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  • 1.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    But Do I Really Have Anything to Say? Conferences and the PhD Student2017In: The Nordic PhD: Surviving and Succeeding / [ed] Christopher McMaster, Caterina Murphy and Jakob Rosenkrantz de Lasson, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 59-67Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Just a little plus: The CLIL Student Perspective2019In: Investigating Content and Language Integrated LearningInsights from Swedish High Schools / [ed] Liss Kerstin Sylvén, Multilingual Matters, 2019, p. 285-300Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Mapping CLIL in Sweden2019In: CLIL in Sweden: A longitudinal investigation at senior high school level / [ed] Liss Kerstin Sylvén, Multilingual Matters, 2019, p. 19-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    One school for all? Exploring the intended and unintended consequences of the new markets of English-medium instruction in the Swedish upper secondary school2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    You, Your Supervisor, and the Importance of fika2017In: The Nordic PhD: Surviving and Succeeding / [ed] Christopher McMaster, Caterina Murphy and Jakob Rosenkrantz de Lasson, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 103-110Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Linné University.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University.
    Multilingualism, teacher cognition and inclusive education: A study of attitudes, beliefs and knowledge2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased migration and mobility world-wide, educational settings are changing, with classrooms characterized by considerable diversity in students’ linguistic backgrounds. This heterogeneity poses a challenge to education and in particular to inclusive education – that is, the aim of offering quality education for all while also respecting diversity and different needs and abilities, characteristics and learning expectations (see Kugelmass, 2006). Pre-primary and primary teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge (ABK) on multilingualism are critical factors to achieving inclusive education. Teacher cognition (Borg, 2003, 2006) addresses the interplay between teachers’ ABK and the pedagogical and language developing practices in schools and classrooms. Four major factors have been identified to interactively shape and be shaped by teacher cognition: teachers’ own schooling experience, teacher education, contextual factors such as the organization of education, and classroom practices (Borg, 2003).

    The present study addresses multilingualism, teacher cognition and inclusive education in Sweden, with an aim to empirically investigate attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of pre-primary and primary teachers. We employ a mixed-methods approach (semi-structured interviews and large-scale online survey), studying what shapes attitudes, beliefs and knowledge on multilingualism and which factors correlate with these.

    In our presentation, we will offer an overview of our larger ongoing project, before moving to preliminary results from the first interviews. We are currently interviewing pre-primary and primary teachers, aiming for participants from varied school demographics. Our focus is on their experiences with multilingualism in the classroom as well as their insights from their own backgrounds and teacher training. Our results are expected to generate new understandings of teachers’ perceptions of classroom diversity and of children who speak languages in addition to Swedish, as well as how these perceptions are shaped and how they influence classroom practices. Thus, our study will contribute to the theoretical perspectives of teacher cognition and inclusive education.

    References

    Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36: 81–109.

    Kugelmass, J.W. (2006). Sustaining cultures of inclusion: the value and limitations of cultural analyses. European Journal of Psychology of Education XXI(3): 279–292.

  • 7.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Translanguaging and language ideologies in education: Northern and Southern perspectives2019In: Handbook of the Changing World Language Map / [ed] Brunn, S. & Kehrein, R., Springer, 2019, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we examine language ideologies as part of a translanguaging framework in education. We begin with an overview of the concept translanguaging, from its origins as a term in bilingual education in Wales to its development in research on multilingual classrooms mainly in the North American and British contexts. From there, translanguaging has spread as both a theoretical and pedagogical concept used by researchers and educators to approach linguistically and culturally diverse environments, in and outside of the classroom. Hence, the theoretical and pedagogical objectives have emerged side by side and enhanced one another. Employing a perspective based in critical pedagogy, we present and analyze empirical studies from different educational and political contexts to illustrate how ideologies are expressed through implicit and explicit policies in the classroom. The three foci include studies of translanguaging in the early years in continental Europe, in secondary schools in Scandinavia, and in higher education in South Africa. Many studies of translanguaging present examples of classroom practices in multilingual contexts and where English is often the majority/dominant language. However, our aim is not to examine the pedagogical practices per se but rather to explore the language ideologies made visible, negotiated and challenged through translanguaging in the selected studies. With a focus on translanguaging and language ideologies in education, the ways translanguaging may resist language hierarchies and monolingual norms, and instead promote social justice, become especially relevant. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the implications of such ideological stances in education.

