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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Linn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Fördomar, normer och generaliseringar: En studie av religionskunskapslärares förhållningsätt till mångfald2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka lärares förhållningssätt till begreppet mångfald så som det skrivs fram i ämnesplanen för religionskunskap i LGY11. Fem kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med lärare i religionskunskap på gymnasiet. Dessa intervjuer har tolkats med hjälp av en narrativ analysmetod och relaterats dels till olika filosofiska perspektiv, normkritisk pedagogik samt fältet för kontroversiella frågor i undervisning. Resultatet påvisar att det finns såväl likheter som skillnader mellan lärarnas förhållningssätt. En likhet var att många av dem intog ett elevperspektiv i sin undervisning och berättade om hur de anpassar sin undervisning till olika elevgrupper. En skillnad berör hur man uppfattar själva religionsämnet som sådant; vissa av lärarna talade i termer av att motverka fördomar, andra om att ämnet kan bidra till en ökad förståelse hos eleverna själva.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Hur världen kan förhålla sig till förenligheten mellan islam och mänskliga rättigheter: En komparativ analys av två artiklar2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker förenligheten och argumentationen kring islam och de mänskliga rättigheterna utifrån två artiklar skrivna av Elena Namli och Irene Oh. Frågeställningarna som studien vilar på är hur författarna argumenterar för förhållandet mellan sharia och mänskliga rättigheter i sina artiklar, vilka typer av förståelse av sharia respektive mänskliga som rättigheter framträder i författarnas artiklar samt om författarnas argumentation kring sharia och mänskliga rättigheter kan bidra till en större förståelse inom skolan.

    Undersökningens metod är en kvalitativ textanalys, i form av en komparativ litteraturstudie där de två artiklarnas innehåll har analyserats. Resultatet av analysen av artiklarna visar hur en gemensam sakfråga, exempelvis sharia, i en dialog bidrar till större förståelse för förenligheten mellan islam och mänskliga rättigheter. Förståelsen för mänskliga rättigheter och islam varierar då sharia, inom islam, kan tolkas både som en gudomlig lag, en juridisk lag eller en familjerättslig lag. Mänskliga rättigheter kan förstås som både en moralisk lag eller en juridisk lag. Argumentationen i artiklarna framhäver även västvärldens förförståelse för förenligheten, där ofta västvärldens tolkningar och synsätt på sharia och mänskliga rättigheter är en oskriven norm.

  • 3.
    Aneer, Gudmar
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Antisekularism, religion och religiös retorik2002In: Antisekularism, Några exempel från kristendom och islam / [ed] Håkan, Rydving, Uppsala, 2002, Vol. 6, p. 41-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Aneer, Gudmar
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Dialoger mellan muslimer och kristna1999In: Blågul islam? / [ed] Svanberg, Ingvar; Westerlund, David, Nora: Nya Doxa , 1999, Vol. 13, p. 249-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Aneer, Gudmar
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Här vårdar man sina persiska traditioner: -om sufiskolan MTO Shahmaghsoudi i Göteborg2001In: Levande sufism / [ed] Westerlund, David, Nora: Nya Doxa , 2001, Vol. 17, p. 204-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Aneer, Gudmar
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Konstnären Ivan Aguéli och drömmen om en enad värld2002In: Religionsvetenskap i Göteborg 25 år / [ed] Berntson, Martin; Bogdan, Henrik, Göteborg, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Aneer, Gudmar
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Kungen och världen: Några reflexioner kring en persisk dikt och dess bakgrund2001In: Kontinuität und Brüche in der Religionsgeschichte; Festschrift für Anders Hultgård zu seinem 65. Geburtstag am 23.12.2001 / [ed] Stausberg, Michael, Berlin: Michael Stausberg/Walter de Gruyter , 2001, Vol. 31, p. 44-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Aneer, Gudmar
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Unity and Diversity: Intentional Multidimensionality in Persian Sufi Language and the Method of Decoding It1999In: Approaching Religion Part II Based on Papers Read at the Symposium on Methodology in the Study of Religions Held at Åbo, Finland, on the 4th-7th August 1997 editied by Tore Ahlbäck / [ed] Ahlbäck, Tore, Turkku: The Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History Åbo, Finland , 1999, p. 33-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Aneer, Gudmar
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Vad är värt att veta?: Om mystikern Jalal al-din Rumis syn på kunskap och vetande1999In: Religionsvetenskapliga Föreläsningar II, Föreläsningar hållna under Vetenskapsfestivalen 1998 / [ed] Berntson, Martin; Bogdan, Henrik; Peste, Jonathan, Göteborg : Institutionen för religionsvetenskap, Göteborgs Universitet , 1999, p. 11-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Religious Studies.
    Kristen Sionism: Myt som religiöst och politiskt verktyg2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    In this essay I focus on Christian Zionism, its roots and growth, to judge wether or not it is possible to look at Christian Zionism as a modern form of myth. To do that I have used Bruce Lincoln's definition: ideology in narrative form. I also ask the question whether this kind of religious conviction can be labeled as an extreme or become a danger to society. The conclusion I reach is that Christian Zionism and its broader context, dispensationalism, very well fits the definitions of modern myth that Lincoln offers. There is certainly a hierarcic ideology within Christian Zionism, and its narrative/myth have been ”negotiated between narrators and audiences over time”. The essay also shows that there is a risk concerning this particular form of religious conviction, it could become an extreme. Especially so when this alternative form of viewing reality and the future, is represented not only among ordinary citizens in the US, but also within the US Government and among military leaders.

