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  • 1.
    Aallos, Saana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Härkönen, Tanja
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Customer value creation in technology based restaurant experiences: Case study in the mobile application restaurant: Pincho’s2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the restaurant industry, there is a growing interest in applying technology as part of the service process. However, the constant development of technological innovations does not always meet the demand and therefore it would be important to empirically study how the technology based dining experiences are perceived by the customer. Accordingly, collecting information on how the service quality is perceived when technology is playing a major role during the restaurant experience is important, since such research has not been conducted before. Hereby, the aim of this research paper is to examine restaurant experiences from the customer point of view, in which the role of service personnel is reduced due to implementation of a mobile application. In order to achieve this aim, the objective is to identify what creates value for the customers in a mobile application generated dining experience. Thus, following research questions were stated: How does the customers perceive the service quality in a mobile application generated dining experience? and What are the advantages and disadvantages for the customer to use mobile application for the service delivery during the dining experience?

    The research used explanatory sequential mixed methods. Primarily, the researchers performed collection and analysis of quantitative data. Additionally, to get a profound interpretation of the research topic, qualitative data was gathered and analyzed. Thereafter, the qualitative data was used for explaining the quantitative findings more in detail. For the sake of this, the research questions were divided correspondingly one for each method. Findings from the descriptive quantitative analysis, indicated that the use of mobile application for the service delivery was mostly positively perceived. Additionally, discourse analysis was conducted from 812 Pincho’s associated TripAdvisor online reviews. The review findings provided more detailed opinions of the customers’ experiences in their own words and brought up possible advantages and disadvantages.

    The research findings can provide a small contribution to the knowledge of technology based restaurant experiences. However, as the researchers collected only a small amount of primary data, the validity of the results is limited. Additionally, using online reviews is a highly subjective method and consequently has its shortcomings. Therefore, in order to gain thorough understanding of mobile application generated dining experiences, the phenomenon should be further examined in a larger scale. Together with this, it would be intriguing to conduct a questionnaire based survey in all the Pincho’s restaurants and more specifically examine overall satisfaction of the customers.

  • 2.
    Alijani, Hamid
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The determinants of visitor spending: The case study of Nordic World Ski Championships in Falun- Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sporting events, which are part of broader tourism industry, bring a range of benefits to the hostcities and regions. These benefits include increase in business activity, job creation,infrastructure development and publicity. Cities and regions spend huge amount of money tohost sporting events. A number of researchers have attempted to investigate the determinants ofvisitors spending at sporting events. However, the factors that influence the visitors spendingappear to be case specific. This study examines the determinants of visitors spending at NordicWorld Ski Championships, Falun 2015. The results suggest that income, number of days spent atthe event and being foreigner are the main determinants of the spending. The results also showthat education, marital status, gender, party size, distance traveled and satisfaction level have nosignificant impact on visitors spending.

  • 3.
    Amores Lorenzo, Casandra
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    One-Year Master’s Degree in Tourism Destination Development Will it snow?: Sierra Nevada Ski Resort stakeholders’ perceptions of climate change2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Its strong dependency on weather conditions makes winter tourism especially vulnerable to

    climate change. Ski industry operators’ knowledge about the possible scale and effects of

    global warming is essential for adopting effective mitigation and adaptation measures. This

    study it’s focused in the ski resort located in Sierra Nevada, Spain, the southernmost ski

    resort in Europe. Using a qualitative approach, in-depth interviews were conducted. Although

    the findings generally indicate a good knowledge of climate change, the stakeholders

    perceive the issue as a global phenomenon. Stakeholders downplayed the scale of the

    phenomenon at regional scale. They did not perceive climate change as a real or immediate

    risk to the ski industry in Sierra Nevada. Consequently it was found a poor perceived need to

    adapt to the issue. Furthermore, no adaptation strategies were found directly linked to climate

    variability. Stakeholders identified technically produced snow as a business strategy to deal

    with the increasing demand and competitiveness. Adaptation to climate change in Sierra

    Nevada’s ski tourism was found reactive and autonomous. The main limits found to

    adaptation were the lack of accurate and region-specific information about climate change

    and the lack of cooperation and communication between the private and public sector.

  • 4.
    Annisius, Daniel Chandrachur
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Managing Seasonality in Tourism: Challenges and Opportunities for the Tourism Industry in Húsavík, Iceland2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonality is a common phenomenon in the tourism industry around the world. Húsavík, a town on the northern coast of Iceland, has experienced tremendous growth in tourism in recent years and is sometimes recognised as the „Whale Watching Capital of Europe‟. However, Húsavík faces extreme seasonality with high demand mainly during the summer months and limited or no demand at other times of the year. As is emphasised in the tourism literature and widely in practice, seasonality is frequently seen as a problem for the tourism industry which has to be tackled. Academic research has never before been done on seasonality in Húsavík and the aim of this thesis is to understand the nature of seasonality within the tourism industry in Húsavík and discover potential ways to reduce seasonality in Húsavík tourism. In order to fulfil the aim, qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken with six tourism managers in Húsavík to investigate their perceptions of seasonality and if and how it could be managed. The results confirmed that the peripheral location of the destination stimulates seasonality and it poses major economic challenges for tourism businesses in Húsavík. Managers would prefer a longer tourism season. Several recommendations were provided for how to reduce seasonality such as develop other attractions than whale watching, improve accessibility, focus marketing on seasons outside the summer, and offer winter packages for foreign and domestic tourists.

