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  • 1.
    Berglund, Torkel
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna Karin
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Ohlsson, Anna
    Kunliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Slutrapport, fält- och laboratorietest av substanser för aktivering av det egna försvaret hos gran- och tallplantor2012Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Berglund, Torkel
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Aghelpasand, Hooman
    KTH.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Ohlsson, Anna B.
    KTH.
    Protection of spruce seedlings against pine weevil attacks by treatment of seeds or seedlings with nicotinamide, nicotinic acid and jasmonic acid2016In: Forestry (London), ISSN 0015-752X, E-ISSN 1464-3626, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable methods are required to protect newly planted tree seedlings from insect herbivore attack. To this end, here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seeds were treated with 2.5 mM nicotinamide (NIC), 2.5 mM nicotinic acid (NIA), 3 mM jasmonic acid (JA) or 0.2 mM 5-azacytidine (5-Aza), and 6-month-old seedlings grown from these seeds were planted at a reforestation area in central Sweden. Attack by pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) was reduced by 50 per cent by NIC treatment, 62.5 per cent by JA treatment and 25 per cent by 5-Aza treatment, when compared with seedlings grown from untreated seeds. Watering 18-month-old spruce seedlings with 2 mM NIC or 2 mM NIA did reduce attack during the first season in the field by 40 and 53 per cent, respectively, compared with untreated plants. Girdling was also reduced by the different treatments. Analysis of conifer seedlings treated with 5-Aza points at a possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in this defensive capacity. This is supported by a reduced level of DNA methylation in the needles of young spruce seedlings grown in a greenhouse from NIC-treated seeds. Seed treatment for seedling defense potentiation is simple, inexpensive and also a new approach for forestry with many potential applications.

  • 3.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Persson, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Swelling pressure of semi-isostatically densified wood under different mechanical restraints2007In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 401-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-isostatically densified and native wood samples of Scots pine and European birch were soaked in water. The swelling coefficients as well as the swelling pressure, that arose when the specimens were restrained in some way prior to the swelling, were measured using a universal testing machine equipped with a high resolution load-cell and an external extensometer. As densified wood swells, the native structure is almost restored and the swelling pressure became twice as high as for native wood in the most compressed directions (radial for pine and birch). That cell-shape recovery increases the swelling pressure can explain the problems with imbalance in laminated constructions where densified wood is used. The possibility to predict the swelling pressure from basic material properties was evaluated. The correlations between swelling pressure and material properties were strong enough to yield good predictive models.

  • 4. Boonstra, M. J.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Semi-isostatic densification of heat-treated radiata pine2007In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 607-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-isostatic densification is a useful method to increase the density and to improve the mechanical properties of fast-grown softwood species like radiata pine. A major disadvantage of this method is the almost complete recovery of the original dimensions when densified wood is exposed to moisture. Heat treatment improves the dimensional stability of wood and might be a useful method to prevent this shape-recovery after densification. However, no or only a limited effect on the shape-recovery was found when densified radiata pine was exposed to moisture.

  • 5.
    Chiatante, Donato
    et al.
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Sismanis, Nikos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Schirone, Bartolomeo
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Marras, Tatiana
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Mechilli, Manuela
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Ortolani, Maria Raffaella
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Vessella, Federico
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Terzaghi, Mattia
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Montagnoli, Antonio
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Càtia, Freitas
    Azorina S.A.
    Pietrzak, Malgorzata
    Azorina S.A.
    Casimiro, Pedro
    Azorina S.A.
    Ferreira, Raquel
    Azorina S.A.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D3.3: Final report on growth tests and biological validation2015Report (Other academic)
  • 6. Ciccarese, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Pettenella, Davide
    Ecosystem services from forest restoration: thinking ahead2012In: New forests, ISSN 0169-4286, E-ISSN 1573-5095, Vol. 43, no 5-6, p. 543-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global deforestation and forest degradation have led to massive loss of biodiversity and decline of ecosystem services. Against this prospect, it is important not only to protect, but also to restore forest ecosystems. The paper analyzes the current and future role of the restoration of forests and degraded lands starting with the definition of various techniques, scales and objectives of forest restoration. Three key motivations for and targets of forest restoration are then discussed: forest biodiversity protection, biomass production, climate change mitigation and adaptation. The paper also briefly discusses three tools of increasing relevance for supporting forest restoration policies: the development of forest nursery techniques and the improvement of quality of forest reproductive material, the use of standard and certification tools, and financing of restoration investments, including projects aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. We conclude by making some final remarks on the future challenges of forest restoration policies.