  • 8.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Epilogue2017In: New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 226-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Introduktion2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 11-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Rosén, JennyDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.Straszer, BoglárkaDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.Wedin, ÅsaDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Perspectives on translanguaging in education2017In: New perspectives on translanguaging and education / [ed] Åsa Wedin, Jenny Rosén, BethAnne Paulsrud, and Boglárka Straszer, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 10-19Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Rosén, JennyDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.Straszer, BoglárkaDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.Wedin, ÅsaDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    “We know the same languages and then we can mix them”: A child’s perspectives on everyday translanguaging in the family2018In: Translanguaging as Everyday Practice / [ed] Gerardo Mazzaferro, Springer, 2018, p. 49-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study presents a young multilingual child, here called Laura, and her perspectives on and experiences of everyday language practices using Hungarian, Finnish, and Swedish. Laura was interviewed and observed over the course of one full day in the home with her family, in order to elicit her views on her agency and linguistic repertoire. In addition, Laura’s parents were interviewed about planned and implemented family language policies, and some of the written observations and audio-recorded interactions collected by the parents since Laura’s birth were considered. The thematic analysis reveals Laura’s perspectives on people, spaces and purpose in relation to her flexible use of named and unnamed languages. Laura is keenly aware of translanguaging affordances based on interlocutor, drawing on the resources of others’ repertoires. Laura sometimes challenges her parents’ family policy but also creates her own spaces for translanguaging. Finally, Laura adapts the use of her resources according to perceived purpose, as seen in her changing language use since starting school. The study offers a unique view of how one child exercises agency, makes use of her linguistic repertoire, articulates metalinguistic awareness, and respects or resists the family language policy set forth by her parents, thus creating her own everyday translanguaging practices.

  • 14.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    “We know the same languages and then we can mix them”: A child´s perspectives on translanguaging and family language policy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an investigation of a young multilingual child, called Laura, and her parents as they navigate language practices using Hungarian, Finnish, and Swedish in their everyday life in Sweden. The multimethod study focused on Laura’s perspectives. Our aim was to highlight a child’s “lived experience” of translanguaging as her views on and experiences of translanguaging reveal how she respects or resists the planned family language policy. First, Laura was interviewed and observed over the course of one day at home with her family. One researcher engaged Laura in play in order to elicit her views on her agency and linguistic repertoire in relation to family language policies. Second, Laura’s parents were interviewed about the implicit and explicit family language policies, and how these policies were initially constructed and then developed in their implementation over the course of the childhood of Laura and her two younger siblings. These interviews and observations were considered together with material (written observations and audio-recorded interactions) collected by the parents since Laura’s birth. The triangulation of methods offers a unique view of how one child exercises agency, makes use of her linguistic resources, articulates metalinguistic awareness, considers societal language hierarchies, and respects or resists the family language policy set forth by her parents—thus creating her own everyday translanguaging practices. Our results indicate the importance of linguistic awareness and repertoires, and suggests the potential that this multilingual child possesses for exercising agency in order to “make sense” of her multilingual world. We argue that focusing on a child’s stories of everyday translanguaging framed within her family’s language policy and practices has relevance for understanding the home, school, and societal implications of young children’s translanguaging.