  • 5.
    Apollonio, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Henriksson, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Social and economic evaluation of a rural tourism event: The case of Rättvik’s Classic Car Week, Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of a rural event, both from a social perspective evaluating the event and the tourist and visitors it attracts and from an economic perspective. Given the modern situation of rural destinations and its shifting economy, the importance of turning towards event tourism becomes paramount. The research presents the case of the Classic Car Week, a rural festival held during week 31 in Rättvik, in the region of Dalarna, Sweden. The study is based on surveys collected during the 2016 edition. The authors analyzed the data and extrapolated statistical information to gather knowledge on the average visitor and its interests. The social focused tourism and event section of the research revolves around Crompton’s instrument of motivator measurement to establish the pull factors which attract visitors to the event. This is done by analyzing their expectation, satisfaction and decision-making. The economic analysis of the study presents the calculations made by the authors on the total estimat accomodation expenses based on guest nights in Rättvik (35000) during week leading up to the event and during CCW, week 30 and 31. A estimated max and minimum senario was made were the calculated max accomodation expenses was 7 031 793 SEK while the minimum was estimated to 4 714 177 SEK. Similarly, a max and min scenario was also calculated on the estimated total daily expenses, resulting in a max approximation of 7 087 107 and a min of 4 746 521. Together the estimated max and min accommodation and daily expenses was summed to create a max and min scenario of the total spending in the area. With a max scenario of 14 118 900 SEK and a minimum scenario of 9 460 698 SEK. Illustrating a part of the economical impact that he municipality receives as a direct result of the event.

  • 6.
    Arsianovich-Klaiber, Katsiaryna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    There is no “bad” publicity: The case study of Kazakhstan and Borat the movie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Asino, Wilhelmina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Evaluating aspects of sustainability in tourism at a mountain destination: Accessibility and economic impacts assessment in Sälen: Case of Sälen in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Travelling to, from and within the destination area accounts for a high level of tourism emissions. Yet, little has been done to improve and direct the travelling pattern at reducing carbon dioxide emissions. By encouraging visitors to use public rather private transport also limits traffic congestion and increases the use of public space by means of walking and cycling therefore enhancing destination competitiveness. Although there have a number of attempts to encourage the use of public transportation over car use, it still remains a challenge. This paper reports the findings of surveys of tourists who visited Sälen during the peak season of Easter break and projected their travel choice and spending patterns within the destination. The results shows that there is a relationship between location, accessibility and tourist expenditure.

    Therefore, understanding the pattern of visitors’ expenditures within a destination can serve as a strategic element in economic sustainability and capturing factors that have a high expenditure at a destination.

  • 8.
    Benito Medina, Andrés
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Impacts of tourism in urban areas: Community attitude towards tourism impacts in ‘La Barceloneta’ neighbourhood in Barcelona2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses how residents of urban communities perceive the impact of tourism on

    their community, as well as the attitudes that these residents have towards tourism. Most of

    the previous tourism literature is focused on the visitor point of view. Although there are

    some studies on residents’ perceptions and attitudes, almost all of them are located in small

    rural communities and resort-type destinations. Therefore, there is a lack of research into

    residents’ perceptions and attitudes in urban destinations. It is generally argued that

    destinations have different characteristics, and therefore determinants of perceptions and

    attitude formation might be different in each case. Barceloneta is a port neighbourhood in

    Barcelona, which has been increasing in popularity since 1992, and is now one of the most

    popular tourist areas in the city. Originally populated by sailors and fishermen, Barceloneta

    now has a considerable part of the community living off tourism. However, an important

    portion of the community has been protesting against the negative effects of mass tourism

    since the summer of 2014. This paper has conducted 11 semi-structured in depth interviews

    in order to look into perceptions and attitudes as well as the factors influencing them.

    The results of this study have shown that residents perceive positive and negative impacts

    regardless of their general opinion of tourism. The Barceloneta community seems to be

    heterogeneous when it comes to their perceptions, where each individual develops different

    attitudes as a result of observation and evaluation of the effects of tourism; this relates to the

    Social Exchange Theory. The findings of this paper aim to assist urban planners with making

    tourism development strategies with higher rates of acceptance within the community. More

    acceptance of tourism development would contribute positively to the host-visitor

    relationship, as well as to visitors’ overall satisfaction and destination image.

  • 9.
    Berens, Laura
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    “Ready for tourism”?: Investigating community capacity as a precondition fortourism development in Muungoni Village, Zanzibar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present master thesis was to analyze what factors contribute to communitycapacity, in order to add to the understanding of what can make tourism as a developmentalstrategy more efficient. Community capacity was assessed at the example of MuungoniVillage on Zanzibar along a capital assets approach. The setting is represented in terms of theparticipants and their viewpoints that were captured in semi-structured in-depth interviewsduring a research trip on the Tanzanian island. Several strong, as well as weak indicatorscould be elaborated to estimate to what extent the community currently has the capacity as aprecondition to involve in tourism. This thesis therewith was able to build a bridge betweenwhat currently appraises the community capacity of Muungoni and which weaknesses have tobe improved in order to further build capacity. It contributes to the research gapencompassing community capacity within the perspective of tourism development.

  • 10.
    Berg, Josefin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Local images vs. the images by the DMO in tourism marketing: Case study of Falun municipality, Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Blum, Jutta
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the work experience of seasonal leisure-service workers in a holiday park2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the experiences that seasonal leisure-service worker have while working in the holiday park if Leksand Resort AB. This is regarded as an important topic, as certain experiences as for example satisfaction or motivation, can be a strong influence on the quality of the services provided as well as an indicator if workers will return in later seasons. Additional, Hickman and Mayer (2003) stated that not enough research has been conducted about the personnel side of holiday park work.

    Therefore, two qualitative methods of data collection were implemented in form of semi structured in-depth interviews, as well as observations. While the interviews allowed the researcher an insight into personal opinions and experiences of the workers, to further explore the phenomenon of leisure-service worker experiences, the observations provided data on changes within the company, comparing work-conditions, co-worker relationships, and management contact in 2017 with those that the interviewees mentioned in the interviews from 2016.

    The findings show that co-worker relationships were perceived as the most important part for having a good experience at work. Also, several negative influences on the employee experience that employees from 2016 expressed were taken care of by the company in 2017. Still, employees do not feel as if the Management has big interest in their well being. This misunderstanding, can possibly explained by the communication difficulties that some employees expressed.

    The focus of this research was not to explore all experiences at Leksand Resort AB, but rather the experiences of a limited number with particular attention on attitudes, and feelings of these workers. For future research it is recommended to regard all divisions of the company, as well as Management.

    The research is a valuable addition to research within this field as the employee satisfaction is often being measured with surveys in a quantitative matter, to representatively explore levels of satisfaction (or dissatisfaction). This thesis on the other hand applies semi structured in-depth interviews, to gain understanding of motives and attitudes, and to understand the details that matter to employees.