  • 7.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    A silvicultural practice to facilitate forest restoration: a new seedling cultivation technology for regeneration establishment2014In: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, The Commonwealth Forestry Association, www.cfa-international.org , 2014, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 129-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest restoration has become a primary task, not only to cope with an increasing demand on forest products, but also to fi ghtclimate change and compensate for an accelerated global deforestation. However, many of the current practices used in forestrynurseries to produce forest planting stock have adverse effects on the environment. The main objective of the ZEPHYR project,funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), is to develop an innovative zero-impacttechnology for the pre-cultivation of forest regeneration materials that is not affected by the outdoor climate. Among the maincomponents to be improved are artifi cial lighting sources used for cultivation. Traditional fl uorescence lamps are to be replacedby LED grow lights with spectra tailored to the seedlings’ needs. The present work investigates biological responses of Piceaabies and Pinus sylvestris to six different light spectra. The pre-cultivation has been done following standard growth protocolsduring 5 weeks with a photoperiod of 16 h at 100 μmol/m2/s. This has been done under controlled closed conditions with a roomtemperature of 20 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. The analyses have shown clear differences among the treatments and theiradapting capacity when transplanted.

  • 8.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Cultivation of forest regeneration materials under artificial radiant sources—effects of light intensity on energy consumptionand seedling development2014In: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 300-300Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In times of major environmental challenges and increasing demand for forest products, planted forests have acknowledgedadvantages compared to other land uses. Despite not being able to completely take the place of natural forests, planted ones have,if properly managed, great potential to contribute in addressing these problems. Besides the ecological benefi ts such as carbonsequestration, planted forests can help meet the demand for wood products without further depletion of the natural forest. Forestrestoration, rehabilitation, and reforestation are limited by the capacity for producing forest regeneration materials. Often, asproduction is intensifi ed at forest nurseries, the practices begin to have an adverse impact on the environment and stop being trulysustainable. One of the main issues in nurseries is the energy consumption for grow lights during periods of short daylight.By using high-effi ciency LED grow lamps and adjusting the light intensity, this study aimed to reduce the energy consumptionfrom lighting per seedling without compromising seedling development. The precultivation of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestrisseedlings was done during 5 weeks under controlled conditions at 20 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. The photoperiod was16 hours at an intensity ranging from 50 to 350 μmol/m2/s in intervals of 50 μmol/m2/s intervals.

  • 9.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Energy efficiency in intensified production of forest regeneration materials – design of a photovoltaic system for sustainably powering an innovative forestry incubator2014In: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 393-393Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planted forests can contribute addressing problems of global concern such as climate change mitigation, biodiversity lost and pressure on ecosystems due to high demand of forestry products. However, in order to be able to profit from these benefits sustainably, production rates of forest regeneration materials should be higher than the harvesting rates. Nevertheless, intensive production methods often bring along adverse consequences for the environment. In the frame of the ZEPHYR project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), innovative and cost-friendly technologies for the pre-cultivation are being developed. They will be integrated into a functional and transportable system for a large scale production of seedlings, with zero-impact on the environment and not affected by outdoor conditions. To achieve this, high efficiency devices with low energy consumption will be used and the incubator will be powered by solar energy. This work aims to present the efforts made to reduce the energy loads and optimize the photovoltaic (PV) system. The power system will also be capable of connecting to the electricity grid, using a diesel generator as a back-up, and a battery bank with at least one day of autonomy (up to 7 kWh/day) in central European latitudes.   

