du.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 89
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Linde, Olof
    Sweco Eurofutures.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Sandén, Peter
    Sweco Eurofutures.
    Wing, Stefan
    Sweco Eurofutures.
    Utvärdering av det arbetsmarknadspolitiska projektet "Volvo Cars och dess underleverantörer"2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en utvärdering av det arbetsmarknadspolitiska projektet "Volvo Cars och dess underleverantörer", som har genomförts av Arbetsförmedlingen i samarbete med Skolverket och Svenska ESF-rådet. Den 5 juni 2009 ansökte Sveriges regering om medel hos den Europeiska globaliseringsfonen (EGF)2 för att kunna erbjuda åtgärder för personer som blivit uppsagda från Volvo Cars AB och dess underleverantörer. Syftet med projektet var att kunna erbjuda de som blivit uppsagda kompetensutveckling, nya yrkeskunskaper och möjlighet att etablera egna företag.

    På operativ nivå drevs projektet i samverkan mellan Arbetsförmedlingen och den kom-munala yrkesvuxenutbildningen ("Yrkesvux"). Yrkesvux i Göteborgs kommun fick i upp-drag av Skolverket att samordna den del av verksamheten som berörde kommunal yr-kesvuxenutbildning. Projektet startade 1 januari 2010 och avslutades 31 maj 2011. Enligt kommissionens beslut fick medel även användas retroaktivt för insatser som hade givits till de uppsagda i form av olika arbetsmarknadsutbildningar, det s.k. snabbspåret, under 2009 innan projektet hade startat.

    Av nästan 5 000 individer i målgruppen som registrerade sig vid Arbetsförmedlingen del-tog knappt en fjärdedel i projektets insatser (exkl. vägledning). Av dessa gick 55 procent i aktiviteter enbart genom Arbetsförmedlingen, 37 procent enbart genom Yrkesvux och åtta procent genom både Arbetsförmedlingen och Yrkesvux. De vanligaste förekommande utbildningsinriktningarna var industri och bygg, fordonsindustri, transport och magasine-ring, omvårdnad och handel.

  • 2.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    High-School Students´ Summer Jobs and their Ensuing Labor Market Achievement: the Long Term Effect2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In part because of high and persistent youth unemployment, adolescent students’ transition from school to work is an important policy and research topic. Many countries have implemented public programs offering summer jobs or work while in high-school as measures to smooth the transition. While the immediate effect of the programs on school attendance, school grades, and disposable income is well documented, their effect on the transition to the labor market remains an open question. Observational studies have shown strong positive effects of summer jobs, but also that the estimated effect is highly vulnerable to selection bias. In this paper, some 3700 high-school students applying for summer jobs in the period 1995-2003,via a program, are followed to 30 years of age. A quarter of the applicants were randomly offered a summer job each year. Among the remaining students, 50% had a (non-program related) summer job while in high-school. We find the income, post high-school, for the offered and non-offered groups to be similar and conclude that the effect of summer jobs on the transition to the labor market is inconsequential.

  • 3.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    The program and treatment effect of summer jobs on girls’ post-schooling incomes2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public programs (of disputed effect) offering summer jobs or work while in high school to smooth the transition from school to work is commonplace. In this paper, 1447 girls in their first grade of high school between 1997-2003 and randomly allotted summer jobs via a program in Falun (Sweden) are followed 5-12 years after graduation. The program led to a substantially larger accumulation of income while in high school. The causal effect of the high school income on post-schooling incomes was substantial and statistically significant. The implied elasticity of 0.4 is however potentially inflated dueto heterogeneous effects.

  • 4.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Noh, Maengseok
    Department of Statistics, Pukyong National Univeristy.
    Lee, Youngjo
    Department of Statistics, Seoul National Univeristy.
    Likelihood estimate of treatment effects under selection bias2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider methods for estimating causal effects of treatment in the situation where the individuals in the treatment and the control group are self selected, i.e., the selection mechanism is not randomized. In this case, simple comparison of treated and control outcomes will not generally yield valid estimates of casual effects. The propensity score method is frequently used for the evaluation of treatment effect. However, this method is based onsome strong assumptions, which are not directly testable. In this paper, we present an alternative modeling approachto draw causal inference by using share random-effect model and the computational algorithm to draw likelihood based inference with such a model. With small numerical studies and a real data analysis, we show that our approach gives not only more efficient estimates but it is also less sensitive to model misspecifications, which we consider, than the existing methods.