  • 12.
    Blum, Jutta
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the work experience of seasonal leisure-service workers in a holiday park2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the experiences that seasonal leisure-service worker have while working in the holiday park if Leksand Resort AB. This is regarded as an important topic, as certain experiences as for example satisfaction or motivation, can be a strong influence on the quality of the services provided as well as an indicator if workers will return in later seasons. Additional, Hickman and Mayer (2003) stated that not enough research has been conducted about the personnel side of holiday park work.

    Therefore, two qualitative methods of data collection were implemented in form of semi structured in-depth interviews, as well as observations. While the interviews allowed the researcher an insight into personal opinions and experiences of the workers, to further explore the phenomenon of leisure-service worker experiences, the observations provided data on changes within the company, comparing work-conditions, co-worker relationships, and management contact in 2017 with those that the interviewees mentioned in the interviews from 2016.

    The findings show that co-worker relationships were perceived as the most important part for having a good experience at work. Also, several negative influences on the employee experience that employees from 2016 expressed were taken care of by the company in 2017. Still, employees do not feel as if the Management has big interest in their well being. This misunderstanding, can possibly explained by the communication difficulties that some employees expressed.

    The focus of this research was not to explore all experiences at Leksand Resort AB, but rather the experiences of a limited number with particular attention on attitudes, and feelings of these workers. For future research it is recommended to regard all divisions of the company, as well as Management.

    The research is a valuable addition to research within this field as the employee satisfaction is often being measured with surveys in a quantitative matter, to representatively explore levels of satisfaction (or dissatisfaction). This thesis on the other hand applies semi structured in-depth interviews, to gain understanding of motives and attitudes, and to understand the details that matter to employees.

  • 13.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Att sälja en plats med hjälp av en 'story'2010In: Värdskap - inom turism och resande / [ed] Hanefors, Monica, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 50-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Museerna och turismen2010In: Dalarna 2010 / [ed] Ståhl, Elizabet, Falun: Dalarnas Fornminnes och Hembygdsförbund , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Underlag för gränshandel och köpcentrum i Sälen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Samhällets roll i besöksnäringens utveckling2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien föranleds av den nya konkurrenslagstiftningen som påverkar gränsdragningen mellan privat och offentligt engagemang inom turismen. I studien görs ett försök att förstå den historiska utvecklingen utifrån institutionell teori. Att över tid följa hur turismen från att ha legat utanför samhällets intressesfär till att i allt högre grad inkluderas i och bli föremål för samhällsåtaganden till att i betydande utsträckning åter överflyttas till den privata sfären blir enligt författarnas mening begripligare om förändringsförloppet förstås i den referensram som den institutionella teorin erbjuder. Den pendelrörelse som på detta sätt kan urskiljas beträffande gränsdragningen mellan privat och offentligt är också en del i hur man skall förstå hur synen på konkurrensbetingelser inte är statisk utan i hög grad konstruerad och framförhandlad från tid till annan. Men det som gälller tid tycks också ha en geografisk dimension där vad som anses tillåtet i en del av landet inte uppfattas så på ett annat ställe. Det som uppfattas som ett juridiskt spörsmål i förstone vilar i realiteten i en komplex kontext med ingredienser av historia, ekonomi och geografi.

  • 17.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Samhällets roll i besöksnäringens utveckling2011Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Förutsättningarna för en utbyggd gränshandel i Sälen2012In: På gränsen – interaktion, attraktivitet och globalisering i Inre Skandinavien / [ed] Eva Olsson, Atle Hauge och Birgitta Ericsson, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Multidimensional Tourism Institute, University of Lapland.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The role of workforce and labour in Nordic tourism strategies2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Boluk, Karla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the discourses used to sell heritage in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage tourism is a form of niche tourism which has emerged as an alternative to mass tourism. However the discourses used to market some heritage products generally appeal to an elite group in society who are demanding. Thus heritage tourism is marketed and packaged in a way to appeal to an exclusive group who are interested in tailor-made products that provide some entertainment value. The aim of this paper is to investigate the marketing strategies and goals for tourism development, from the perspective of two World Heritage Sites (WHS) in Sweden including the Great Copper Mountain in Falun and the Old Church Town in Luleå. Accordingly, the discourses used to sell heritage in the context of Sweden are discussed. A mixed-methods approach was used by the authors to carry out this investigation. The results of the analysis revealed that the heritage presented in the two cases are marketed as exclusive and as such, preclude the participation of some individuals. Furthermore, it was established that enhanced communication between WHS products and Sweden and other tourism products would improve visitation.

  • 21.
    Brehmer, Jana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Promoting authenticity in theme parks: Content analysis of selected theme park home pages2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims to identify the role of authenticity in the promotion of theme parks. The apparent contradiction of theme parks and authenticity makes this research field so essential to investigate. Theme parks are usually criticised for being fake and banal places where nothing is real or authentic. In fact, the trend goes forward to tourists that search for authentic experiences due to the always desire of singularity, originality, combined with self-realisation in a safe environment. That most of touristic places and destination are constructed and that the assessment of authenticity depends more on the observer than on the observation itself often remains disregarded. That is why, much literature is already dealing with assessment of authenticity as a construct of subjective hopes, views and expectations. The theoretical part treats this assessment and brings it in the context of theme parks. To provide a knowledge base for the analysis, the literature review reveals, that theme parks serve the trend of authenticity due to the chance to escape the daily routine and a predictability of services.

    Expanding the current literature, a qualitative approach is used to analyse how authenticity is advertised by theme park suppliers on their home pages. A content analysis using the three different types of authenticity according to Wang (1999) as main categories is conducted.

    The study concludes, that mainly objectivist and constructivist authenticity is promoted by the operators, triggering visitors with essential and intersectoral tourism focuses like escape from every day’s life and making unusual experiences. Suppliers play with the hyper-realistic contradiction of a theme park, imitating the outside world same as creating a border to it. On the home pages, common marketing methods like

    storytelling and electronic word-of-mouth are combined with authenticity. Synonyms for authenticity, like "real" or "genuine" can be identified. Even cultural differences between the different continents are noticeable.