  • 10.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Long night treatment for induction of cold hardiness using artificial lights: effects of photoperiod on seedling storabilityand energy consumption2014In: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 379-379Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-assisted forest regeneration in Nordic climates is considerably limited by the harsh outdoor conditions. There is onlya small open window of time during the summer when the weather is favorable for transplantation and establishment ofpre-cultivated seedlings in open land. Greenhouses and modern growth chambers help to cope with this limitation by allowingyear-round seedling cultivation. Nonetheless, production levels are constrained to the cold storage capacity during the nontransplantingseason. This storage is in turn dependent on the ability of the conifer to adapt to freezing temperatures and withstand theoverall stress associated with cold hardening. Long night treatments can induce dormancy with cessation of growth and terminalbuds initiation, leading to a better cold resistance. When growing forest regeneration materials under artifi cial lights, the lengthsof the long night treatment and the photoperiod will have a signifi cant impact not only on the biological response of the seedlingsbut also on the energy consumption, and thus on the CO2 emissions. The aim of this work was to explore different long nighttreatment regimes for induction of cold hardiness in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris seedlings using artifi cial lights. This wasdone with the purpose of studying the relationship between the energy consumption and the biological responses.

  • 11.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Nuevas tecnologías para el pre-cultivo de plantas forestales - diseño de una incubadora sustentable para minimizar el impacto ambiental2014In: VI Congreso Forestal Latinoamericano: Latinoamérica unida en armonia por la sustentabilidad de los recursos forestales, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Los bosques plantados pueden contribuir a combatir problemas globales como el cambio climático, la erosión del suelo y la presión en los ecosistemas debido a la alta demanda de productos forestales. Para que este beneficio sea sustentable, la producción del material para la regeneración forestal tiene que ser mayor a la velocidad en que se tala. Las técnicas intensivas en los viveros forestales puede traer efectos adversos al ambiente como el uso de fertilizantes, pesticidas y alto consumo energético de los invernaderos. 

    Financiado por Séptimo Programa de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Unión Europea, el proyecto ZEPHYR está enfocado a desarrollar nuevas tecnologías para el pre-cultivo de plantas forestales de una manera sustentable y económicamente viable. Estas innovaciones estarán integradas en una incubadora transportable y totalmente funcional para la producción a gran escala. El cuarto de crecimiento será independiente de las condiciones exteriores y tendrá un mínimo impacto ambiental. Para lograr esto se usaran aparatos de alta eficiencia y bajo consumo energético como lámparas LED y todo funcionará con un sistema solar fotovoltaico.

  • 12.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Outdoor performance of forest seedlings pre-cultivated under artificial lights: effects of the light spectra used for pre-cultivation on the future establishment and development2015In: Rainforest challenges: Book of abstracts / [ed] Vladan Ivetić and Tatjana Ćirković‐Mitrović , 2015, p. 20-20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest nurseries are essential for producing good quality seedlings, thus being a key element in the reforestation process. With increasing climate change awareness, nursery managers are looking for new tools that can help reduce the effects of their operations on the environment. The ZEPHYR project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has the objective of finding new alternatives for nurseries by developing innovative zero-impact technologies for forest plant production. Due to their direct relationship to the energy consumption of the nurseries, one of the main elements addressed are the grow lights used for the pre-cultivation. New LED luminaires with a light spectrum tailored to the seedlings’ needs are being studied and compared against the traditional fluorescent lamps. Seedlings of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris were grown under five different light spectra (one fluorescent and 4 LED) during 5 weeks with a photoperiod of 16 hours at 100 μmol∙m-2∙s-1 and 60% humidity. In order to evaluate if these seedlings were able cope with real field stress conditions, a forest field trial was also designed. The terrain chosen was a typical planting site in mid-Sweden after clear-cutting. Two vegetation periods after the outplanting, the seedlings that were pre-cultivated under the LED lamps have performed at least as well as those that were grown under fluorescent lights. These results show that there is a good  potential for lightning substitution in forestry nurseries.