  • 5.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Shen, Xia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Fitting spatial models in the R package: hglm2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new version of the hglm package for fittinghierarchical generalized linear models (HGLM) with spatially correlated random effects. A CAR family for conditional autoregressive random effects was implemented. Eigen decomposition of the matrix describing the spatial structure (e.g. the neighborhood matrix) was used to transform the CAR random effectsinto an independent, but heteroscedastic, gaussian random effect. A linear predictor is fitted for the random effect variance to estimate the parameters in the CAR model.This gives a computationally efficient algorithm for moderately sized problems (e.g. n<5000).

  • 6.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Gunnarsson, Kristina
    Arbets- och miljömedicin Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper Uppsala Universitet.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Young peoples’ entrance to the workplace: Introduction to occupational health and safety2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative outcomes of a poor work environment are more frequent among young workers. The aim of the current study was to study former pupils’ conditions concerning occupational health and safety by investigating the workplaces’, safety climate, the degree of implementation of SWEM and the their introduction programs.

    Four branches were included in the study: Industrial, Restaurant, Transport and Handicraft, specialising in wood. Semi-structured dialogues were undertaken with 15 employers at companies in which former pupils were employed. They also answered a questionnaire about SWEM. Former pupils and experienced employees were upon the same occasion asked to fill in a questionnaire about safety climate at the workplace.

    Workplace introduction programs varied and were strongly linked to company size. Most of the former pupils and experienced employees rated the safety climate at their company as high, or good. Employers in three of the branches rated the SWEM implemented at their workplaces to be effective.

    The Industry companies, which had the largest workplaces, gave the most systematic and workplace introduction for new employees. There are no results from this study explaining the fact that young workers have a higher risk for workplace accidents.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Hedlund, Ann
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Arbetsmiljö vid service- och reparation av skogsbränslemaskiner2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta fram underlag till en arbetsmiljöchecklista för service och reparationsarbete av skogsbränslemaskiner. Däri ingår maskiner för skördning, transport och sönderdelning av sortimenten GROT (grenar och toppar), stubbar respektive klenskog. En avgränsning har gjorts till service och reparationsarbete som görs ute i fält. Tjugotre riktade fallstudier har genomförts i Mellansverige med fokus på service- och reparationsarbete som skett ute i fält. Arbetsmiljöfaktorer har observerats och dokumenterats med foto, samtal har förts med förare och servicemän, och mätningar av buller och damm har genomförts. Vid samtal med förare har efterfrågats hur ofta service och reparationsarbete genomförs, vem som gör det, vilka moment som ingår samt var det vanligtvis utförs. Servicearbete ingår i förarens arbetsuppgifter och förekommer med olika intervall. Vissa arbetsmoment utförs dagligen, såsom byte av huggstål, smörjning av krannipplar och renblåsning av container. Andra sker med längre intervall, såsom byte av oljor och filter. I studien har tillvägagångssätt och arbetsmiljörisker vid omfattande, respektive mindre, service- ochreparationsarbete identifierats. Service- och reparationsarbete är ofta tungt och smutsigt.Arbetsmiljörisker samt goda exempel på lösningar för olika typer av maskiner har sammanställts.Baserat på studiens empiriska resultat, genomförda litteraturstudier och analyser harcheckpunkter som bör ingå i en arbetsmiljöchecklista identifierats. Identifierade checkpunkternahar grupperats utifrån målgrupp och typ av arbetsmoment med syftet att vara praktisktanvändbara. Målgrupperna är maskintillverkare/ägare som modifierar maskiner, respektiveservicemän och förare. Framtagna checkpunkter utgör en grund till en checklista för arbete medservice- och reparationsarbete av skogsbränslemaskiner.

  • 8.
    Bernsand, Carl-Olof
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Bilder av gruvarbetaryrket2017Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Informella regler i korsningar och cirkulationsplatser: en pilotstudie2003Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Boluk, Karla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the discourses used to sell heritage in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage tourism is a form of niche tourism which has emerged as an alternative to mass tourism. However the discourses used to market some heritage products generally appeal to an elite group in society who are demanding. Thus heritage tourism is marketed and packaged in a way to appeal to an exclusive group who are interested in tailor-made products that provide some entertainment value. The aim of this paper is to investigate the marketing strategies and goals for tourism development, from the perspective of two World Heritage Sites (WHS) in Sweden including the Great Copper Mountain in Falun and the Old Church Town in Luleå. Accordingly, the discourses used to sell heritage in the context of Sweden are discussed. A mixed-methods approach was used by the authors to carry out this investigation. The results of the analysis revealed that the heritage presented in the two cases are marketed as exclusive and as such, preclude the participation of some individuals. Furthermore, it was established that enhanced communication between WHS products and Sweden and other tourism products would improve visitation.