  • 11.
    Augustsson, Lovisa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    En bild säger mer än tusen ord: En semiotisk bildanalys av kristendomen och islam i tvåläroböcker2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We encounter images and visual expressions on a daily basis. An image says more than a thousand words... but maybe the images can say too much? The school plays an important role in the development of democracy, gender equality, tolerance and respect of human rights. It is therefore important to have a discussion about the content of the textbooks and reflecting upon how these support the school's duty. I intend to investigate how images are produced in teaching materials for religious education, focusing on Christianity and Islam. The method of the essay is a semiotic content analysis. To reach the purpose, to investigate how and what images depicted in the teaching materials for religious education, four questions have been compiled: How does the image material look? What relationship does image and text have with each other, and how do they communicate? What is the balance between men and women? Are these different depending on the subject area? Do the textbooks show stereotypes or generalizing views through pictures? The result of the study shows that the analyzed textbooks have a relatively rich image content. Both books have religious phenomena as the main motive of the pictures. One of my most important issues in this analysis was whether the images had a reasonable caption or text link in the current text. Only 8% of the analyzed material had no caption or text attachment. The result also shows that both textbooks reinforce stereotypes. In Christianity, it became clear that 55% of the imagery shows stereotypical patterns, and in the texts about Islam, 60% show stereotypical patterns. A general view is that images contribute to learning and can help explain and illustrate a difficult subject. In particular, images are good for creating variation from the text, but using images must be done with care and caution, as images can easily contribute and reinforce stereotypic perceptions and prejudices.

  • 12.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Apokalyptisk film och samhällsklimat: Den filmiska undergångsvisionens attraktionskraft som gestaltning och samtidskommentar2008In: Apocalypse now - fakta, ideologi och domedagsscenarior i klimatförändringarnas kölvatten / [ed] Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna, Lomma: Föreningen lärare i religionskunskap, FLR 2007 , 2008, p. 83-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Audiovisual Storytelling and Ideological Horizons: Audiences, Cultural Contexts and Extra-textual Meaning Making2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Audiovisual Storytelling and Ideological Horizons: Audiences, Cultural Contexts and Extra-textual Meaning Making

    In a society characterized by mediatization people are to an increasing degree dependent on mediated narratives as a primary means by which we make sense of our experience through time and our place in society (Hoover 2006, Lynch 2007, Hjarvard 2008, Hjarvard & Lövheim 2012). American media scholar Stewart Hoover points to symbols and scripts available in the media environment, what he call the “symbolic inventory” out of which individuals make religious or spiritual meaning (Hoover 2006: 55). Vernacular meaning-making embedded in everyday life among viewers’ dealing with fiction narratives in films and tv-series highlight a need for a more nuanced understanding of complex audiovisual storytelling. Moving images provide individuals with stories by which reality is maintained and by which humans construct ordered micro-universes for themselves using film as a resource for moral assessment and ideological judgments about life (Plantinga 2009, Johnston 2010, Axelson 2015). Important in this theoretical context are perspectives on viewers’ moral frameworks (Zillman 2005, Andersson & Andersson 2005, Frampton 2006, Avila 2007).This paper presentation will focus on ideological contested meaning making where audiences of different cultural background engage emotionally with filmic narratives, possibly eliciting ideological and spiritual meaning-making related to viewers’ personal world views. Through the example of the Homeland tv-series I want to discuss how spectators’ cultural, religious, political and ideological identities could be understood playing a role in the interpretative process of decoding content. Is it possible to trace patterns of different receptions of the multilayered and ambiguous story depicted in Homeland by religiously engaged Christians and Moslems as well as non-believers, in America, Europe and Middle East? How is the fiction narrative dealt with by spectators in the audience in different cultural contexts and how is it interpreted through the process of extra-text evaluation and real world2understanding in a global era preoccupied with war on terror? The presentation will also discuss methodological considerations about how to reach out to audiences anchored in different cultural context.

  • 14.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Deeply Moved by Movies: Film viewing as a transitional space for utopian self-reflection2011In: Nordmedia 2011: Doing the right thing?, Akureyri, Iceland, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes how people in late modern society characterized by de¬traditionalization and individualization use moving images as a cultural resource for the construction of meaningful subjective world views. With a critical focus on ‘the self’ as a core aspect in contemporary media society, Eric W. Rothenbuhler labels the individual self as one of ‘the sacred objects of modern culture’ (Rothenbuhler 2006: 31). The article makes use of empirical data to illustrate and theoretically develop perspectives on how the audience uses fiction film in everyday life to elicit self-reflection and how film engagement is interconnected to spectator´s creation of self images (Giddens 1991, Axelson 2008b, Vaage 2008), but also how cinematic experiences could be a resource for the spectators’ construction of more profound and long-lasting ideas of being part of a moral community (Brereton 2005, Jerslev 2006, Klinger 2008, Barker 2009, Vaage 2009). Some empirical findings support a conclusion that moving images create a transitional space for the human mind, with the capacity of transporting the spectator from real life to fiction and back to real life again, helping the individual with an ongoing process of transforming the self, dealing with who you actually are, and who you want to become (Axelson 2008a, Vaage 2009). Other case studies show how the audience experience meaning in watching films, providing insights about meaning in life and general lessons of life value (Oliver and Hartmann 2010).