  • 13.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Swedish experiences and visions on the production of containerized seedlings2016In: / [ed] Palle Madsen, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14. Hogberg, Karl-Anders
    et al.
    Persson, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hallingback, Henrik R.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Relationships between early assessments of stem and branch properties and sawn timber traits in a Pinus sylvestris progeny trial2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 421-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 162 trees was harvested from a 36-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny trial to evaluate correlations between early measurements of branch diameter, and other stem and branch traits, with sawn timber traits, and hence their potential utility for predicting wood quality. The sample trees were assigned to three genetic groups of small, medium and large branch diameter, based on parental breeding values. Bottom logs were cut and sawn, and several important traits for the visual quality of the boards were assessed. Phenotypic correlations were then estimated between these traits and measurements of the height, diameter, branch diameter, branch angle, stem crookedness, number of branches and grain angle under bark of the corresponding trees when they were 16 and 36 years old. The diameter of the coarsest knot in the board was correlated with the branch diameter at the age of 16 years (0.50), and there were significant differences in this trait among the genetic branch diameter groups. In addition, the board twist was correlated with the grain angle under bark at the age of 36 years (0.54). Thus, the field assessments of branch diameter and grain angle under bark show relevance for the visual quality of centrally sawn small timber.

  • 15. Johansson, Karin
    et al.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Plantskolan lektion nr 14: Från plantskola till hygge2011In: PlantAktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no nr 1, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Jonsdottir, Rakel J.
    et al.
    Norðurlandsskógar, Krókeyri, IS-600, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.
    Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, IS-311, Borgarnes, Iceland.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 43, 739 21 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Effects of nutrient loading and fertilization at planting on growth and nutrient status of Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii) seedlings during the first growing season in Iceland2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 631-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low availability of nitrogen (N) is believed to be one of the major limiting factors of forest regeneration inIceland and frequently under Boreal conditions. Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii Littl.) seedlings were nutrient loadedusing four fertilization regimes in the end of nursery rotation in autumn 2008 and planted in the following spring,with or without a single dose of fertilizer, on two treeless sites in N-Iceland with contrasting soil fertility.Measurements were made after one growing season. The highest loading level without additional field fertilizationincreased new needle mass by 122% and 152%, for the poor and more fertile site, respectively. The highest loadinglevel with field fertilization increased new needle mass equally, by 188% and 189%, for the poor and more fertilesite, respectively. Retranslocation of N, from old needles to current needles, increased with more loading.However, it was clear that nutrient loading could not replace field fertilization, as the seedlings generally showedan additive response to field fertilization and nutrient loading; doing both always gave the best results in seedlingperformance. As the study only covers field establishment during the first year, the long-term effect of nutrientloading of Lutz spruce cannot be predicted. However, it was concluded that loading might provide an additionalinput for faster plantation establishment during the first growing season after planting.

  • 17. Kännaste, Astrid
    et al.
    Zhao, Tao
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Långström, Bo
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Odors of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) seedlings: differences due to age and chemotype2013In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 149-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small conifer seedlings (mini-seedlings) are less damaged by the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) compared to conventional seedlings. Chemical difference between the seedling types is one possible explanation for this phenomenon. In the present paper, the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) of 7- to 43-week-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] seedlings were analyzed. Collection and identification of the volatiles was made by solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME–GC–MS). The enantiomers of α-pinene and limonene were separated in a two-dimensional GC (2D-GC). Most of the seedlings represented either a limonene- or a bornyl acetate-chemotype. Only minor changes in the volatile composition of the two types of seedlings were found during the first year. Age-related changes, however, were found in the volatiles released by wounded phloem where green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and borneol were the dominated VOC for young seedling. The attractive compound for the pine weevil, α-pinene, was first detected in the phloem emissions of 18- to 22-week-old seedlings. Different storage conditions of the seedlings during the winter/early spring-phase influenced the volatile composition in the phloem. High amount of GLVs was characteristic for the 43-week-old seedlings stored in naturally changing outdoor temperature, but not present in the seedlings winter-stored at a constant temperature of −4 °C. The possible role of these observed differences in odor emissions between seedlings of different age and physiological status for the feeding preferences of the large pine weevil is discussed.