    However, as a qualitative approach is conducted, the study does not aim for high representativeness but for a deep understanding of a limited number of theme parks. It contributes to the after date very limited amount of academic literature about authenticity promotion. Furthermore, the study can be seen as in inspiration for other theme park and touristic entertainment suppliers. However, it is recommended that future researches use quantitative methods to build numerical relations and the ability for generalisation.

  • 22.
    Böhme, Steffi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Factors influencing tourism sustainability: The case of the World Heritage Falun Great Copper Mountain2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on identifying hindrances of achieving a sustainable tourism development on a base of a World Heritage Site. Using a case study of the World Heritage Site Falun Great Copper Mountain, the thesis assesses the situational context by using qualitative methods. Five semi- structured interviews with influential stakeholders were conducted to get an inside view of the current situation and to identify site-specific issues. The thesis identifies a number of factors that determine the successful implementation of measures leading towards sustainable tourism in the long-run; the most important being the lack of clear guidelines for the whole destination and no holistic planning approach within the municipality. The thesis concludes that despite the increased pressures towards establishment of sustainable tourism, the concept remains challenging to operationalize for the World Heritage Site without frameworks and tools from UNESCO.

  • 23.
    Christiaan de Vries, Sander
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Potential threat of international student dissatisfaction in the Netherlands analysed by cross – cultural adaption theory: Examining the effect of racial abuse on international student satisfaction, host receptivity and host conformity.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous research articles already touched upon the subject of racism in the Netherlands, the denial and ignorance of race and racism is however still there in Dutch society. The aim of this research paper was to determine whether or not the international students studying in the Netherlands feel welcome and satisfied in Dutch society. This was done by online questionnaires. This research examined how cross- cultural adaption (host receptivity and host conformity pressure) and international student encounters with racism affected their overall student satisfaction and likelihood to recommend the Netherlands as favorable country to study to others back in their home country. Out of the survey of 254 international students, 48 had experienced some form of racial abuse. The findings are presented, but it does have to be stated that the required sample size has not been met in this research (a required 382 sample size). Therefore the credibility and reliability of this research paper might be questioned. This also means that the results cannot be generalized to the population of international students in the Netherlands, or any other population. Furthermore, the non-representation of several nationalities might bias the results. The results however did indicate that racial abuse did affect the students’ likeliness to recommend the Netherlands as a favorable country to study to others. Also, the host receptivity score, host conformity pressure score and satisfaction with living and studying in the Netherlands was reported more negatively when the respondent was a victim of racism in the Netherlands.

  • 24.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Collaboration and social capital in rural areas: Tourism as driving force for resilience2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Destination competitiveness, the environment and sustainability challenges and cases2017In: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1303-2917, E-ISSN 1300-4220, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 296-298Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Reflections on the hegemonic exclusion of critical realism from academic settings: alone in a room full of people2018In: Journal of Critical Realism, ISSN 1476-7430, E-ISSN 1572-5138, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 374-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I discuss my personal experience of the issues that can arise when adopting critical realism in academic contexts dominated by irrealist (positivist, phenomenological and post-structuralist) methodological approaches. I draw inspiration for my analysis from the concept of Gramscian hegemony and the concept of ‘authenticity’. These concepts are related because hegemonic processes prevent individuals from freely expressing themselves. In my case, academic hegemony has resulted in social pressure to sacrifice my authentic critical realist self in order to achieve academic success. I also discuss groupthink dynamics, suggesting that they are a mechanism by which hegemony–and denial of individual authenticity–can be achieved. This paper is meant to be a theoretical and reflexive discussion, which could be the starting point for empirical studies investigating the situation of a critical realist in a hegemonic academic context. 

  • 27.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Sámi Indigenous Tourism Empowerment in the Nordic Countries through Labelling Systems: Strengthening Ethnic Enterprises and Activities2017In: Tourism and Ethnodevelopment: Inclusion, Empowerment and Self-determination / [ed] Ismar Borges de Lima, Victor T. King, Routledge, 2017, p. 200-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The authentic tourism academic, a compromise?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Tourism, Public Transport and Sustainable Mobility2018In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, ISSN 1447-6770, Vol. 36, p. 119-120Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 30.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Representations and National Marketing: the Case of Indigenous Peoples in Nordic and Russian DMOs’ webpages2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    de Vries, Sander Christiaan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Potential threat of international studentdissatisfaction in the Netherlands analysed by cross– cultural adaption theory: Examining the effect of racial abuse on international studentsatisfaction, host receptivity and host conformity.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous research articles already touched upon the subject of racism in the Netherlands, the denial and ignorance of race and racism is however still there in Dutch society. The aim of this research paper was to determine whether or not the international students studying in the Netherlands feel welcome and satisfied in Dutch society. This was done by online questionnaires. This research examined how cross- cultural adaption (host receptivity and host conformity pressure) and international student encounters with racism affected their overall student satisfaction and likelihood to recommend the Netherlands as favorable country to study to others back in their home country. Out of the survey of 254 international students, 48 had experienced some form of racial abuse. The findings are presented, but it does have to be stated that the required sample size has not been met in this research (a required 382 sample size). Therefore the credibility and reliability of this research paper might be questioned. This also means that the results cannot be generalized to the population of international students in the Netherlands, or any other population. Furthermore, the non-representation of several nationalities might bias the results. The results however did indicate that racial abuse did affect the students’ likeliness to recommend the Netherlands as a favorable country to study to others. Also, the host receptivity score, host conformity pressure score and satisfaction with living and studying in the Netherlands was reported more negatively when the respondent was a victim of racism in the Netherlands.

  • 32.
    Diakopoulou, Spyridoula- Pavlina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Photographic Representations of a Tourism Destination: A case study of Greenland2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this study is to analyse Greenland’s destination image represented in tourism promotional materials. The research object is the photographs included in Greenland’s official website, Visit Greenland, which indicate the way that national DMO represent the destination.

    Design/Methodology/Approach

    – Qualitative research approach that includes content method of visual analysis was used to seek an understanding of visual representation through images that are depicted in the official website of Greenland. A total of 415 photographs was examined, in accordance to the special attributes and objects that illustrate the destination image of Greenland, in order to analyse and interpret their meanings.