  • 15.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Den messianska hädelsen2003In: Akka - tidskrift för kultur och lärande, ISSN 1404-1871, no 2, p. 5-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Emotional condensation and moments of narrative impact in fiction film2013In: Iinternational conference on narrative June 27-29 2013: Abstracts (26/6/2013), 2013, p. 5-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an audience study empirical examples of narrative impact is presented when specific fiction film scenes condensate spectators’ emotional lives, identities, and beliefs. The outcome of conducted in-depth interviews with film viewers in Sweden 2012, discussing favorite films, will support theories about stories as a primary mean by which we make sense of our experience through time. It calls for a development of theories which in more detail explores spectator’s narrative competence when being absorbed by fiction. It challenges theories of fiction emotions and proposes a more complex analysis of the passionate viewer. A conclusion is that narrative impact is partly related to fiction emotions but most importantly when spectators are testing the narrative for a larger significance beyond the media, connecting diegetical fiction experiences with spectator’s profound aspirations in life and experienced conflicts of human existence in extra-diegetical world.

  • 17.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Fiktionalisering av historien och filmpublikens reflexivitet2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Film och existentiell hälsa2016In: Kultur och hälsa i praktiken / [ed] Ola Sigurdson & Annica Sjölander, Göteborgs universitet, 2016, p. 247-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Film och existentiella frågor: En empirisk studie om betydelsen av film i människors liv med kulturkognitiv inriktning. Axplock ur ett enkätresultat och djupintervjuer.2005In: Seminariepass I: Teologi och kultur, Uppsala, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Film och mening: En receptionsstudie om spelfilm, filmpublik och existentiella frågor2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In what ways and under what circumstances can a movie be a resource for individuals and their thoughts about existential matters? This central research question has been investigated using a both quantitative and qualitative approach. First, a questionnaire was distributed amongst 179 Swedish students to provide a preliminary overview of film habits. The questionnaire was also used as a tool for selecting respondents to individual interviews. Second, thirteen interviews were conducted, with viewers choosing their favourite movie of all time. In the study socio-cognitive theory and a schema-based theoretical tool is adopted to analyze how different viewers make use of movies as cultural products in an interplay between culture and cognition in three contexts; a socio-historic process, a socio-cultural interaction with the world and inner psychological processes. Summarizing the interviews some existential matters dominated. Matters of immanent orientation were in the foreground. Transcendental questions received much less attention. Summarizing the schema-based theoretical question, assessing which cognitive schema structures the narratives were processed through, the study found an emphasis on a combination of two main cognitive structures, person schema and self schema. Detailed person schematic cognitive processes about fictitious characters on the screen and their role model behaviour were combined by the respondents with dynamic cross-references to detailed self schematic introspections about their own characteristics, related to existential matters at some very specific moments in their lives. The viewers in the study seem to be inspired by movies as a mediated cultural resource, promoting the development of a personal moral framework with references to values deeply fostered by a humanistic tradition. It is argued that these findings support theories discussing individualised meaning making, developing ‘self-expression values’ and ‘altruistic individualism’ in contemporary western society.

  • 21.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Film som samhällskritik: En dröm om ett annat liv2013In: Svensk kyrkotidning, ISSN 0346-2153, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 73-77Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies. Göteborgs universitet.
    Filmen Natt (2014) och anhöriggrupper i sorg: ett exempel med komplikationer2017In: Filmen Natt - anhöriggrupper i sorg: En rapport från Centrum för kultur och hälsa Göteborgs universitet / [ed] Annica Sjölander & Marianne Strand, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2017, 1, , p. 20p. 1-45Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Filmengagemang, moraliskt patos och hjältedyrkan: publikens respons på filmen Gladiator2015In: Svärd, sandaler och skandaler: antiken på film och i tv / [ed] Hammar, Isak och Zander, Ulf, Lund, 2015, 1, p. 255-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Filmens världar och religionens - en kort historieteckning2013In: Svensk kyrkotidning, ISSN 0346-2153, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 68-69Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Försoning i nutida film: Exemplet Gudar och människor2016In: Liv i försoning: Om upprättelse i kyrka och samhälle / [ed] Göran Möller, Carl Reinhold Bråkenhielm, Stockholm: Verbum Forlag, 2016, 1, p. 259-280Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Förtätade filmögonblick: Den rörliga bildens förmåga att beröra2014Book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Klimatförändringar på vita duken.: Passiviserande underhållning eller mobilisering.2009In: The 19th Nordic Conference for Media and Communication Research, NORDMEDIA 09 Body, Soul and Society, Karlstad, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid en tillbakablick på de senaste 25 års spelfilmer kan man se hur ett växande klimathot funnits med som en berättelseingrediens i ett antal spelfilmer från Hollywood mainstreamfåra. (Axelson 2008). År 2004 kom katastroffilmen The Day after Tomorrow som gjordes till objekt för en brittisk publikstudie. I denna studie analyserar forskargruppen hur The Day After Tomorrow påverkade publikens tankar kring klimatförändringar (Lowe et al. 2006). Den irländske forskaren Pat Brereton har initierat ett projekt inom HERA (Humanities in the European Research Area) med ett forskningsfokus på hur medier och film bidragit till ett ekologiskt paradigm som enligt Brereton, långsamt växer sig allt starkare hos den europeiska allmänheten (Brereton 2008). I mitt paper vill jag diskutera Breretons hypotes om ett ökande ekologiskt sentiment under framväxt hos en europeisk allmänhet över tid och hur denna hypotes bör underkastas en kritisk diskussion utifrån ett receptionsperspektiv. Vad säger existerande publikorienterad receptionsforskning om på vilket sätt klimatförändringar gestaltade på film kan ha förmågan att beröra processer relaterade till människors teoretiska övertygelser om tillvaron, grundläggande värderingar samt en livsåskådningsmässig grundhållning (Lowe et al. 2006, Axelson 2008)?