     

     

  • 15.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne Yoxsimer
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    English-medium instruction in Sweden: Perspectives and practices in two upper secondary schools2016In: Journal of Immersion and Content Based Language Education, ISSN 2212-8433, E-ISSN 2212-8441, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 108-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a multi-site and multi-method doctoral dissertation study of English-medium instruction (EMI) in the Swedish context, focusing on perspectivesand practices in two upper secondary schools. The research explores the status of EMI, reasons schools offer EMI, beliefs about EMI, and implementation of EMI in classrooms. The educational context is studied from an ecological perspective using methods based in linguistic ethnography. The results indicate that the few Swedish schools teaching content through another language tend to offer EMI — not content and language integrated learning (CLIL). Neither language learning nor 100% English instruction are the main goals of the schools. Translanguaging is abundant, affording both pedagogic and non-pedagogic functions. The study concludes that a development of definitions and practices of both EMI and CLIL in Sweden is needed, especially in relation to language policy and language hierarchy.

  • 16.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    University of Helsinki.
    En skola för alla: Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Språklig mångfald i den svenska skolan ställer krav på verksamma lärare, liksom på lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter. För att undersöka synpunkter på och erfarenheter av flerspråkighetspedagogik och utforska om transpråkande får utrymme i den svenska lärarutbildningen, har vi utfört en intervjustudie med lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter. Vårt fokus är på hur studenterna förbereds inför sitt arbete med den språkliga mångfalden i dagens skola samt vilka möjligheter, alternativ begränsningar, för transspråkande finns i lärarutbildningen. Vi vill även belysa hur transspråkande kan relateras till social rättvisa och strävan efter en skola för alla. I studien har vi intervjuat femton lärarutbildare från fyra lärosäten enskilt och fjorton lärarstudenter från tre av dessa lärosäten i grupp. Vi har gjort en tematisk analys av deras svar. Målet med intervjuerna var att uppmuntra deltagarna att prata fritt om just språklig mångfald i relation till lärarutbildningen samt om deras synpunkter och erfarenheter som utbildare eller student.

    Lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter uppger att de ser på den språkliga mångfalden både inom lärarutbildningen och i den svenska skolan som central i dagens undervisning. Däremot pekar deras svar åt olika möjligheter och begränsningar, vilket i sin tur avslöjar vilken plats transspråkande kan ha i lärarutbildningen. I vårt paper ska vi presentera resultat uppdelade i teman: först på hur lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter ser på språklig mångfald i lärarutbildningen och skolan, och sedan på vilken plats flerspråkighetspedagogik tar i utbildningen. I dessa teman uppdagas frågor om bland annat bristperspektiv på språk, språkhierarkier, vikten av verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt ovisshet om vem som har ansvar för flerspråkighetspedagogik i lärarutbildningen. Vi ämnar att föra en diskussion om transspråkande i lärarutbildningen, samt om transspråkande och social rättvisa.

  • 17.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 27-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    University of Helsinki.
    Multicultural and multilingual education: Current challenges in teacher education in Sweden and Finland2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents part of the research collaboration Multilingual and intercultural education in Sweden and Finland (MINTED), a study of education policy and teacher education. We have examined how the concepts multilingualism and interculturality are represented, on the one hand, explicitly and implicitly in teacher education in relation to national policy, and on the other hand, in the perspectives of teacher educators and students in response to the multilingual and multicultural classroom.

     

    In this paper, we present an empirical study of teacher educator views on the challenges and needs they face in relation to multicultural and multilingual education in their teacher training institutions. We have interviewed 29 teacher educators (14 in Finland and 15 in Sweden) at eight universities with an aim to understand the current policies and practices for supporting quality multicultural and multilingual education. Our analysis is framed by three general categories: Instructional, institutional and socio-political challenges in teacher education (Gorski, 2012), and we relate the study to our previous analyses of the national curricula for compulsory schooling in the two countries. Results indicate that educators call for greater competence in addressing diversity in the classroom, with a need for concrete encounters and experiences. Moreover, a deeper integration of multicultural and multilingual education across the institutions is needed. In our presentation, we offer examples of both challenges and strategies considered by the educators for a teacher education programme that may better serve all students. We also highlight differences between the two national contexts.