    Findings

    – After analysing the photographs included in Greenland’s official website, it was found that the national DMO mostly promotes the natural-based attributes of Greenland, the absence of human, the placement of Greenland’s culture as a secondary promotional characteristic, and the promotion of unsullied landscapes.

    Limitations/Implications

    – Apart from the limitations of a case study concerning objectivity and applicability of the results, this study has also context limitation. The promotion of the destination from the National DMO was taken into consideration, excluding other tour operators, in addition to the non-disclosure of user-generated content.

    Originality/Value

    – This study contributes to tourism literature on DMOs image representation of the Arctic regions that rarely have been conducted. Findings may represent a mutually beneficially outcome of both national DMOs and tour operators as well as create a basis for further research on the promotional strategies of Greenland.

  • 33.
    Duk, Perla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Drougge, Kristofer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Managerial Perceptions about Service Innovation in Hotels: Case Study, Sweden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, competition is fierce in the hotel industry. The fast development in technology is followed by a permanent battle to keep adequate level of competitive advantage. Innovation seems to be one of the most suitable solutions in the service sector. This is of interest due to the consistent and apparent interconnection between innovation and successful performance found in earlier research. However, in order to achieve successful market performance, it is necessary to have an effective management strategy of service innovation. This factor and the gap in knowledge found in research about innovation in the hospitality industry is the starting point for this research paper where the purpose is to gain understanding about managerial perception of service innovation and enlighten service innovation influence over market performance. In-depth interviews with hotel managers in Sweden were conducted, about their perception of service innovation first, then its influence over market performance. Results reveal that service innovation offers opportunities for hotels to be competitive, although there is a lack of specific strategies. Service innovation, due to its diverse aspects is perceived as complex, particularly referring to technology. It is important to recognize technology as a factor arising from the outside environment and how it influences service innovation and later market performance. Through the developing of strategy for service innovation hotels can improve market performance and stay competitive. The study contributes to increase knowledge and understanding of different managerial perceptions of service innovation and its influences over market performance in the hotel industry.

  • 34.
    Dunand, Fanny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Factors influencing the length of stay of international tourists: Case study of Venice and its lagoon2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The length of stay is an important decision during the tourist holiday planning, because it is linked to the allocated budget and the choice of type of accommodation. Moreover, it is an important element for tourism demand because it induces both the experienced actions and activities and consequently, the money spent at the destination.

    Nowadays, tourists tend to travel several times during the year but for shorter time. This study aims to investigate the factors influencing the length of stay of international tourists visiting Venice, Italy. Venice has to deal with major issues caused by the significant growth of tourism such as tourists overcrowding, the high number of day-trippers and the decline of the population. The results from this study may contribute to solve the problems that Venice is facing. It could assist the destination marketers in identifying and targeting overnight tourists presenting the longest length of stay. Thereby, it would favour higher rate of occupancy in accommodations and higher tourism earnings.

    A quantitative method is chosen for this study based on an empirical model using an OLS (Ordinary Least Square) regression. This study is carried out by using secondary data collected by an Italian consulting firm between January 2012 and January 2013. The model includes the factors that have been identified from literature, for instance the tourists’ profile (such as age and occupation) and some trips characteristics (such as package and size group). Some factors have stronger effects than others; although, empirical findings demonstrate that each variable does influence the length of stay. The findings indicate that the available time of tourists, their budget and distance between residence and holiday’s destination are also relevant factors influencing the duration of stay.

  • 35.
    Ekman, Julia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Finding the right Volunteer for Event organisers: A comparison between Volunteering to a music event and a ski event in Dalarna, Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When organising events volunteer participation is very important. The volunteers make the

    machinery of the events go around and without them the experiences of the visitors might suffer.

    When volunteering a person gives up their spare time in order to work for free. It takes a special

    kind of commitment to make such a sacrifice. Therefore it is very important to get the right

    people engaged as volunteers and this is a challenge for every event manager.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe and compare the socio-demographic profiles of

    people volunteering as well as their motives for volunteering at the Peace & Love music event

    and Falun2015, the Ski World Championship. During the International World Ski

    Championship, Falun2015 and the music festival Peace and Love there were many volunteers

    active. These events are very different but they still have a lot of similarities; they are time

    restricted, local to the area of Dalarna in central Sweden and they cater to people with special

    interests.

    The data has been collected through questionnaires handed out at the events. The data

    from the Peace & Love festival is secondary and the data from Falun2015 has been collected and

    analysed for this thesis specifically. It was found that in general the volunteers at Peace & Love

    are younger whilst the age distribution amongst the Falun2015 volunteers is quite equally

    distributed. This can later be reflected in the income level and the educational level, arguing that

    younger people might increase these levels later in life. The top three motivations for

    volunteering are very similar, this indicates that it is the personal interest that dictates which

    event a volunteer engages in.

    This thesis will help event managers reach out to the right population segment that fits the event

    at hand. Further research should be done on weather the adaptation of focusing volunteer

    recruitment to specific socio- and/or economic demographics has any influence on the number of

    volunteers signing up.

  • 36.
    Eliasson, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    How animal parks are marketing themselves through an animal welfare perspective: Analysis of Sea World, Australia Zoo, Orsa Rovdjurspark and Sriracha Tiger Zoo2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animal parks have for decades worked as a popular tourism attractions, both from an educationally and entertainment point of view. The awareness of animals and their welfare is something that is well discussed in the literature. However, the welfare of animals with the connection from a marketing perspective, is something that is still relatively unknown. This thesis have investigated the amount of animal welfare that is integrated in the marketing from four different animal parks. The research was conducted through a qualitative content analysis, where the marketing material from the animal organisations were being analysed. The results from this research revealed that the amount of animal welfare differed among the parks. In three of them the focus on welfare were relatively high, whilst in the fourth the welfare were none existed. While the analysis indicated on some similarities among the parks, some differences were also stated. These results can be of interests for further research within the tourism field. For instance research where these results are being compared with the parks business actions, to see how well they matches.