  • 11.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro university.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Employment Protection Legislation and Firm Growth: Evidence from a Natural Experiment2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural experiment is used to identify the causal relationship between employment protection legislation and fi…rm growth. The natural experiment occurred in Sweden in 2001, when an exemption made it possible for fi…rms with less than eleven employees to exclude two workers from the last-in-fi…rst-out principle when dismissing personnel. The estimated average treatment effect of the reform show that the number of employees increased with 0.135 percent in fi…rms with 5-9 employees relative to fi…rms with 10-15 employees, which corresponds to over 5,000 additional jobs per year created by the reform. Firms with ten employees, just below the size threshold, became 3.4 percent less likely to increase their workforce to a level surpassing the threshold, indicating that the last-in-…first-out rule prevented these …firms from growing. Thus, employment protection legislation seems to act as a growth barrier for small fi…rms.

  • 12.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro university.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The unseen job creators: Growth potential among non-growing …firms2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 104,231 limited liability fi…rms in Sweden with at least two employees during 1997-2010, almost 10 % did not hire new employees in any given 3-year period despite having high profi…ts. Nearly half of these …firms continued to have high or medium pro…fits in the next three-year period, but still no growth. Regression analysis indicates that these fi…rms were not randomly distributed; rather they were small and young, did not belong to an enterprise group, and operated in local markets with high profi…t-opportunities. We conclude that it might be more benefi…cial to focus policy towards these …firms instead of towards a few high-growth fi…rms that, having just grown exponentially, may not be best positioned to grow further.

  • 13.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    A comment on outlier detection and skewed distributions2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It seems that a paper of mine appearing in Computational Statistics & Data Analysis (Carling, 2000) has prompted the development of outlier detection methods for highly skewed data. However, I wrote the paper in the spirit of Exploratory Data Analysis (Tukey, 1977) and I shared Tukey’s opinion, and I still hold it, that skewed data are better to be transformed for approximate symmetry prior to detection of outliers (or other data analyses).

  • 14.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    GRASP and statistical bounds for heuristic solutions to combinatorial problems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of a heuristic solution to a NP-hard combinatorial problem is hard to assess. A few studies have advocated and tested statistical bounds as a method for assessment. These studies indicate that statistical bounds are superior to the more widely known and used deterministic bounds. However, the previous studies have been limited to a few metaheuristics and combinatorial problems and, hence, the general performance of statistical bounds in combinatorial optimization remains an open question. This work complements the existing literature on statistical bounds by testing them on the metaheuristic Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures (GRASP) and four combinatorial problems. Our findings confirm previous results that statistical bounds are reliable for the p-median problem, while we note that they also seem reliable for the set covering problem. For the quadratic assignment problem, the statistical bounds has previously been found reliable when obtained from the Genetic algorithm whereas in this work they found less reliable. Finally, we provide statistical bounds to four 2-path network design problem instances for which the optimum is currently unknown.

  • 15.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Methodological issues in applying Location Models to Rural areas2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Location Models are usedfor planning the location of multiple service centers in order to serve a geographicallydistributed population. A cornerstone of such models is the measure of distancebetween the service center and a set of demand points, viz, the location of thepopulation (customers, pupils, patients and so on). Theoretical as well asempirical evidence support the current practice of using the Euclidian distancein metropolitan areas. In this paper, we argue and provide empirical evidencethat such a measure is misleading once the Location Models are applied to ruralareas with heterogeneous transport networks. This paper stems from the problemof finding an optimal allocation of a pre-specified number of hospitals in alarge Swedish region with a low population density. We conclude that the Euclidianand the network distances based on a homogenous network (equal travel costs inthe whole network) give approximately the same optimums. However networkdistances calculated from a heterogeneous network (different travel costs indifferent parts of the network) give widely different optimums when the numberof hospitals increases.  In terms ofaccessibility we find that the recent closure of hospitals and the in-optimallocation of the remaining ones has increased the average travel distance by 75%for the population. Finally, aggregation the population misplaces the hospitalsby on average 10 km.