  • 18.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Plantskolan lektion nr 16: Odlingsbehållare för skogsplantor2011In: PlantAktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no nr 4, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Skogsencyklopedin 20112011Book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Erfarenhet från två års odling av tall och gran i såddrör (Tubesprout) och etablering i fält2011Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Etablering, tillväxt och skador för plantor odlade i såddrör (Tubesprout™) - resultat efter två säsonger i fält2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försöket visade på mycket god överlevnad för plantor odlade i såddrören, Tubesprout™. Efter två år var överlevnaden för dessa 91 % för tall och 79 % för gran. För miniplantorna odlade i Jiffy varierade överlevnaden efter två år mellan 84 (tall) och 64 % (gran). Lägst överlevnad efter både det första och andra året hade de större referensplantorna. Av dessa levde 67 % av tallplantorna och endast 45 % av granplantorna. Bidragande till den goda överlevelsen hos Tubesprout™-odlade plantor var få snytbaggeskador och nästan inga skador av torka. Det andra miniplantsystemet, Jiffy 18, klarade snytbaggen nästan lika bra som Tubesprout™, men drabbades istället av stora avgångar beroende på torka. Hylsan tycks förhindra uttorkning av plantan som annars är ett stort problem vid plantering på torra marker av små plantor. För de äldre täckrotsodlade referensplantorna var den mesta plantdöden orsakad av kraftiga snytbaggeskador. Granen var värst drabbad med drygt 50 % snytbaggedödade plantor efter två år, medan den plantavgång hos tall som var orsakad av snytbagge var 26 %. Några plantor som stod i Tubesprout™ på försöksytan blev dock uppryckta, sannolikt av kråkfåglar.

  • 22.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Studie II av status hos granplantor behandlade med Conniflex under sensommar/höst 20112011Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Olerås, Kristofer
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Överlevnad och tillväxt i fält för miniplantor med olika substratdjup planterade i terrass och invers2009Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Effekter av värmebehandling på granplantors vitalitet2009Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Genetiskt snabbtest för långnattsbehandling i sikte.2010In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hur går det med miniplantorna?2006In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Plantskolan, plantodling från grunden: Lektion 3. Att testa lagringsbarhet och vitaliltet efter lagring2007In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Plantskolan, plantodling från grunden: Lektion 4, Lagring av plantor i plantskolan2007In: Plantaktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Test av status hos granplantor behandlade med Conniflex under sensommar/höst2010Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Test av substanser för behandling av frö för utökad motståndskraft mot torka och snytbaggeangrepp: 2010 års försöksserie inom Brattåsprojektet2010Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    TubeSprout: ny föryngringsmetod2011In: PlantAktuellt, ISSN 1403-3321, no 2, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Utveckling av miniplantan - försök med olika behållardjup, -volym och torvtyper2010Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vinterlagring av mikroplantor inför omskolning: praktisk applikation2010Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vinterlagring av miniplantor i frys: vintern 06/07 och 07/082010Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vinterlagring av miniplantor i kyl och frys: vintern 08/092010Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Gräns, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Storability measures of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings and assessment of post storage vitality by measuring shoot electrolyte leakage2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As indoor frozen storage is increasing in forest tree nurseries it is important to have accurate methods for assessing seedling storability in autumn and methods to determine post-storage vitality. Storability of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings can be based on determination of dry matter content (DMC) of seedling shoots or by freezing shoots at -25 degrees C and thereafter measure electrolyte leakage (SELdiff-25). To compare these two methods we stored 1-year-old spruce and pine seedlings at different occasions during the autumn. To test if leakage of electrolytes from shoots (SEL) could indicate deteriorated vitality, we measured SEL at the end of storage. After storage seedling viability was determined in a three-week growth test, measuring shoot and root growth capacity (RGC). Determination of freezing tolerance (SELdiff-25) before storage had a better ability to predict the outcome of storage compared to the DMC test. Measuring SEL at the end of the frozen storage period accurately indicated seedling vitality. Seedlings with SEL of 0-5% had a high survival rate whereas SEL over 10% indicated low survival and growth capacity after storage. The SEL method has a potential to become a screening test for identifying batches of seedlings that have been damaged during storage in the nursery.