     

    We contribute to the symposium in several ways. First, our study offers a timely investigation into current needs in teacher education. This is relevant as pre-service teachers will be facing a very different classroom than the teacher educators themselves had in their respective school contexts. As one teacher educator stated: ”We need to prepare teacher students to teach in a school that looks much different than the one they went to themselves.” Second, we offer a unique comparison of two seemingly similar but rather different contexts. Finland and Sweden are neighbouring countries with similar education policies, practices and values, yet quite different frameworks and practices. Finally, we address the implications of our study on the directions necessary for the development of teacher education and how spaces for multilingual and intercultural educational practices can be created.

  • 19.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Spaces for multilingual education: Language orientations in the national curricula of Sweden and Finland2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingualism is visible and officially recognised in Sweden and Finland. Both have education systems promoting equity and equality, articulated in the motto “one school for all”. However, recent societal and political changes linked to increased immigration have created new challenges in efforts to support linguistic diversity. Our study aims at clarifying the conceptual frameworks of multilingual education in the two contexts through an analysis of their compulsory school curricula, using Ruiz’s (1984) framework of three language orientations of language planning: language as problem, resource or right. Questions emerging from the language-as-problem orientation include how and for whom languages are considered problems, which hierarchies may be in place, and what challenges are created for minority speakers. The language-as-right orientation focuses on the right to both avoid discrimination for language use and to use one’s own language to access democracy. Finally, language-as-resource offers a more positive view on multilingualism, one in which linguistic diversity is both valued and supported as part of a pluralistic society. The material investigated includes the Swedish Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the recreation centre (2015) and the Finnish National comprehensive school curriculum (2014), as well as some supporting documents from each country. The two curricula differ in their orientations of language as problem, resource or right. Both stress the rights of minority language speakers through mother tongue support. Finland, however, has an explicit emphasis on the value and place of multilingualism in the classroom; while in Sweden, a language hierarchy is evident and a monolingual norm is prevalent. Given the common focus on providing education for all and also given Sweden’s long history of provision of mother tongue support and Swedish as a second language instruction, the different spaces for multilingual education revealed in the education policies are somewhat surprising. In our presentation, we will examine and compare examples from our analysis of the orientations and discuss how these spaces created are key to our possibilities as educators to promote linguistic diversity and social justice in the schools of today’s global societies.

     

    Ruiz, R. (1984). Orientations in Language Planning. NABE Journal, 8(2), 15–34.

  • 20.
    Qwarnström, Loretta
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Presentation of EU Project The Language Café2008In: 10th Conference of the European Confederation of Language Centres in Higher Education (CERCLES):Language Centres for a Plurilingual Future in Europe, Istituto de Idiomas Seville, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Public Service Language Centre and Högskolan Dalarna are core partners in a two-year European Socrates Lingua funded project exploring informal and socially situated language learning for adults. The Language Café project (www.languagecafe.eu) draws on the existing and growing café culture around Europe and aims to create a network of language cafés which exist in real cafes and other publicly accessible social spaces. During this session, we will briefly outline the background to the Language Café project, report on progress to date, discuss the major challenges in setting up and sustaining a language café and present some of the support and publicity materials developed by the project. The project partners from the Public Service Language Centre in Vilnius and Högskolan Dalarna will compare examples of language cafés in Lithuania and Sweden. A presentation will follow regarding the different cultural traditions of teaching and teacher-student relationships in the different project partner countries. We will also discuss the meeting between the public and the private sector, i.e. academia and café owners, as well as between academia and the general public. Moreover, issues regarding how different methods of teaching and learning have influenced the success or failure of a language café will be presented.