  • 16.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 17.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    An empirical test of the gravity p-median model2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to it and the attractiveness of it. However regarding the location of the facility, the presumption is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility.This paradox was recently solved by the introduction of the gravity p-median model. The model is yet to be implemented and tested empirically. We implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating locksmiths, vehicle inspections, and retail stores ofv ehicle spare-parts, and we compared the solutions with those of the p-median model. We found the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  • 18.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Distance measure and the p-median problem in rural areas2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population patronize the nearest facility and that the distance between the resident and the facility may be measured by the Euclidean distance. Carling, Han, and Håkansson (2012) compared two network distances with the Euclidean in a rural region witha sparse, heterogeneous network and a non-symmetric distribution of thepopulation. For a coarse network and P small, they found, in contrast to the literature, the Euclidean distance to be problematic. In this paper we extend their work by use of a refined network and study systematically the case when P is of varying size (2-100 facilities). We find that the network distance give as gooda solution as the travel-time network. The Euclidean distance gives solutions some 2-7 per cent worse than the network distances, and the solutions deteriorate with increasing P. Our conclusions extend to intra-urban location problems.

  • 19.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Short Communication: A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended the gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, Drezner and Drezner’s arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 20.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 21.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effects of taxing truck distance on CO2 emissions from transports in retailing2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In the competitive retail market such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 22.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Optimal retail location and CO2 emissions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2 emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2 emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2 emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25percent. 

  • 23.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    The Power of the Synthetic Control Method2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthetic control method (SCM) is a new, popular method developed for the purpose of estimating the effect of an intervention when only one single unit has been exposed. Other similar, unexposed units are combined into a synthetic control unit intended to mimic the evolution in the exposed unit, had it not been subject to exposure. As the inference relies on only a single observational unit, the statistical inferential issue is a challenge. In this paper, we examine the statistical properties of the estimator, study a number of features potentially yielding uncertainty in the estimator, discuss the rationale for statistical inference in relation to SCM, and provide a Web-app for researchers to aid in their decision of whether SCM is powerful for a specific case study. We conclude that SCM is powerful with a limited number of controls in the donor pool and a fairly short pre-intervention time period. This holds as long as the parameter of interest is a parametric specification of the intervention effect, and the duration of post-intervention period is reasonably long, and the fit of the synthetic control unit to the exposed unit in the pre-intervention period is good.

  • 24.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    A stopping rule while searching for optimal solution of facility-location2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization, such as p-median problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The minimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. However, pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. A small branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to estimate the minimum and use the estimate for either stopping or evaluating the quality of the solution. In this paper we use test-problems taken from Baesley's OR-library and apply Simulated Annealing on these p-median problems. We do this for the purpose of comparing suggested methods of minimum estimation and, eventually, provide a recommendation for practioners. An illustration ends the paper being a problem of locating some 70 distribution centers of the Swedish Post in a region.

  • 25.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Confidence in heuristic solutions?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization problems frequently rely on heuristics to minimize an objective function. The optimum is sought iteratively and pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in operations research applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. Deterministic bounds offer a mean of ascertaining the quality, but such bounds are available for only a limited number of heuristics and the length of the interval may be difficult to control in an application. A small, almost dormant, branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to derive statistical bounds for the optimum. We discuss alternative approaches to derive statistical bounds. We also assess their performance by testing them on 40 test p-median problems on facility location, taken from Beasley’s OR-library, for which the optimum is known. We consider three popular heuristics for solving such location problems; simulated annealing, vertex substitution, and Lagrangian relaxation where only the last offers deterministic bounds. Moreover, we illustrate statistical bounds in the location of 71 regional delivery points of the Swedish Post. We find statistical bounds reliable and much more efficient than deterministic bounds provided that the heuristic solutions are sampled close to the optimum. Statistical bounds are also found computationally affordable.

  • 26.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    On statistical bounds of heuristic solutions to location problems2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization problems, such as problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The optimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. Pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. A small, almost dormant, branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to estimate the minimum and its bounds as a tool to decide upon stopping and evaluating the quality of the solution. In this paper we examine the functioning of statistical bounds obtained from four different estimators by using simulated annealing on p-median test problems taken from Beasley’s OR-library. We find the Weibull estimator and the 2nd order Jackknife estimator preferable and the requirement of sample size to be about 10 being much less than the current recommendation. However, reliable statistical bounds are found to depend critically on a sample of heuristic solutions of high quality and we give a simple statistic useful for checking the quality. We end the paper with an illustration on using statistical bounds in a problem of locating some 70 distribution centers of the Swedish Post in one Swedish region. 