  • 28.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Klimatförändringar på vita duken.: Passiviserande underhållning eller mobilisering? En argumentation för publikstudier om film och föreställningar om jordens framtid.2010In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 32, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Kärleksmatrisen på vita duken – drömmar och desillusioner2009In: Kärlekens förändrade landskap. Teologi om samlevnad. / [ed] Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna, Stockholm: Verbum , 2009, p. 147-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Messias med rätt att döda: Om militanta kristusgestalter i Hollywood2005In: Film och religion: Livstolkning på vita duken / [ed] Sigurdson, Ola; Axelson, Tomas, Örebro: Cordia förlag , 2005, p. s 215 - 242Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Movies and the Enchanted Mind: Emotional Comprehension and Spiritual Meaning Making Among Young Adults in Contemporary Sweden2017In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 8-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outcome of an empirical audience study in Sweden including questionnaires, focus groups and ten in-depth individual interviews discussing favorite films supports claims about viewers as active and playful (cf. Frampton 2006, Hoover 2006, Plantinga 2009). The soft side of mediatization processes is illustrated showing young adults experiencing enchantment through films (Jerslev 2006, Partridge 2008, Klinger 2008, Oliver & Hartmann 2010). The outcome is in line with a growing number of empirical case studies which support conclusions that both thinking and behavior are affected by film watching (Marsh 2007, Suckfüll 2010, Oliver & Hartmann 2010, Axelson 2014). The results of the interviews exploring specific scenes of idiosyncratic relevance support theories about fiction films as important sources for moral and spiritual reflection (Partridge 2004, Zillman 2005, Lynch 2007, Plantinga 2009).  The concept thick viewing is proposed for capturing these moments of film experience when profound and enchanted emotional interpretations take place.

  • 32.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Människans behov av fiktion: Den rörliga bildens förmåga att beröra människan på djupet2011In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, Vol. 2011 årgång 20, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The article analyzes how people in late modern society charactarized by de-traditionalization and individualization, use moving images as a cultural resource for the construction of meaningful subjective world views. The article makes use of empirical data to illustrate and theoretically develop perspectives on how the audience uses fiction film in every-day life to elicit self-reflection and how film engagement is interconnected to spectator's creation of self images (Giddens 1991, Axelson 2008, Vaage 2009), but also how cinematic experiences could be a resource for the construction of more profound and long-lasting ideas of being part of a moral community (Brereton 2005, Jerslev 2006, Klinger 2008, Vaage 2009). Some empirical findings support a conclusion that moving images create a transitional space for the human mind helping the individual with an ongoing process ot transforming the self, dealing with who you actually are, and who you want to become (Axelson 2008, Vaage 2009). Other case studies show how the audience experience meaning in watching films, providing insights about meaning in life and general lessons of life value (Oliver & Hartmann 2010).

  • 33.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Palimpsestiskt tänkande: Fakta, fiktion och audiovisuell konstruktion av upplevd autenticitet2015In: En profil i profilen: Vänbok till Bo G Jansson / [ed] Catharina Nyström Höög, Charlotte Lindgren & Sverre Wide, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2015, p. 165-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Perceived values in contemporary Hollywood films: 309 young adults negotiating audiovisual representations of subjective life; virtues, flaws, desires & aspirations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I present empirical findings from an ongoing project, “Spectator Engagement in film and utopian self-reflexivity. Moving images and moved minds” (The Swedish Research Council, 2011 – 2013). During 2011, 30910 questionnaires is were sampled 2011, among from students in of education, nursing, social care as well asand media.  In open ended questions these young adults in their twenties  give gave examples of contemporary film of personal importance dealing with life issues.  and sSome movies, such as Pulp Fiction (1994),  Shawshank Redemption (1994), Avatar (2009), Gladiator (2000) and Amelie from Montmartre (2001), attract a collective interest.  such as Donnie Darko, Amelie from Montmartre and Pulp Fiction. Examples of therespondentsrespondent’s statements about the kind of struggles in life these and other films evoke are dealt with from different theoretical perspectives.

     

    The reported impact of specific movies is analyzed  throughanalyzed through theories about cognitive psychology (Plantinga 2011) as well as visual rethoricsrhetoric’s and the responding chord (Elmelund Kjeldsen 2008) where cognition and emotion are important aspects of the spectator’s’ relation to a film. Theseese analyszees of audiences responses of reading a film are put into the context of ‘the subjective turn’ in the sociology of religion as well as the changing conditions for the reflexive self in late modernity (Giddens 1991, McAdams 1993, Lynch 2007). Also how film viewing is able to elicit self-reflexive transformation processes (Bruun Vaage 2009, Plantinga 2009).