  • 21.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Everyday translanguaging and the young child.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Toth, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm university.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Agency and affordance in translanguaging for learning: Case studies from English-medium instruction in Swedish schools2017In: New perspectives on translanguaging and education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer and Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 189-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholms universitet.
    Encountering English: A Case Study of Three Swedish Students in an English-Medium Upper Secondary School2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a recent case study that addresses one aspect of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the Swedish context, namely how much English the students in an English-medium CLIL programme in an upper secondary school encounter throughout the day. It has been indicated in Swedish research that students in CLIL programmes are not exposed to as much English as expected (Lim Falk, 2008) and that students may experience more English outside of the classroom during their extramural activities than they do in school, with this factor affecting their English proficiency more than their time spent in a CLIL school (Sylvén, 2004; Sylvén, 2011). Thus, the main research question for this study is as follows: How do students in a Swedish CLIL class encounter English throughout a school day? Encountering English may include listening to teachers or peers, speaking to teachers or peers, reading subject material in English, or writing notes or assignments in English. One focus is on the activities they conduct in English, asking when and why they produce English in writing or speaking, as well as who is speaking English to and with the students. Another focus is on how English is afforded in the CLIL classroom.

    This study is ethnographical in orientation and strives to allow for a deep immersion in the culture of the Swedish CLIL school. The object of this study is a case study, which in qualitative research allows for a focus on ‘rich, real, and uniquely human material’ (Heigham & Croker, 2009:67). Case study offers an emic perspective, afforded through a close observation and shadowing of a single individual in the culture being studied.  While case study is usually limited by certain boundaries and often focuses on only one participant or event, this case study involves three parts, as three individual learners have been observed on three different full school days, making it a collective or multiple case study. Both what is common and what is individually specific in the school day of the three students are of interest. A socio-cultural perspective provides the theoretical framework, as this approach focuses on how actions are situated in a social context. Learning is grounded in social interaction, as both learning and development occur in and through participation in social practices (Säljö, 2000: 236). Although the case study is primarily descriptive, this socio-cultural theoretical approach facilitates the investigation of the use of language not only by each individual informant but also of how their interaction with other participants in their particular class context and culture unfolds.

    This study was conducted in early 2012, during a period of three consecutive school days, at a Swedish upper secondary school (ages 15-19). This school, located in a mid-sized Swedish city, has approximately 1900 students, divided into programme classes of approximately 20 students each. The participants of this study all have Swedish as their mother tongue and are all attending a natural sciences programme that prepares them for higher education, with the majority of lessons taught in English. One student from each of three class years (Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3) participated.

    The material collected during each day included audio-recorded speech, field notes, and documents (such as written lesson material), and photographs. The methods used for data collection included participant observation, on-going open interviews, and audio recordings using a small hand-held mp3 player. Language usage was noted, indicating which language was being used (i.e. Swedish or English), which activity was being conducted (during the lessons and in between lessons), which modality was being used (reading, writing, listening, speaking), and who the actors were during the specific activity. The physical environment was also noted. This triangulation affords a deeper understanding of the details recorded throughout each informant’s school day.

    The data extracted from the material has been analysed for thematic patterns of language usage, allowing for the development of theories about CLIL students’ encounters with the English language during a typical school day. These patterns have been considered in light of the context of both this particular school and of CLIL schools in general in Sweden, as indicated by previous research. Several themes across the data of the three participants have been identified, including the following:

    • The students generally take their language cues from the teachers and do not usually switch languages unless the teacher does.
    • Swedish is used nearly exclusively for all social interaction in and out of the classroom, except for the cases listed below.
    • In Swedish conversations, English is used mainly in these instances: Quoting something that is usually familiar to the other speakers (e.g. from a film or video game); using prefabricated expressions or idioms; or playing with words.
    • All three students mention that code-switching with classmates—but not others outside of the class, such as family members—is acceptable and common.
    • None of the three students feel that the English-medium instruction is a hinder to their studies. All three students comment on how useful it is to have textbooks in both English and Swedish for most subjects, explaining that it is necessary to be able to know the subject-specific terms in both languages.

    In line with previous research, the students do indeed encounter less English than might be expected. However, the use of Swedish is noted to fulfil specific academic or social functions and is not usually random but instead tends to be strategic. The final conclusions from this case study will be presented at the TRI CLIL 2012 conference and will be illustrated with transcriptions from the lessons and student interviews as well as with photographs of the lesson material and learning environment. 