  • 27.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    CO2 Emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data sets spanning the period 1960-2008: one for 150 countries and the others for sub-samples comprising OECD and Non-OECD economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries

  • 28.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Growth and Inequality: A study of Swedish municipalities2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between the growth rate of the average income and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper ends of the income distribution) are also examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality, measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality at the upper end of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality at the lower end of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the growth rate. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in those with a low level of average income.

  • 29.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University.
    Growth, migration and unemployment across Swedish municipalities2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their economic growth rates vary, whether their growth tends to converge and the key factors that contribute to the variations. These questions have not yet been fully addressed, but changes in the local tax base are clearly influenced by the average income growth rate, net migration rate, and changes in unemployment rates. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to explore in depth the interactive effects of these factors (and local policy variables) in Swedish municipalities, by estimating a proposed three-equation system. Our main finding is that increases in local public expenditures and income taxes have negative effects on subsequent local income growth. In addition, our results support the conditional convergence hypothesis, i.e. that average income tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

  • 30.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Kurbits affärsutveckling 10 år: Vad tycker deltagarna?2018Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Espegren, Yanina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Olsmats, Carl
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Smart online grocery delivery and peri-urbanconsumers’ attitudes2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore consumers’ attitudes towards e-commerce, in particular online grocery shopping, and its delivery in non-dense areas for the purpose of designing smart last-mile solutions.

    Approach: The state-of-the-art of smart e-commerce delivery in dense areas was identified by a review of the literature. It was expected that this knowledge could be transferred to non-dense areas. This prediction was examined and explored further by making use of four focus groups recruited in a Swedish mid-sized town.

    Findings: Respondents were generally positive towards e-commerce, although mixed attitudes were found with regard to online grocery shopping. Further, the willingness to pay for flexible, smart and sustainable delivery was low, with a notable exception for local produce.

    Originality: The knowledge acquired and solution developed in dense areas is not readily transferred to non-dense areas. There is scope for developing new Business Models for the supply chain of local produce. For the prototype testing and roll-out of smart e-commerce delivery platforms, the online local produce market is recommended.

  • 32.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Traffic sign recognition without color information2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Color represents an important attribute in the field of traffic sign recognition. However, when the color of the traffic sign fades or the traffic scene is collected in gray as in the case of Infrared imaging, then color based recognition systems fail. Other problems related to color are simply that different countries use different colors. Even within the European Union, colors of traffic signs are not the same.

    This paper aims to present a new approach to detect traffic signs without color attributes. It is based a two-stage sliding window which detects traffic signs in the multi-scale image. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) descriptors are computed as a quality function which are evaluated by two SVM classifier; the coarse and the fine detectors. 

    Different objects detected by the coarse detectors are clustered and a fine search is conducted in the areas where traffic signs are more probable to exist. 

    Experiments conducted to detect traffic signs under different light conditions such as sunny, cloudy, fog and snow fall have showed a performance of 98% and very low false positive rate.  The proposed approach was tested on the Yield traffic signs because it has a simple triangular shape which can be found in many places other than the traffic signs and represent a challenge to the proposed approach.

  • 33.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Roch, Janina
    TU Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Benchmark Evaluation of HOG Descriptors as Features for Classification of Traffic Signs2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of the Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) as descriptors for traffic signs recognition. The test dataset consists of speed limit traffic signs because of their high inter-class similarities.

      HOG features of speed limit signs, which were extracted from different traffic scenes, were computed and a Gentle AdaBoost classifier was invoked to evaluate the different features. The performance of HOG was tested with a dataset consisting of 1727 Swedish speed signs images. Different numbers of HOG features per descriptor, ranging from 36 features up 396 features, were computed for each traffic sign in the benchmark testing. The results show that HOG features perform high classification rate as the Gentle AdaBoost classification rate was 99.42%, and they are suitable to real time traffic sign recognition. However, it is found that changing the number of orientation bins has insignificant effect on the classification rate. In addition to this, HOG descriptors are not robust with respect to sign orientation.

  • 34.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Cultural Studies.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How do different densities in a network affect the optimal location of service centers?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median problem is often used to locate p service centers by minimizing their distances to a geographically distributed demand (n). The optimal locations are sensitive to geographical context such as road network and demand points especially when they are asymmetrically distributed in the plane. Most studies focus on evaluating performances of the p-median model when p and n vary. To our knowledge this is not a very well-studied problem when the road network is alternated especially when it is applied in a real world context. The aim in this study is to analyze how the optimal location solutions vary, using the p-median model, when the density in the road network is alternated. The investigation is conducted by the means of a case study in a region in Sweden with an asymmetrically distributed population (15,000 weighted demand points), Dalecarlia. To locate 5 to 50 service centers we use the national transport administrations official road network (NVDB). The road network consists of 1.5 million nodes. To find the optimal location we start with 500 candidate nodes in the network and increase the number of candidate nodes in steps up to 67,000. To find the optimal solution we use a simulated annealing algorithm with adaptive tuning of the temperature. The results show that there is a limited improvement in the optimal solutions when nodes in the road network increase and p is low. When p is high the improvements are larger. The results also show that choice of the best network depends on p. The larger p the larger density of the network is needed. 