  • 35.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Playtime!: Recension av Hultkrantz, Catharina (2014). Playtime!: en studie av lärares syn på film som pedagogiskt hjälpmedel i historieämnet på gymnasiet. Lic.-avh. Umeå : Umeå universitet, 20142016In: Historielärarnas förenings årsskrift, ISSN 0439-2434, p. 208-210Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Religion och meningsskapande genom film2015In: Samtidsreligion: Sociologiska perspektiv / [ed] Mia Lövheim & Magdalena Nordin, Malmö: Gleerups , 2015, 1, p. 152-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Religion, populärkultur och demokrati: När filmer blir utgångspunkt för moralisk reflektion och samhällskritik2012In: KHS Årsbok 2012, ISSN 2001-7421Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Rum för eftertanke.: Likheter och skillnader mellan biografen och kyrkan som plats för existentiella frågor.2007In: Kirke og kultur, ISSN 0023-186X, E-ISSN 1504-3002, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    För den som reflekterar över de religiösa traditionernas försvagade roll och huruvida medier har kommit att ersätta kyrkor och församlingsliv så pekar mina resultat i riktning mot att konsumtion av spelfilm alldeles utmärkt kan innefatta gestaltningar av centrala existentiella frågor som hos individer förankrar föreställningar om livets mening, skuld och ansvar samt moraliska ideal att leva efter i sitt liv här och nu. Men när det gäller människans bearbetning av en dialogens relation till tillvaron som totalitet som den svenske religionspsykologen Hjalmar Sundén en gång uttryckte det, dvs relationen till verklighetens yttersta väsen tycks filmmediet inte utkonkurrera traditionell religion.

  • 39.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Rörliga bilder, självreflektion och moralisk mening2011In: Barn och religion / [ed] Gunner, Gunilla; Berglund, Jenny, Stockholm: Liber , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett drygt sekel har filmindustrin skapat rörliga bilder för underhållning och vi är idag mer än någonsin tidigare omgivna av berättelser i kortare och längre format som är bildbaserade. En skolklass i 7:an får i uppgift att beskriva sig själva i en lära-känna-varandra-övning. På ett A4-papper fick var och en göra fyra rutor där man skrev upp olika viktiga saker om sig själv. I en ruta skulle man uppge favoritfilm. I denna klass så skrev 20 elever av 27 filmen Avatar i sin presentationsruta. Två stycken 14-åriga flickor intervjuas i radio och reportern fråga varför berättelsen om Bella och vampyren Edvard är så bra. ”Han är perfekt. Hon är vanlig och han är perfekt!” När Sagan om konungens återkomst visades på bio vintern 2003, intervjuades unga människor i olika delar av världen om sin filmupplevelse. ”Jag gick ut från bion och kände glädje i hela kroppen. Samtidigt var jag ledsen, för nu var allt över och jag kommer inte kunna se fram emot nästa jul på samma sätt.” Bildteoretikern W. J. T. Mitchell gör gällande att vår kultur alltmer domineras av bilders budskap (2005). Teologen Sigurd Bergmann understryker detta och menar att villkoren för människans kunskap om världen förändras genom dominansen av ett ökande massmedierat flöde av bilder (2003). Seendet som kunskapsform blir allt viktigare i ett samhälle som långsamt genomgår en kulturell omställning till ett alltmer bildorienterat samhälle. Jag vill i detta kapitel reflektera över medievanor och hur barn och unga hanterar flödet av bilder och den växande mängden bildberättelser som unga väljer att se på bio, på TV, hyr eller köper som DVD, eller laddar ner och ser i hemmabiosoffan. Jag vill diskutera det djupa engagemanget i rörliga bilders berättelser som vi ser i vårt samhälle och som kommer till uttryck i de tre exemplen ovan med ett särskilt intresse för hur individer tar hjälp av bildberättelser för konstruktion av sin egen identitet och självuppfattning. I denna antologi som sammanställer en mångfald perspektiv på barn och religion, menar jag att det är av ett särskilt intresse att utveckla en djupare förståelse av på vilket sätt filmkonsumtion kan vara en resurs för barn och ungas moraliska självreflexivitet, d.v.s. hur filmberättelser kan bidra till barn och ungas moraliska identitet och kan förstärka en etisk dimension i ungas sökande efter en egen identitet. Mot slutet av kapitlet sätter jag in denna process av pågående självreflexivitet i en diskussion om religionen förändrade plats i samhället och den roll som rörliga bilder kan spela för konstruktionen av grundläggande värderingar.

  • 40.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Samtal om film i en framväxande bildepok2008In: Kultur och kyrka. På väg mot en kulturteologi / [ed] Larsson, Mikael, Stockholm: Verbum , 2008, p. 137-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Sofia Sjö: Spelar kön någon roll när man räddar världen?: Kvinnor, kvinnligheter och messiasmyter i SF-film.2010In: Temenos, ISSN 0497-1817, E-ISSN 2342-7256, Vol. 45, p. 133-135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    The Dark Night of the Soul: Art Film, Bereavement and Unsatisfied Audience Responses2018In: Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture, ISSN 2165-9214, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 137-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving images are more and more in the centre of culture, providing individuals with stories by which reality is maintained and by which humans construct ordered micro-universes for themselves. There is a growing field of research evolving around the idea that culture and art could act as a catalyst for experiences of deeper meaning. In this article, a case study is described and analysed. A contemplative short art film was presented to a group of women as a possible asset for processing fundamental existential life issues. The women did not respond in line with expectations and their impressions of the short film were essentially negative, with expressions of impatience, irritation and even hostility towards the film’s appeal. Two problematic aspects of the film Night are outlined: (1) the meaning of the imagery used was too open and (2) as a piece of art, the film was not in tune with participants’ grieving processes.