  • 37.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vemhäll, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Test av vindhastigheter vid torkning av plantor: Uppdrag Svenska Skogsplantor2007Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Vemhäll, Marianne
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Test av åtgärder för att minimera rotöverväxning mellan krukor: Uppdrag Svenska Skogsplantor2007Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Widemo Sandvik, Maria
    Analys av granvitalitet efter översvämning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Plantering av plantor med frysta substratklumpar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande slutsatser kan dras från denna och andras studier vad avser konsekvenser av plantering med frysta substratklumpar: Plantering av plantor vars substrat inte hunnit tina kan under vissa betingelser gå bra medan andra förhållanden speciellt på våren med kalla jordar i kombination med torr och varm väderlek kan orsaka allvarliga plantskador. Generellt kan man räkna med att få en viss nedsättning av plantans fysiologiska status efter plantering med frysta substratklumpar som accentueras under betingelser som stressar plantan. En sådan stress kan vara då plantans substrat tinar långsamt beroende på en stor frusen massa (stora substratklumpar) och vid kalla markförhållanden.

  • 41. Malmqvist, C.
    et al.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Säll, H.
    Differences in bud burst timing and bud freezing tolerance among interior and coastal seed sources of Douglas fir2017In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1987-1998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for species that will grow well through ongoing climate change has increased the interest in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in Sweden. One of the most common problems seen in plantations of Douglas fir seedlings is damage caused by late spring frost, known to be highly correlated with the timing of bud burst. The objective of this study was to investigate spring-related bud development under Nordic conditions of seven Douglas fir provenances and to compare data with a local provenance of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Results from a field trial and a greenhouse-based study were compared. The interior Douglas fir provenances exhibited an earlier bud burst than coastal provenances, both in the greenhouse and in the field trial. When comparing differences within the groups of interior and coastal Douglas fir provenances, no differences could be found. The local Norway spruce, only grown in the greenhouse, showed an intermediate bud development profile similar to the interior Douglas fir provenance Three Valley. We therefore suggest that Three Valley could be planted at the same locations as the investigated local provenance of Norway spruce in mid-Sweden. To avoid spring frost damage the Douglas fir seedlings need to be frozen stored and planted late in spring. Planting under shelterwood can also help protect the seedlings from spring frost damages. As similar results for bud development patterns of Douglas fir and Norway spruce provenances were obtained from the greenhouse and field trials, greenhouse tests could facilitate selection of provenances.

  • 42.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dept of Forestry and Wood technology, Linneus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Asa Forest Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lammhult Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Storability and freezing tolerance of Douglas fir and Norway spruce seedlings grown in mid-Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change provides new challenges to Nordic forestry. Use of non-native species, such as Douglas fir, can be a means of mitigating the effects of climate change and meeting the growing demand for biomass. When Douglas fir is grown in Sweden, it is several degrees of latitude north of its normal range, which can affect timing of growth cessation, hardening of seedlings, and seedling storability. The objective of this study was to investigate tolerance to freezing and sub-zero storability of seven Douglas fir provenances and make comparisons with the native Norway spruce. Freezing tolerance and storability were evaluated by measuring the electrolytic leakage of shoots and roots after freezing, complemented with a three-week cultivation test after storage. All provenances of Douglas fir used in this study were able to tolerate frozen storage at −4°C for about four months. Norway spruce and the interior Douglas fir provenance, Three Valley, could be stored earlier in the autumn than the southern coastal Douglas fir provenances. Consequently, it should be possible to store Douglas fir seedlings with the same routines as for Norway spruce.