  • 35.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How does data quality in a network affect heuristic solutions?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To have good data quality with high complexity is often seen to be important. Intuition says that the higher accuracy and complexity the data have the better the analytic solutions becomes if it is possible to handle the increasing computing time. However, for most of the practical computational problems, high complexity data means that computational times become too long or that heuristics used to solve the problem have difficulties to reach good solutions. This is even further stressed when the size of the combinatorial problem increases. Consequently, we often need a simplified data to deal with complex combinatorial problems. In this study we stress the question of how the complexity and accuracy in a network affect the quality of the heuristic solutions for different sizes of the combinatorial problem. We evaluate this question by applying the commonly used

    p-median model, which is used to find optimal locations in a network of p supply points that serve n demand points. To evaluate this, we vary both the accuracy (the number of nodes) of the network and the size of the combinatorial problem (p).

    The investigation is conducted by the means of a case study in a region in Sweden with an asymmetrically distributed population (15,000 weighted demand points), Dalecarlia. To locate 5 to 50 supply points we use the national transport administrations official road network (NVDB). The road network consists of 1.5 million nodes. To find the optimal location we start with 500 candidate nodes in the network and increase the number of candidate nodes in steps up to 67,000 (which is aggregated from the 1.5 million nodes). To find the optimal solution we use a simulated annealing algorithm with adaptive tuning of the temperature. The results show that there is a limited

    improvement in the optimal solutions when the accuracy in the road network increase and the combinatorial problem (low

    p) is simple. When the combinatorial problem is complex (large p) the improvements of increasing the accuracy in the road network are much larger. The results also show that choice of the best accuracy of the network depends on the complexity of the combinatorial (varying p) problem.

  • 36.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How does the use of different road networks effect the optimal location of facilities in rural areas?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median problem is often used to locate P service facilities in a geographically distributed population. Important for the performance of such a model is the distance measure.

    Distance measure can vary if the accuracy of the road network varies. The rst aim in this study is to analyze how the optimal location solutions vary, using the p-median model, when the road network is alternated. It is hard to nd an exact optimal solution for p-median problems. Therefore, in this study two heuristic solutions are applied, simulating annealing and a classic heuristic. The secondary aim is to compare the optimal location solutions using dierent algorithms for large p-median problem. The investigation is conducted by the means of a case study in a rural region with an asymmetrically distributed population, Dalecarlia.

    The study shows that the use of more accurate road networks gives better solutions for optimal location, regardless what algorithm that is used and regardless how many service facilities that is optimized for. It is also shown that the simulated annealing algorithm not just is much faster than the classic heuristic used here, but also in most cases gives better location solutions.

  • 37.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    How do neighbouring populations affect local population change over time?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study covers a period when society changed from a pre-industrial agricultural society to a post-industrial service-producing society. Parallel with this social transformation, major population changes took place. In this study, we analyse how local population changes are affected by neighbouring populations. To do so we use the last 200 years of local population change that redistributed population in Sweden. We use literature to identify several different processes and spatial dependencies in the redistribution between a parish and its surrounding parishes. The analysis is based on a unique unchanged historical parish division, and we use an index of local spatial correlation to describe different kinds of spatial dependencies that have influenced the redistribution of the population. To control inherent time dependencies, we introduce a non-separable spatial temporal correlation model into the analysis of population redistribution. Hereby, several different spatial dependencies can be observed simultaneously over time. The main conclusions are that while local population changes have been highly dependent on the neighbouring populations in the 19th century, this spatial dependence have become insignificant already when two parishes is separated by 5 kilometres in the late 20th century. Another conclusion is that the time dependency in the population change is higher when the population redistribution is weak, as it currently is and as it was during the 19th century until the start of industrial revolution.