  • 43.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    The soft side of mediatization: fiction as a symbolic inventory for vernacular meaning making challenging the 'banal' notion in mediatization theory2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The outcome of a case study about contemporary viewing habits in a Swedish audience will support claims about viewers as active and playful (Höijer 1998, Hoover 2006, Plantinga 2009). In line with mediatization theory it is argued that spiritual meaning making is taking place through mediated experiences and supports perspectives that media has become the primary source of religious ideas (Lynch 2007, Hjarvard 2008, 2012). The soft side of mediatization processes is illustrated where results from in-depth interviews show how adults are developing moral and metaphysical ideas by reflecting on themes developed in fiction films (Zillman 2005, Partridge 2008, Oliver & Hartmann 2010).  Vernacular meaning making beyond institutionalized religion, embedded in everyday life, such as viewer’s dealing with fiction narratives such as Pulp Fiction, Love Actually or Gladiator, highlights the need for a more complex understanding of elevated enchantment experiences.  An overly cognitive understanding of these processes is challenged, questioning the ‘banal’ notion in mediatization theory (Hjarvard 2008, 2012, Lövheim 2011, Nybro Petersen 2012). Instead of sticking to the ‘banal’ notion adopted in the mediatization theoretical framework, indicating something predictable, trivial or even dull, the paper strongly argues for a less pejorative concept, giving a more adequate and nuanced description of the interplay between cognition and affects creating emotional response in the audience. The presentation contributes to a development of concepts which combines aesthetic, affective and cognitive components in an investigation of spectator’s moves from emotional evaluation of intra-text narration to extra-textual systems of beliefs and moral assessments (Marsh 2007, Johnston 2007, Axelson 2011). It calls for new ways of understanding audiovisual cinematic input as a form of ‘film thinking’, not equivalent to illustrated philosophy (Frampton 2006, Brodén & Noheden 2013), providing symbolic narratives stirring cognition, powered by affect. 

    Tomas Axelson, ThD

    Assistant Professor Religious Studies, School of Humanities & Media,

    Högskolan Dalarna University, Sweden

    Project: Spectator engagement in film and utopian self-reflexivity. Moving Images and Moved Minds. (The Swedish Research Council)

    http://www.du.se/sv/AVM/Personal/Tomas-Axelson

  • 44.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Thick viewing: emotional condensation and moments of narrative impact in fiction film2013In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NARRATIVE JUNE 27-29 2013 : ABSTRACTS, 2013, p. 1-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick Viewing. Emotional condensation and moments of narrative impact in fiction film

    In an audience study empirical examples of narrative impact is presented when specific fiction film scenes condensate spectators’ emotional lives, identities, and beliefs. The outcome of conducted in-depth interviews with film viewers in Sweden 2012, discussing favorite films, will support theories about stories as a primary mean by which we make sense of our experience through time. It calls for a development of theories which in more detail explores spectator’s narrative competence when being absorbed by fiction. It challenges theories of fiction emotions and proposes a more complex analysis of the passionate viewer. A conclusion is that narrative impact is partly related to fiction emotions but most importantly when spectators are testing the narrative for a larger significance beyond the media, connecting diegetical fiction experiences with spectator’s profound aspirations in life and experienced conflicts of human existence in extra-diegetical world.

    Tomas Axelson

    Assistant Professor, Religious Studies

    School of Education and Humanities

    Högskolan Dalarna University, 791 88 Falun, Sweden

  • 45.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Thick viewing: empirical examples of condensed moments of narrative impact in fiction film developing theoretical concepts for intensified engagements2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  In a case study about viewing habits in a Swedish audience I sampled 309 questionnaires; interviews with five focus group were conducted together with ten in-depth individual interviews discussing altogether fifteen favorite films exploring specific scenes of idiosyncratic relevance.  The outcome supports claims about viewers as active and playful (cf. Höijer 1998, Frampton 2006, Hoover 2006, Plantinga 2009). In line with mediatization theory I also argue that spiritual meaning making takes place through mediated experiences and I support theories about fiction films as important sources for moral and spiritual reflection (Partridge 2004, Zillman 2005, Lynch 2007, Plantinga 2009). What Hjarvard calls the soft side of mediatization processes (2008) is illustrated showing adults experiencing enchantment through favorite films (Jerslev 2006, Partridge 2008, Klinger 2008, Oliver & Hartmann 2010).  Vernacular meaning making embedded in everyday life and spectators dealing with fiction narratives such as Gladiator, Amelie from Montmartre or Avatar highlights the need for a more nuanced understanding of elevated cinematic experiences. The reported impact of specific movies is analyzed through theories where cognition and affect are central aspects of spectators’ engagements with a film (Tan 1996, Caroll 1999, Grodal 2009). Crucially important are theories of meaning-making where viewers’ detailed interpretation of specific scenes are embedded in high-level meaning-making where world view issues and spectators’ moral frameworks are activated (Zillman 2005, Andersson & Andersson 2005, Frampton 2006, Lynch 2007, Avila 2007, Axelson 2008, Plantinga 2009).  Also results from a growing body of empirical oriented research in film studies are relevant with an interest in what happens with the flesh and blood spectator exposed to filmic narratives (Jerslev 2006, Klinger 2008, Barker 2009, Suckfüll 2010, Oliver & Hartmann 2010). Analyzing the qualitative results of my case study, I want to challenge the claim that the viewer has to suspend higher order reflective cognitive structures in order to experience suture (Butler & Palesh 2004). What I find in my empirical examples is responses related to spectators’ highest levels of mental activity, all anchored in the sensual-emotional apparatus (Grodal 2009). My outcome is in line with a growing number of empirical case studies which support conclusions that both thinking and behavior are affected by film watching (Marsh 2007, Sückfull 2010, Oliver & Hartmann 2010, Axelson forthcoming). The presentation contributes to a development of concepts which combines aesthetic, affective and cognitive components in an investigation of spectator’s moves from emotional evaluation of intra-text narration to extra-textual assessments, testing the narrative for larger significance in idiosyncratic ways (Bordwell & Thompson 1997, Marsh 2007, Johnston 2007, Bruun Vaage 2009, Axelson 2011).