  • 37.
    Erdmenger, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    “One for all and all for one” – Engaging TourismStakeholders for Collaborative Governance: A Case Study of the Mountain Destination Whistler(Canada)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis examines how stakeholders can be engaged to join the emergingconcepts of collaborative governance in tourism destinations. Therefore, fundamentalrequirements, motivational factors and possible obstacles are analyzed. To go beyond thefindings of the in-depth literature research, the Canadian mountain resort Whistler is criticallyexamined. A comparison of official planning documents and three valuable stakeholders’experiences will reveal actual barriers, issues as well as opportunities of the case study. Theresults show that the most crucial and generalizable aspects to engage stakeholders incollaborative governance are trust building between government and stakeholders with the helpof mediators and a lowered hierarchy, education for shared understanding and a step-by-stepguideline which is understandable and precise. Further aspects such as transparentcommunication, monitoring for flexibility and the overall empowerment for stakeholdersatisfaction and commitment are more aspects, which support stakeholder engagement. For thefuture, this research can be used as inspiration, guidance and even benchmarking analysis ofother destination to make a complex and abstract concept more understandable and applycollaborative governance.

  • 38.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    A structural approach to social representations of destination collaboration in Idre, Sweden2018In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 71, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration is a social activity shaped by interactions. Taking a structural approach in social representations theory, the present research used a cognitive mapping method to analyse and compare the mental models of actors regarding collaborations in Idre, Sweden. Tourism actors share a core system in their representations which develops around packaging and selling of the tourism product to an international market, indicative of a hegemonic representation. Issues of quality, shared responsibility, trust, inclusivity and power were also revealed and should be taken into account in planning tourism and collaborations in the area. Findings indicate that actors hold multiple representations of collaboration, which reflects the social complexity apparent in the tourism destination, and the evolutionary character of social representations. 

  • 39.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourism actors’ social representations of collaborations in Idre, Sweden: a cognitive mapping method2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of the research is to examine tourism actors’ perceptions of collaborations in Idre, Sweden, and reveal differences and similarities in the way that individual actors value the outcomes of collaborations, in what they consider as important in collaborations and how collaborations in the area take place.  This is examined with cognitive mapping taking a social representations theory approach.

    Theoretical perspective

    Social representations developed by Moscovichi are about a cognitive system at the social level allowing the members of a community to share a common understanding of things communicate and act cohesively (Nicolini 1999). Social representations in tourism have been used so far mainly in examining attitudes of host communities towards tourism. Social representations in the study of tourism place emphasis on the social construction of tourism allowing more power to the members of the community and thus enabling sustainable development (Moscardo, 2011).

    Cognitive mapping offers a method to elicit and analyse perceptions an individual holds about a particular domain. Comparisons between cognitive maps can reveal similarities and differences in the way the domain under investigation is constructed and understood while the analysis of the cognitive maps can reveal values and central constructs in individual cognition. These characteristics make cognitive maps particularly attractive in examining social representations. Surprisingly however, hardly any study has attempted to do so.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Using a key informants sampling technique together with snowballing, the study identified eight tourism actors in the area covering several types of tourism stakeholders. A cognitive mapping method based on SODA (Eden and Ackermann, 2001; Farsari, Butler and Szivas, 2010) approach using semi-structured interviews was used to study perceptions of tourism actors in Idre, Sweden, about collaborations. Data were analysed using Decision Explorer’s analytical tools. Value, hieset, potency, domain, centrality and cluster analysis were used to analyse cognitive maps and reveal goals, key issues and clusters in the perceptions of tourism stakeholders about collaborations in Idre. Consequently, the individual maps were compared against these findings to reveal similarities and differences in the perceptions of tourism actors.

    Expected Findings/Discussion

    This is still a work in progress. Results are expected to reveal key issues in collaborations between tourism actors in Idre, as well as similarities and differences in the way actors construct their perceptions of collaborations. This comparison will allow revealing well established notions in collaborations in the area as well as differences and gaps that might hinder them. Results are discussed in light of representations theory to highlight whether there is some consensus in the understanding of collaborations in the area.

    Conclusion/Contribution/Originality

    Practical implications include the identification of important aspects in actors’ collaborations. In this way collaborations might be strengthened enhancing sustainable tourism development in the area. Theoretical contribution of the research emanates from the studying of social representations in collaborations and moreover using a cognitive mapping method. Hardly any study has used cognitive mapping to examine social representations. This research aims at exploring the use of a specific cognitive mapping method to this direction and thus potentially  offer the ground for more research in the area. Very importantly, with this method, findings are not only based on the content but also on the way actors structure their perceptions allowing a more thorough understanding and studying of them.

  • 40.
    Fimiani, Roberta
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Role of Gay Spaces for a Gay Destination: Gay Tourism in Gran Canaria2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has the aim to evaluate the role of gay spaces in Gran Canaria as a gay tourists destination with particular reference to gay exclusive resorts. The validation of the gay identity is a key motivation for homosexuals to travel, in order to connect with other homosexuals and experience the gay life that they might not be able to experience at home. Gay spaces have been defined both as liberated areas as well as ghettos, where the homosexuals are, in a way, restrained. The method chosen, a small number of semi- structured interviews with managers of gay exclusive resorts in Maspalomas, the hub of gay life in Gran Canaria, where major LGBT events are held, there is a gay friendly environment, a thriving gay scene and many gay exclusive resorts. In the case of Gran Canaria the gay-specific offer is complementary to the ‘regular’ tourism offer, as they coexist, complement and at times overlap. Nevertheless the gay centric holiday is still predominant amongst gay men, and it is likely to continue to be according to the informants. This is because gay tourists seek freedom and a sense of inclusion that they would not be able to find in mixed environments.

  • 41.
    Funk, Minéa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Representing Bergslagen for tourism – a post-feminist approach: Androcentric representations of the industrial heritage in central Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marketing material used in promotion of industrial heritage sites for tourism creates representations of said cultural heritage. In order to increase the touristic value of the historical industrial sites marketers can create or make a place attractive through careful selection of images and texts. It is believed that simplifying the image can make it comprehensible and thus more attractive to potential visitors. However, simplifying images of heritage can result in creation of stereotypical representations.