  • 24.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    English-medium instruction in Sweden: Perspectives and practices in two upper secondary schools2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents English-medium instruction (EMI) in the Swedish context, focusing on perspectives and practices in two schools. The research question is as follows: How and why is EMI offered, chosen, and practiced in the Swedish upper secondary school today? The aim is to explore the status of the educational option, the reasons for offering EMI to stakeholders, the stakeholders’ beliefs about and goals of EMI, and the implementation of EMI in the classroom.

    A survey of all upper secondary schools in Sweden was conducted to ascertain the spread of content teaching through a foreign language. The educational context was studied from an ecological perspective using methods based in linguistic ethnography. Language alternation, academic language, and language hierarchy were all considered. Interviews were analysed for content; and classroom language use was analysed for language choice and function. The concepts of affordance and scaffolding together with translanguaging were key. The de facto policies of the micro contexts of the schools were examined in light of the declared national policy of the macro context of Sweden.

    The results indicate that the option in Swedish schools has not increased, and also tends to only be EMI—not Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) or instruction through other languages. EMI is offered for prestige, an international profile, marketing potential and personal interest. EMI students are academically motivated and confident, and see the option as “fun”. 100% EMI in the lessons is not the goal or the practice. Translanguaging is abundant, but how language alternation is perceived as an affordance or not differs in the two schools. One focuses on how the languages are used while the other focuses on how much each language is used.

    In conclusion, the analysis suggests that a development of definitions and practices of EMI in Sweden is needed, especially in relation to language policy and language hierarchy.

  • 25.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Great Expectations: Stakeholders’ Perspectives on the English-Medium Option in the Upper Secondary School2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English-medium instruction (EMI) is an established educational option that varies in both scope and extent in upper secondary schools in contexts where English is not the dominant or official language. The prevalence of EMI (also often identified as Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL) is a result of both implicit and explicit goals of those directly involved—students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These stakeholders’ perspectives are rarely addressed, however, so this study aims to understand their views through an investigation into why the option is offered, why the option is chosen, and how the option is experienced in the classroom. Identifying and understanding their expectations reveals their language ideology in relation to EMI and to the English language.

    A study with an ecological approach was conducted over the course of one academic year (2011-2012) at two Swedish upper secondary schools that each offered subjects taught in English. Informants included 25 students (ages 15-18), three school administrators, five parents, and eleven teachers; and their views on EMI were revealed through qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews. The results include issues such as the ever-increasing role of English in both the local and global contexts, the belief in the importance of English for the students’ future work and education, the English-language proficiency of the stakeholders, and the choice to use English instead of Swedish in different domains.  The stakeholders’ voices on the identified themes will illustrate the presentation. These perspectives are key to understanding the present context of EMI as well as how it may continue to develop, thus contributing to understanding the spread and practice in contexts outside of Sweden as well. Therefore, the results are of interest to both researchers and stakeholders within the fields of EMI and CLIL in an international context.

  • 26.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholms universitet.
    “Mapping Content and Language Integrated Learning in the Swedish Context”: Poster2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a survey conducted by The Swedish National Agency for Education in 2000, some form of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) was already in place or planned in more than 20% of all Swedish upper secondary schools. Some researchers have indicated that English-medium instruction in particular has continued to increase in Swedish schools following the “CLIL boom” from 1992 until 1999, during which up to 15 new CLIL programs commenced every year. However, as there are no recent official statistics on the number of schools offering CLIL and as the term CLIL includes schools with very different degrees of integration of language and subject studies, the actual extent and scope of subject teaching in another language has been difficult to estimate. Because understanding how CLIL has developed since 2000 is key to understanding the context of CLIL in Sweden today, part of a present doctoral study includes a survey of all 908 upper secondary schools offering the nationally recognised degree programs in Sweden. This survey was conducted in order to determine the present extent and scope of CLIL, as well as its growth and decline in the last decade. Preliminary results have indicated the following: single integrated lessons seem more common than an entire program or an entire course offered in another language; many school administrators are unclear about the difference between lessons in modern languages taught in that target language and content lessons taught in a target language; and the International Baccalaureate Program seems to be on the rise in Sweden while CLIL programs appear to be declining. The final results will contribute to the explanation of the development of CLIL and the description of the current CLIL practices in the Swedish context.