  • 38.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Xu, Liguo
    May, Ross
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    A review of reinforcement learning methodologies on control systems for building energy2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of energy directly leads to a great amount of consumption of the non-renewable fossil resources. Exploiting fossil resources energy can influence both climate and health via ineluctable emissions. Raising awareness, choosing alternative energy and developing energy efficient equipment contributes to reducing the demand for fossil resources energy, but the implementation of them usually takes a long time. Since building energy amounts to around one-third of global energy consumption, and systems in buildings, e.g. HVAC, can be intervened by individual building management, advanced and reliable control techniques for buildings are expected to have a substantial contribution to reducing global energy consumptions. Among those control techniques, the model-free, data-driven reinforcement learning method seems distinctive and applicable. The success of the reinforcement learning method in many artificial intelligence applications has brought us an explicit indication of implementing the method on building energy control. Fruitful algorithms complement each other and guarantee the quality of the optimisation. As a central brain of smart building automation systems, the control technique directly affects the performance of buildings. However, the examination of previous works based on reinforcement learning methodologies are not available and, moreover, how the algorithms can be developed is still vague. Therefore, this paper briefly analyses the empirical applications from the methodology point of view and proposes the future research direction.

  • 39.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Bullerförekomst vid sönderdelning av skogsbränsle2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att öka kunskapen om bullerexponering för omgivning och förare vid sönderdelning av skogsbränsle till flis. Sammanlagt har sex fallstudier genomförts, tre skotare, två lastbilar och en mobil anläggning. Fallen har valts med syftet att representera olika typer av sönderdelningsekipage och teknik. Studierna har genomförts i Dalarnas, Stockholms och Gävleborgs län. Bullerexponering för omgivning och förare i samband med sönderdelning till flis har undersökts med föreskrivna metoder.

    Det är stora skillnader på bullerexponering för förarna av de olika ekipagen. En skotarförare har daglig bullerexponering under såväl insats- som gränsvärde. Två förare (en skotarförare och en lastbilsförare) överskred insatsvärde, men var under gränsvärdet. Övriga förares bullerexponering överskred gränsvärdet.

    Alla maskiner har bullernivåer över 40/45 dB(A) på 200 meters avstånd, vilket överstiger acceptabla nivåer dagtid för områden med fritidsbebyggelse och fritidsområden. Endast ett av ekipagen (en skotare) hade bullernivåer på 200 meters avstånd i nivå med riktlinjer för områden med bostäder för permanent boende.  Övriga ekipage hade högre värden.

    De slutsatser som kan göras från denna studie är:

    • Merparten av förare vid sönderdelning av skogsbränsle till flis exponeras för dagliga bullernivåer som kräver åtgärder.
    • Bullernivåerna varierar mellan olika typer av ekipage för sönderdelning av skogsbränsle till flis.

    Studerade ekipage har högre värden för buller på 200 meters avstånd till bostäder, arbetslokaler och friluftsområden än vad som rekommenderas.

  • 40.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Damm- och mögelförekomst vid hantering av skogsbränsle2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har indikerat att exponering för trädamm och mögeldamm vid hantering av GROT (grenar och toppar) kan vara en hälsorisk. Syftet med denna studie är att ytterligare öka kunskapen om dammförhållanden inom skogsenergibranschen. Mer specifikt är målet att genom fallstudier studera dammförekomst vid hantering av GROT samt stubbar. Enstaka fallstudier av mögelförekomst i förarmiljön inkluderas.

    Sammanlagt har 19 fallstudier genomförts hos tio olika företag i Dalarna, Västmanland, ödermanland, Uppland, och Närke. Totaldamm har mätts med filterprovtagning inne i hytten och utanför hytten. Mögel har mätts med filterprovtagning inne i hytten.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan konstateras att vid samtliga fall av skotning uppmättes förhöjda dammnivåer utomhus. Högst dammnivåer uppmättes vid sönderdelning av GROT vid olika årstider. Förare som utförde arbete utanför hytten exponerades för högre dammnivåer än de som enbart arbetade inifrån hytten. De enstaka fallstudierna av mögel visade på relativt låga värden av mögelsporer. Arbetsmomentet såsom byte av knivar indikerade ökade mögelhalter.

    Slutsatser från denna studie är:

    • Inga höga damm och mögelhalter har uppmätts i dessa fallstudier. Då väderförhållandena innebar mer nederbörd än i genomsnitt är resultaten inte generaliserbara.
    • Förhöjda dammhalter uppmättes då förare utfört service och underhållsarbete utanför hytten.
    • I studerade fall där dammängden utanför hytten var förhöjd har inga dammhalter mätts upp inne i hytterna, vilket tyder på bra luftfilter.