    This research aimed to analyse what representations of the industrial heritage of Bergslagen, in the middle of Sweden, could be found in marketing material of tourism destinations today. Post-feminist theory was applied as a tool for analysis of the content as a contextual and critical perspective in order to interpret what meanings these representations found were conveying. By understanding the data in relation to androcentric discourse and the context of Bergslagen as a patriarchal system representations of continued polarization of gender was found. By conducting a content analysis of three destinations, Långban, Engelsbergs bruk and Axmar Bruk, four dominating themes of their representations in visual and textual promotional material were found. The narratives in the re-imagination and reproduction of the sites and their industrial heritage were also discovered during the analysis. The findings thus indicated that the marketing perpetuated stereotypes of the inherent gender roles that have existed in the past but were accentuated even through the modern mediums. As tourism is a tool for rejuvenation of industrial heritage sites it is important to note that, the need for increasing the attractiveness by consciously or unconsciously deciding which narratives should be told, marketers act as facilitators of generic ideas and impositions.

    When trying to simplify something as complex as a heritage, meaning can become lost in translation. The representations can become distorted, which they have in Bergslagen, according to the findings of this research. Representations can thus inform us of what is being marginalized. The understanding and interpretations of the representations can therefore become a resource in the marketing the real and genuine heritage.

  • 42.
    Félix Baker, Caitlin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The Relationship between 4-Wheel Drive Tourism and Heritage Preservation in Remote Areas: A Case Study of Al Jabal Al Akhdar in the Sultanate of Oman2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to examine the role, and understand the effects of, 4-Wheel-

    Drive (4WD) tourism in the preservation of heritage in remote areas of the Al Jabal Al

    Akhdar Mountain in the Sultanate of Oman, and how the communities of this remote region

    can be helped to preserve their heritage. This region can only be reached using 4WD

    vehicles, and visitors either drive themselves or join tours to become acquainted with the

    area, its abandoned mud-brick villages, its oasis farming on terraces using the ancient falaj

    irrigation system, and in particular the traditional rose water distillation process. In examining

    how communities in Al Jabal Al Akhdar can best be helped to develop new sources of

    income in order to encourage young local people to stay in the villages while at the same time

    preserving their traditions, different perspectives were sought, although a local perspective

    was the focus. For this, fieldwork was undertaken consisting of participation in guided tours

    and personal meetings held with a number of local inhabitants. Some background information

    was provided by the Omani Ministry of Tourism, but so far very little research has been done

    into heritage preservation in the region, the focus so far being on developing four and five

    star hotels to attract visitors, with little or no consultation with locals. Through the

    observations and interactions that took place, it was found that these tourist developments do

    not increase income for those who live on the mountain; rather, they take away from the

    area’s sources of income. The conclusion reached was that locals desire to be involved in

    promoting and preserving their heritage through the development of initiatives such as

    guidebooks and using local guides in order to communicate correctly. All of this could be

    developed by establishing socio-cultural initiatives that allow locals to create their own ideas

    on how to generate income through community-based tourism. Local communities must be

    actively involved in tourism projects from the initial planning stages, and eventually share the

    benefits of the projects in their areas. Hopefully this can come to fruition before the

    mountain’s traditions are lost.

  • 43.
    Grohmann, Maik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    A ‘Taste of Dalarna’: Members motives and expectations towards Loca lFood Tourism-Marketing Networks2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Local food and drink, as well as its variety of connected experiences, have

    become a driving factor for tourists to choose a destination. As a result,

    members of

    a destination’s local food supply chain increasingly try to create

    touristic products such as guided tours, cooking courses, tastings or

    corporate events. Thereby local food places want to attract tourists and serve

    their desire to not only taste but also learn a bit more about the culinary

    products. A destination’s manageme

    nt organization has a central role in the

    marketing of these offers between tourists and the supply side. In this

    connection, a local food tourism-marketing network appears to be a platform

    to facilitate this commitment.

    The main aim of this study is to understand which motives local food

    enterprises have to become a part of such a network and furthermore to

    investigate, what expectations these members have towards the DMO as the

    initiator and operator.

    Primary data collection in this thesis was conducted by applying a qualitative

    research method via semi-structured interviews. Participants of the study

    were members of the local food tourism-

    marketing network “Taste of

    Dalarna”

    that has been initiated and is operated by the Destination

    Management Organization

    “Visit Dalarna” in the historic province of central

    Sweden.

    The findings indicate that members have diverse motives to join the network

    and expectations towards the DMO within the network vary in certain

    themes. It was concluded that their expectations in this network up to the

    moment of data collection have not been met to their complete satisfaction,

    predominantly due to a short existence of the network since 2015.

  • 44.
    Guðmundsdóttir, Sunna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Kammerland, Emeli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Assessing Staff Turnover: A View from Hotel Workers in Reykjavík: Causes and Impacts2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Staff turnover is an endemic issue in the hospitality industry, worldwide. Voluntary staff

    turnover has been the focus of many studies in the past decades and many researchers have

    constantly intended to connect a number of variables to it. This study deals with a human

    perspective of staff turnover and the aim was to add to the understanding of staff turnover

    within the hospitality industry. This was achieved by conducting in-depth interviews with

    hotel workers in three and four-star hotels in Reykjavík, Iceland. The causes and impacts of

    the turnover was examined with qualitative method. Investigation of the factors influencing

    employees’ intention to leave their current organization and the impact staff turnover causes

    to the remaining staff was carried out. The results revealed that professional advancement is a

    critical predictor for the employees to leave, along with factors such as work content,

    personal reasons, organizational factors and the nature of the tourism industry. Furthermore,

    the impact staff turnover causes on the staff are factors such as social connections, increased

    responsibilities and time and energy consumption.

  • 45.
    Hagarová, Dominika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The relationships between tourism stakeholders within the destination: A case study of the rural destination Zuberec, Slovakia2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the development of tourism destination and provide successful marketing and management, destination management organizations are generally accepted as the leaders. Although their role in tourism destinations is significant, the created cooperation is not always successful. Seeing that a lot of different actors are involved in tourism destinations, in order to create a cooperation between them it is first necessary to understand their expectations and relations. Majority of previous researches focus on formal interactions between stakeholders whereas less is written about their connections to interpersonal relations that can have an important role in the cooperation creation.