    There are a several profitable concepts suggested to embrace the complex interplay between affects, cognition and emotions when individuals respond to fictional narratives. Robert K. Johnston label it “deepening gaze” (2007: 307) and “transformative viewing” (2007: 305). Philosopher Mitch Avila proposes “high cognition” (2007: 228) and Casper Thybjerg ”higher meaning” (2008: 60). Torben Grodal talks about “feelings of deep meaning” (Grodal 2009: 149). With a nod to Clifford Geertz, Craig Detweiler adopts “thick description” (2007: 47) as do Kutter Callaway altering it to ”thick interpretations” (Callaway 2013: 203).  Frampton states it in a paradox; ”affective intelligence” (Frampton 2006: 166).

    As a result of the empirical investigation, inspired by Geertz, Detweiler & Callaway, I advocate thick viewing for capturing the viewing process of these specific moments of film experience when profound and intensified emotional interpretations take place.

    The author

    As a sociologist of religion, Tomas Axelsons research deals with people’s use of mediated narratives to make sense of reality in a society characterized by individualization, mediatization and pluralized world views.  He explores uses of fiction film as a resource in every day life and he is currently finishing his three year project funded by the Swedish Research Council: Spectator engagement in film and utopian self-reflexivity. Moving Images and Moved Minds.

    http://www.du.se/sv/AVM/Personal/Tomas-Axelson

    Bibliography

    • Axelson, T. (Forthcoming 2014). Den rörliga bildens förmåga att beröra.[1] Stockholm: Liber
    • Axelson, T. (In peer review). Vernacular Meaning Making. Examples of narrative impact in fiction film questioning the ’banal’ notion in mediatization theory. Nordicom Review. Nordicom Göteborg.
    • Axelson, T. (2011). Människans behov av fiktion. Den rörliga bildens förmåga att beröra människan på djupet.[2]Kulturella perspektiv. Volume 2. Article retrieved from

    www.kultmed.umu.se/digitalAssets/74/74304_axelson-22011.pdf

    • Axelson, Tomas (2010) “Narration, Visualization and Mind. Movies in everyday life as a resource for utopian self-reflection.” Paper presentation at CMRC, 7th Conference of Media, Religion & Culture in Toronto, Canada 9 – 13th August 2010.
    • Axelson, Tomas (2008) Movies and Meaning. Studying Audience, Favourite Films and Existential Matters. Particip@tions : Journal of Audience and Reception Studies. Volume 5, (1). Doctoral dissertation summary. ACTA UNIVERSITATIS UPSALIENSIS. Article retrieved from

    http://www.participations.org/Volume%205/Issue%201%20-%20special/5_01_axelson.htm

     [1] English translation: Moving Images and Moved Minds.

    [2] English translation: Our need for fiction. Deeply Moved by Moving Images. Cultural Perspectives.

