintended pregnancies, FP and abortions generally are viewed badly in Uganda and are highly stigmatized. The quality of PAC is perceived reduced due to lack of equipment, high work load and stigma surrounding abortions.

    Conclusion: Unsafe abortions are viewed negatively and is seen as a consequence to stigma surrounding FP and unplanned pregnancies, which is mainly affecting young unmarried women. Midwives experienced reduced quality of PAC due to limited resources. The study also shows that new knowledge and education about PAC can help reduce midwives prejudice towards abortion seeking women and broaden their views.

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