    For the purpose of better understand the role of relations between stakeholders in a destination, this research investigates approaches of stakeholders from rural destination Zuberec located in Slovakia. It explores why the created cooperation was not effective from the stakeholders point of view as there was a low involvement of local stakeholders. First of all the key stakeholders in the destination were identified and thereafter six in depth interviews were conducted. The research investigated that the destination faces several problems that constrain from cooperation and that the interpersonal relationships between tourism actors also play a significant role. The research also showed that cooperation is desired by several stakeholders and its lack has an influence on the destination's development. Identification of weaknesses and strengths of relationships between stakeholders throughout the research could be a useful tool for the strategy creation in future planning and development of destination.

  • 46.
    Hay, Nicole
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Photographic Representation of Culture & Identity in Destination Marketing Material: A case study of Jamaica2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hinnerth, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The quest for snow: Adaptation strategies of alpine skiing destinations in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of climate change is considered one of the major challenges that the winter sport tourism industry faces today. Sälen, one of the major skiing destinations in Sweden, is situated in the southernmost part of the Swedish mountain range and is therefore one of the most vulnerable destinations when it comes to the effects of climate change. The aim of this paper is to examine and discuss adaptation strategies to climate change that have been implemented in Sälen, with a special focus on increased snowmaking. We discuss snowmaking in relation to alternative adaptation strategies such as increased summer tourism, and relate the adaptation strategies encountered in Sälen to how destinations in the Austrian Alps, which have warmer temperatures, have approached the situation. Those that we interpret as adaptation strategies are mainly focused on maintaining the mass touristic character of winter sports destinations and even extending the production of downhill skiing. These strategies of adaptation and development demand continued intensive snowmaking and an even accentuated quest for snow. However, Sälen is trying to overcome its dependence on downhill skiing as its sole and dominant activity. The strategy of developing summer tourism is problematic, however, not least in relation to the parallel advance in increased snowmaking. 

  • 48.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Duncan, Tara
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Career paths and mobility in the Swedish hospitality sector.2017In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 29-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How career paths are interpreted and conceptualised by hospitality workers and industry representatives remains underexplored in current literature. In this paper, we highlight and discuss sector-specific and contextual factors that influence the possibility of establishing a career within the Swedish hospitality sector. The paper uses interviews with hotel managers, who describe and discuss motivations and choices made throughout their own careers and interviews with young (former) seasonal hospitality workers who describe and reflect on their future plans and work-life experience. Additional data are derived through observations at national seminars and meetings for representatives from the Swedish tourism and hospitality industry, where issues of competence and careers were discussed. The findings indicate that the shaping of career paths within the hospitality sector is influenced by two normative and discursively produced ‘truths’ about career paths in the hospitality sector: the importance of internal knowledge transfer and the importance of high mobility. These narratives impose expectations on individuals to be mobile, to change jobs frequently and to work their way from the bottom-up within the industry, and are based on a presumption of a diversified and dense local hospitality labour market. However, since the conditions are different due to contextual, geographical features of labour market size and structure, attractiveness of places, etc., these expectations are difficult to fulfil in places other than in larger urban areas. These normative assumptions of what a successful hospitality career is also have consequences for the development of the hospitality sector as external influences of competence from other sectors and higher education are not seen as valuable, which makes the sector self-contained and not open to external, potentially innovative knowledge.

  • 49.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Peace & Love 2011: Uppskattning av festivalens ekonomiska betydelse via segmenteringsansatsen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att kartlägga samt värdera och presentera ekonomiska effekterkopplade till Peace & Love festivalen 2011 genom att tillämpa segmenteringsansatsen.Utgångspunkten är en uppdelning av festivalbesökarna i olika kategorier (segment) som därefteranvänds för att skatta den direkta ekonomiska effekten av festivalen. Uppskattningen av deekonomiska effekter som presenteras är baserade på enkätsvar från 1036 festivalbesökare samt1540 intervjuer vid entréerna.

    Resultatet från studien pekar på att den traditionella metoden med uppskattning av effekter via enuppdelning av konsumtion mellan turister och icke turister överskattar den totala effekten jämförtmed uppskattning via boendesegmentering med ca 10 procent. Den totala effekten viaboendesegmentering uppskattas till dryga 185 Mkr. Besökarnas konsumtion i samband medPeace & Love festivalen kan omräknas till 61,85 helårsverken. Peace & Love festivalen beräknasskapa drygt 22 helårsverken inom restaurang och handel i Borlängeregionen utöver de 23helårsverken som festivalorganisationen skapar.

  • 50.
    Henaien, Moncef
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sinha, Shalvi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    International conference site selection criteria: And a case study of Stockholm as an international conference city2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the destination site selection criteria for internationalconferences from the perspectives of the three main players of the conference industry,conference buyers (organizers and delegates) and suppliers. Additionally, the researchidentifies the strengths and weaknesses of the congress cities of Stockholm and Vienna.Through a comparison with Vienna, the top city for hosting international conferences, a roadmap for Stockholm has been designed, to strengthen its congress tourism opportunities, thus,obtaining a higher status as an international congress city. This qualitative research hascombined both primary and secondary data methods, through semi-standardized expertinterviews and secondary studies respectively, to fulfil the study’s aim. The data have beenanalysed by applying the techniques of qualitative content analysis; the secondary dataadopting an inductive approach according to Mayring (2003) while the expert interviewsusing a deductive approach according to Meuser & Nagel (2009). The conclusions of thesecondary data have been further compared and contrasted with the outcomes of the primarydata, to propose fresh discoveries, clarifications, and concepts related to the site selectioncriteria for international conferences, and for the congress tourism industry of Stockholm. Theresearch discusses the discoveries of the site selection criteria, the implications of thestrengths and weaknesses of Stockholm in comparison to Vienna, recommendations forStockholm via a road map, and future research areas in detail. The findings andrecommendation, not only provide specific steps and inceptions that Stockholm as aninternational conference city can apply, but also propose findings, which can aid conferencebuyers and suppliers to cooperate, to strengthen their marketing strategies and developsuccessful international conferences and destinations to help achieve a greater competitiveadvantage.

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