  • 46.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Thick viewing: empirical examples of condensed moments of narrative impact in fiction film developing theoretical concepts of intensified engagement2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a case study about viewing habits in a Swedish audience I sampled 309 questionnaires; interviews with five focus group were conducted together with ten in-depth individual interviews discussing altogether fifteen favorite films exploring specific scenes of idiosyncratic relevance.  The outcome supports claims about viewers as active and playful (cf. Höijer 1998, Frampton 2006, Hoover 2006, Plantinga 2009). In line with mediatization theory I will also argue that spiritual meaning making takes place through mediated experiences and I support theories about fiction films as important sources for moral and spiritual reflection (Partridge 2004, Zillman 2005, Lynch 2007, Plantinga 2009). What Hjarvard calls the soft side of mediatization processes (2008) is illustrated showing adults experiencing enchantment through favorite films (Jerslev 2006, Partridge 2008, Klinger 2008, Oliver & Hartmann 2010).  Vernacular meaning making embedded in everyday life and spectators dealing with fiction narratives such as Gladiator, Amelie from Montmartre or Avatar highlights the need for a more nuanced understanding of elevated cinematic experiences. The reported impact of specific movies is analyzed through theories where cognition and affect are pivotal aspects of spectators’ engagements with a film (Tan 1996, Caroll 1999, Grodal 2009). Crucially important are theories of meaning-making where viewers’ detailed interpretation of specific scenes are embedded in high-level meaning-making where world view issues and spectators’ moral frameworks are activated (Zillman 2005, Andersson & Andersson 2005, Frampton 2006, Lynch 2007, Avila 2007, Axelson 2008, Plantinga 2009).  Also results from a growing body of empirical oriented research in film studies are relevant with an interest in what happens with the flesh and blood spectator exposed to filmic narratives (Jerslev 2006, Klinger 2008, Suckfüll 2010, Oliver & Hartmann 2010). Analyzing the qualitative results of my case study, I want to challenge the claim that the viewer has to suspend higher order reflective cognitive structures in order to experience suture (Butler & Palesh 2004). What I find in my empirical examples is responses related to spectators’ highest levels of mental activity, all anchored in the sensual-emotional apparatus (Grodal 2009). My outcome support a growing number of empirical case studies which support conclusions that both thinking and behavior are affected by film watching (Marsh 2007, Barker 2009, Sückfull 2010, Oliver & Hartmann 2010, Axelson forthcoming). The presentation contributes to a development of concepts which combines aesthetic, affective and cognitive components in an investigation of spectator’s moves from emotional evaluation of intra-text narration to extra-textual assessments, testing the narrative for larger significance in idiosyncratic ways (Bordwell & Thompson 1997, Marsh 2007, Johnston 2007, Bruun Vaage 2009, Axelson 2011).

    There are a several profitable concepts suggested to embrace the complex interplay between affects, cognition and emotions when individuals respond to fictional narratives. Robert K. Johnston label it “deepening gaze” (2007: 307) and “transformative viewing” (2007: 305). Philosopher Mitch Avila proposes “high cognition” (2007: 228) and Casper Thybjerg ”higher meaning” (2008: 60). Torben Grodal talks about “feelings of deep meaning” (Grodal 2009: 149). With a nod to Clifford Geertz, Craig Detweiler adopts “thick description” (2007: 47) as do Kutter Callaway altering it to ”thick interpretations” (Callaway 2013: 203).  Frampton states it in a paradox; ”affective intelligence” (Frampton 2006: 166).

    As a result of the empirical investigation, inspired by Geertz, Detweiler & Callaway, I advocate thick viewing for capturing the viewing process of these specific moments of film experience when profound and intensified emotional interpretations take place.

  • 47.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Varför berörs vi så starkt av musik som Kent och Bob Dylan eller filmer som Amelie och Avatar?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Vernacular meaning making: Examples of narrative impact in fiction film questioning the 'banal' notion in mediatization of religion theory2015In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 143-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outcome of an audience study supports theories stating that stories are a primary means by which we make sense of our experiences over time. Empirical examples of narrative impact are presented in which specific fiction film scenes condense spectators' lives, identities and beliefs. One conclusion is that spectators test the emotional realism of the narative for greater significance, connecting diegetic fiction experiences with their extra-diegetic world in their quest for meaning, self and identity. The 'banal' notion of the mediatization of religion theory is questioned as unsatisfactory in the theoretical context of individualized meaning-making processes. As a semantically negatively charged concept, it is problematic when analyzing empirical examples of spectators' use of fictional narratives, especially when trying to characterize the idiosyncratic and complex interplay between spectators' fiction emotions and their testing of mediated narratives in an exercise to find moral significance in extra-filmic life. Instead vernacular meaning-making is proposed.

  • 49.
    Axelson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Vernacular Meaning Making: Examples of narrative impact in fiction film questioning the 'banal' notion in mediatization theory2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vernacular Meaning Making. Examples of narrative impact in fiction film questioning the 'banal' notion in mediatization theory.

    The outcome of an audience study and conducted in-depth interviews with film viewers in Sweden 2012 discussing favorite films, will support theories about stories as a primary mean by which we make sense of our experience through time (Nussbaum 1983, Lynch 2007, Axelson 2011). Empirical examples of narrative impact is presented when specific fiction film scenes (Avatar, Amelie de Montmartre, Gladiator) condensate spectators’ emotional lives, identities, and beliefs. It calls for a development of theories which in more detail explores spectator’s narrative competence when being absorbed by fiction (Johnston 2007, Plantinga 2009, Oliver & Hartmann 2010).

    A conclusion is that narrative impact is partly related to fiction emotions but most importantly when spectators are testing the emotional realism of the narrative (Ang 1985) for a larger significance beyond the media, connecting diegetical fiction experiences with spectator’s extra-diegetical world through ‘thick viewing’ (Johnston 2007) or ‘high cognition’ (Avila 2007).

    In relation to individualized meaning making processes in secularized society, I argue that the notion ‘banal’ in mediatization theory (Hjarvard 2008; 2012, Petersen 2012), is unsatisfactory on a micro level. As a semantically charged concept it is problematic when analyzing empirical examples of spectators’ use of fiction narratives in a more profound way, trying to grasp the interplay between spectators’ fiction emotions and moral assessments of real life significance.

  • 50.
    Axelson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Religious Studies.
    Hansson, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Sedelius, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Stier, Jonas (Editor)
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies.
    Från privatsak till politisk kraft?: Borlänges interreligiösa råd och förväntningar på religion som resurs i lokalsamhället2018Report (Other academic)
1234567 1 - 50 of 354
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