     

  • 27.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Policies and practices: Translanguaging in the CLIL classroom in relation to the Swedish Language Act2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite having no official status in Sweden, English was the only foreign language to be specifically addressed in the policy reports that eventually led to the present official Language Act, as the increasing presence of English in certain domains was seen as potentially problematic. According to national policy, Swedish should maintain the role as the principle language in Sweden; and other languages should be prevented from dominating any one domain, such as education. In educational settings, the chosen medium of instruction may be both political and ideological, and this also applies to immersion programmes, such as CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning).  In light of this, the present study aims to examine English-medium CLIL in the Swedish context in relation to the Language Act and its preceding reports.

    In order to understand the roles of English and Swedish in CLIL programmes, research was conducted in two upper secondary schools, investigating how macro policies may become reality in the micro actions of the classroom. Methods included observations and interviews. The concept of translanguaging was key to the exploration of real language practice in the schools. The data was analysed to explore the functions of translanguaging in the lessons; and language policy and ideology were both considered.

    The results indicate that translanguaging affords students the use of all linguistic resources and addresses previous concerns about Swedish domain loss. The process of translanguaging aligns with the official Language Act in upholding the position of Swedish as a principle language in CLIL classes, while also supporting students’ language development in English. The languages are not limited to certain roles (e.g. instruction or classroom management), but can each maintain the status of a language for learning. Thus, translanguaging may offer the means to move beyond real or perceived language hierarchy roles.

  • 28.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Teaching in English? So what do you expect?: What are the goals for the English literacy skills of Swedish students in English-medium upper-secondary schools?2009In: Symposium 2009. Genrer och funktionellt språk i teori och praktik., Stockholm, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    “Teaching in English? What do you expect? English-medium CLIL in the Swedish upper-secondary school”2010In: CLIL in Subject-integrated Curriculum Seminar 2010 and CLILL Research Workshop Program, Vaasa, Finland, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    “Teaching in English? What do you expect? Defining goals and expectations of CLIL in the Swedish upper-secondary school”2011In: 16th World Congress of Applied Linguistics (AILA2011): Harmony in diversity: language, culture, society, Beijing, China, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Language and subject-integrated teaching, often referred to as CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning), but even sometimes as language immersion or bilingual education, has increased in Swedish schools in recent years. In the last survey conducted by The Swedish National Agency for Education in 2000, it was found that there was some form of teaching in other languages than Swedish––everything from the entire teaching of a subject in a foreign language to occasional theme days or projects in various languages––in at least 20% of Swedish upper secondary schools. However, there are not actually any current figures on the number of schools offering CLIL instruction; and, as the term CLIL includes schools with very different degrees of integration of language and subject studies, the true amount of teaching in another language is difficult to estimate. CLIL thus remains a broad concept that has not been defined clearly in the Swedish school system. Additionally, recent research in Sweden has indicated that the schools offering CLIL lack clearly defined goals, especially in regards to language acquisition. The Swedish National Agency for Education suggests that the target is a not fully bilingual student, but rather students with “functional competence in the target language.” Although the agency has called for greater documentation by schools to monitor the progress made by students as well as the methods used in teaching and learning, Swedish schools offering CLIL generally lack a thorough description of practice and an evaluation of results. Furthermore, the various stakeholders in CLIL education (students, parents, teachers, and administrators) each have their own objectives and goals, but how these are followed up at school (such as through teaching and evaluation methods) and if these are achieved is not clear. The author’s present research is concerned with the identification of the extent and scope of CLIL in English language medium upper-secondary schools in Sweden today as well as the identification of existing goals and objectives of said form of education. The proposed presentation will present the first results of the study: the extent and scope of CLIL in upper-secondary schools today, with a focus on how the schools are presenting CLIL to potential students and how—and if—they are formulating their specific goals in regards to English language proficiency. How is the educational option being presented by and to the potential stakeholders? Why is English being offered as the medium of instruction? How is CLIL defined by and for the stakeholders? This data will be collected during the academic year 2010-2011, and will be followed by a deeper investigation of the CLIL classroom in the subsequent two years. Educational ethnographical methods will be used to map CLIL in practice and to relate this practice to the previously identified goals and expectations.