  • 43.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Reforestation challenges in Scandinavia2016In: Reforesta, ISSN 2466-4367, no 1, p. 67-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the keynote, major reforestation challenges in Scandinavia will be highlighted. The following countries make up Scandinavia: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. For Iceland, with only a forest cover of 2%, a major reforestation challenge is the deforestation and overgrazing in combination with land degradation and extensive soil erosion. The challenges include the conflicts with livestock farmers. For centuries the commons were used for sheep and horse grazing. However, more and more of farmer grazing land have been fenced up, allowing the regeneration of birch and plantations of other species to increase. With a forest cover of 37% and 69% respectively, for decades a major reforestation challenge in Norway and Sweden has been the risk of seedling damages from the pine weevil. Unprotected seedlings can have a survival rate of less than 25% after being planted. Pine weevils feed on the bark of planted young seedlings at regeneration sites. If the seedling is girdled, it will not survive. In Sweden, and soon in Norway, pesticides have been forbidden. In the keynote, new methods and technology will be presented based on non-chemical protection. In Finland, with a forest cover of 75%, a major reforestation challenge is linked to the forest structure. The structure of Finnish forestry includes many private forests in combination with small regeneration sites. This implies a situation where logistics and methods for lifting and field storage provide a major challenge in order to preserve seedling quality until the planting date. Due to this situation, new logistic systems and technologies are being developed in Finland, including new seedling cultivation programs (including cultivation under Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)) to match the access of fresh planting stock to different planting dates. In Denmark, with a forest cover of 13%, a major reforestation challenge is the possibility of future plantations based on a wide range of relevant species. For this to become a realistic option, new methods and technology have to be developed in reforestation activities that support this possibility. These methods and technology should make it possible to not be limited to certain species due to problems and restrictions during field establishment. This due to the prospect of establishing stable, healthy, and productive stands of various forest species that can be adapted to future climate change.

  • 44.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Rusu, Cristina
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Pietrzak, Malgorzata
    Azorina S.A.
    Ferreira, Raquel
    Azorina S.A.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Bantis, Filippos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Kotilainen, Titta
    Valoya OY.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D7.6: Articles and peer-reviewed papers2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Radoglou, K
    Kostopoulou, P
    Bellarosa, R
    Simeone, M.C.
    Shirone, B
    Use of innovative technology for the production of high-quality forest regeneration materials2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no Suppl 8, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the innovative technology created within the framework of PRE-FOREST project, funded by the European Commission under the CRAFT 6th Framework Research Programme. PRE-FOREST was an innovative research project in the field of forest planting stock material, enhancing co-operation between research foundations and small and medium-sized enterprises. Among the project's objectives were the introduction of a new technology based on precultivation (in mini-plugs) of forest regeneration material in a cost-efficient and environmental friendly production unit, not affected by outdoor climate; the development of a new, adapted to mini-plugs, grading technology and replug robot; the integration of these technologies into a functional prototype unit capable of large-scale forest regeneration material production; and the introduction of this production system at strategic locations in Europe. The system has been developed for year-round production and function in the same way, independently of climatic variations in different parts of Europe. To obtain these objectives the study focused on the interaction among production technology, mini-plug container design and rooting media, to develop cultivation protocols for forest reproductive materials of special economic and ecological importance for each participating country. One of the main benefits of the new technology was the environmentally friendly production of a large number of seedlings per square metre, leading to a cost-efficient result.

  • 46.
    Ohlsson, Anna B.
    et al.
    AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Biochem, Royal Inst Technol, KTH,Sch Biotechnol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Segerfeldt, Patrik
    Royal Inst Technol, KTH, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Royal Inst Technol, KTH, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem,Ecol Chem Grp, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden ; Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, EE-50090 Tartu, Estonia.
    Berglund, Torkel
    AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Dept Biochem, Royal Inst Technol, KTH,Sch Biotechnol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    UV-B exposure of indoor-grown Picea abies seedlings causes an epigenetic effect and selective emission of terpenes2013In: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C - A Journal of Biosciences, ISSN 0939-5075, E-ISSN 1865-7125, Vol. 68, no 3-4, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Terpenoids are involved in various defensive functions in plants, especially conifers. Epigenetic mechanisms, for example DNA methylation, can influence plant defence systems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of UV-B exposure on the release of terpenoids from spruce seedlings and on needle DNA methylation. Ten-week-old seedlings grown indoors were exposed to UV-B radiation during 4 h, and the volatile compounds emitted from the seedlings were analysed. Analysis of the volatiles 1, 3, and 22 d after this UV-B exposure showed that bornyl acetate, borneol, myrcene, and limonene contents increased during the first 3 days, while at day 22 the level of emission had returned to the control level. UV-B exposure decreased the level of DNA methylation in needles of young seedlings, reflected in methylation changes in CCGG sequences. Exposure of young seedlings to UV-B radiation might be a way to potentiate the general defensive capacity, improving their ability to survive in outdoor conditions. UV-B-induced defence is discussed in the light of epigenetic mechanisms.

  • 47.
    Olsson Tegelmark, Dag
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Ståndortsindex och produktion för björk och gran på samma mark2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På 11 lokaler där björk och gran vuxit i bestånd intill varandra på likartad mark uppskattades ståndortsindex (SI) för gran och björk med hjälp av brösthöjdsålder och höjd på övrehöjdsträd. På 22 lokaler (11 verkliga, 11 simulerade) uppskattades SI för gran och björk med hjälp av ståndortsegenskaper. Sambandet mellan SI för gran och för vårtbjörk sammanfattas i en tabell där SI G24 motsvarar B23 och SI G36 motsvarar B26. Marker där vårtbjörken kan konkurrera med granen i produktion bör vara friska lågörttyper med markvattenklass S eller K. Hög höjd över havet och nordliga breddgrader har också mer negativ påverkan på björkens än på granens tillväxt. På breddgrad 60-61 ºN  upp till 100 m över havet uppskattas då SI för björk till B24-26 och för gran till G25-27.

    På de lägre boniteterna (B23/G24) beräknas volymsproduktionen vara likvärdig för vårtbjörk och gran, medan på de högre boniteterna (B26/G36) beräknas granens medelvolyms-produktion vara upp mot dubbelt så hög som för vårtbjörk. Vårtbjörkens torrsubstansproduktion beräknas däremot överstiga den för gran på de lägre boniteterna och uppgå till ca 80% av granens torrsubstansproduktion på de högre boniteterna. 

    Materialet i studien är begränsat och försiktighet bör iakttagas vid generaliseringar.

  • 48.
    Pamidi R., Sreenivaasa
    et al.
    Exergy Ltd..
    Polidori, Carlo
    Veltha IVZW.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ghrissi, Meftah
    Robosoft SA.
    Carrel, Aubert
    Robosoft SA.
    Menta, Andrea
    CO.MET.ART. SAS.
    Ramiro, Manuel
    ADVANTIC Sistemas y Servicios.
    Kotilainen, Titta
    Valoya OY.
    Aikala, Lars
    Valoya OY.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D2.4: Technical specification for the Power system with solar panels2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49. Pettersson, Marie
    et al.
    Kännaste, Astrid
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Långström, Bo
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: is plant chemistry the explanation?2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 299-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), is a major pest in conifer reforestation areas in the Palaearctic region. Size and chemistry of the seedlings may explain the damage rates in plantations. The performance of 10-week containerized seedlings (mini-seedlings) was compared with 1-year-old conventional seedlings of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), in a field experiment in central Sweden. After 2 years the weevil damage was lower for the mini-seedlings than for the conventional seedlings (3.5 vs 55%). After 3 years, the overall survival was 82 and 75%, respectively. Weevil damage was the main cause of mortality for conventional seedlings, whereas mini-seedlings mainly died from drought. Volatiles of the two seedling types were compared by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Unwounded mini-seedlings and conventional seedlings differed in their compositions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Mini-seedlings mainly emitted limonene, known to be repellent to the pine weevil. When wounded, green leaf volatiles were released by mini-seedlings while the pine weevil attractant -pinene was released by conventional seedlings. Volatiles may partly explain the mini-seedlings' resistance against weevil attack. Further studies are needed to clarify how long this mini-seedling effect remains.

  • 50.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    et al.
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Sismanis, Nikos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Schirone, Bartolomeo
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Marras, Tatiana
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Vessella, Federico
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Chiatante, Donato
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Terzaghi, Mattia
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Montagnoli, Antonio
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D3.2: Intermediate report on growth tests2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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