  • 31.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Translanguaging in the English-medium Content Classroom: Perspectives and practices from two upper secondary schools in Sweden2014In: THINK CLIL 2014: 9th International Conference, 28-30th August, 2014, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is on language alternation in upper secondary schools offering English-medium CLIL in Sweden. With neither national guidelines nor in-service training for CLIL available in the Swedish context, teachers must create their own policies for language use, that may be either implicit or explicit. The use of Swedish (L1) and English (L2) in content lessons in two schools was studied over the course of one academic year; and methods included participant observations of content lessons and interviews with teachers and students. The aim was to understand differences in perspectives and practices in the two contexts.

     

    Language use was analyzed through the lens of translanguaging, which, unlike code-switching, does not focus on languages as codes. Instead, translanguaging focuses on the speakers in a context and how they use all their linguistic resources for both language development and content learning (Lewis 2008). Translanguaging may afford greater understanding of content matter, greater competence in students’ weaker language, and a better integration of fluent and weaker speakers in the classroom discourse (Baker 2011). The present investigation of CLIL lessons in the two schools is a study of actual language practices and the participants’ experience of the practices. The intention is to shed light on how translanguaging may allow students access to the content material.

     

    The results indicate that the de facto local language policies in the two schools differ considerably; and stakeholders likewise have divergent discourses on the place of translanguaging in the content lesson. At one school, the focus is on how Swedish and English may be used together to facilitate content learning. At the second school, the focus is on how much English and Swedish are used in the classroom. In conclusion, practices and perspectives may differ according to perceptions of the affordances translanguaging offers in CLIL lessons.

     

    References

    Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (5th Ed.). North York, Ontario: Multilingual Matters.

    Lewis, W. G. (2008). Current challenges in bilingual education in Wales. AILA Review, 21(1), 69-86.

  • 32.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholm universitet.
    “We don’t want to be rude, but we think people should speak English.” Swedish upper secondary school students talk about CLIL2013In: UME 2013 International Conference on Urban Multilingualism & Education Ghent 6-8 March, 2013, p. 52-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines one aspect of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Swedish schools, namely the student perspective. The main aim is to investigate why students choose the CLIL option, what they expect to happen in the CLIL classroom, and how they experience the CLIL instruction once their programs commence.

    The population of the study comprises students from two schools in two mid-sized cities, all studying either a Natural Science or a Social Science program taught mostly in English. During one academic year (2011-2012), 22 students were interviewed individually, in pairs, or in groups of three. The informants were aged 15-18 years old and represented all three grades.  Semi-structured interviews focused on the students’ expectations of and experiences with CLIL and afforded a complement to classroom observations taking place concurrently. The interviews offer a glimpse at information not necessarily observable in the classroom observations, illuminating the match and/or mismatch between intention and reality by shedding light on the relationship between what the students say about their goals with CLIL and how they actually act upon these stated expressions.

    The interview data has been analysed thematically and reveals the students’ thoughts on their own English language proficiency, on their own and their teachers’ language usage, on the influence of peers and parents on school choice, and on the expectations of the perceived benefits of an English-medium education. Preliminary results indicate, among other things, that many students think that English is already a natural part of their everyday life both in and out of school and that the program of study (Natural or Social Sciences) is more important than the medium of instruction. All expressed clear opinions on English language usage in the CLIL classroom. The results will be illustrated in the presentation with examples of student voices.