    Rekommendationer till förare är att:

    • Regelbundet byta hyttens luftfilter och att hålla fönster och dörrar stängda för att förhindra dammexponering inne i hytten.
    • Vid service- och underhållsarbete ska föraren i möjligaste mån undvika att använda tryckluft. Andningsskydd bör användas under de korta moment som tryckluft används.
  • 41.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Fällstrand Larsson, Nina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Stark, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Studenters, anställdas och företags syn på arbete: En pilotstudie av Turism/Besöksnäring, Material, Energi & Miljö samt IT & Media2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar resultaten från ett pilotprojekt om studenters, anställdas och företagsrepresentanters syn på arbete. Rapporten dokumenterar insamlad data, redovisar genomförda inledande analyser, samt ger förslag till fortsatt forskning och samverkan. Syftet med studien är ökad kunskap om synen på arbete inom profilområdena Turism/Besöksnäring, Material, Energi & Miljö samt IT & Media. Därtill förväntas diskussioner kring resultatens användbarhet kunna ge underlag för utvecklingsprojekt för ökad attraktivitet.

    Studien har genomförts i form av fallstudier på fem företag inom respektive profilområde i Dalarna. Därtill har en enkätundersökning genomförts bland studenter vid Högskolan Dalarna inom motsvarande utbildningsområden på 21 olika utbildningsprogram. Statistiska beräkningar och begreppsanalyser har genomförts på insamlat material.

    I rapporten redovisas studenters, anställdas och företagsrepresentanters syn på arbete fördelat på de olika profilområdena. Därtill görs jämförelser mellan de olika grupperna.

    Slutsatser från studien är:

    • Studenter ser arbete inom deras utbildningsområde som i hög grad attraktiva.
    • Anställdas syn på vad som är viktigt för att göra ett arbete attraktivt är likartad oavsett profilområde, där relationer och ledarskap är viktigast.
    • Nuvarande arbete anses som attraktivast av anställda inom Turism/Besöksnäring, därefter kommer Energi & Miljö följt av IT & Media och Material.
    • Erfarenhet och kompetens gör arbetskraften attraktiv enligt arbetsgivarrepresentanter, även personliga egenskaper är av betydelse.
    • Studenter ser arbete som viktigare än vad anställda gör.
    • För samtliga profilområden finns skillnader mellan vad studenter förväntar sig att arbetet innehåller och vad anställda upplever att arbetet innebär.
    • Sammantaget tycker studenter att arbete inom respektive utbildningsområde är attraktivare än vad anställda tycker om nuvarande arbete.

    Baserat på erfarenheter från denna pilotstudie ges följande förslag på idéer till fortsatt forskning och samverkan. En studie som i sin omfattning är representativ för de olika profilområdena för att stärka pilotstudiens resultat och indikationer. Utifrån behov göra olika analyser på den empiri som är tillgänglig från denna studie. Ett projekt som följer studenter ut i arbetslivet. Samarbetsprojekt mellan forskare, lärare och företag i syfte att förbättra förutsättningarna för ökad samstämmighet mellan utbildning och arbete. Skapa utbildningstillfällen på temana ledarskap och relationer.

  • 42.
    Hedlund, Ann
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Implementation of Video Monitoring In Aluminium Industry2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to evaluate results and experiences from development of new technology, a training program and implementation of strategies for the use of a video exposure monitoring method, PIMEX.

    Starting point of this study is an increased incidence of asthma among workers in the aluminium industry. Exposure peaks of fumes are supposed to play an important role. PIMEX makes it possible to link used work practice, use of control technology, and so forth to peaks. Nine companies participated in the project, which was divided into three parts, development of PIMEX technology, production of training material, and training in use of equipment and related strategies.

    The use of the video exposure monitoring method PIMEX offers prerequisites supporting workers participation in safety activities. The experiences from the project reveal the importance of good timing of primary training, technology development, technical support, and follow up training. In spite of a delay of delivery of the new technology, representatives from the participating companies declared that the experiences showed that PIMEX gave an important contribution for effective control of hazards in the companies. Eight out of nine smelters used the PIMEX method as a part of a strategy for control of workers exposure to fumes in potrooms. Possibilities to conduct effective control measures were identified.

    This article describes experiences from implementation of a, for this branch, new method supporting workers participation for workplace improvements.

  • 43.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hinnerth, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The quest for snow: Adaptation strategies of alpine skiing destinations in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of climate change is considered one of the major challenges that the winter sport tourism industry faces today. Sälen, one of the major skiing destinations in Sweden, is situated in the southernmost part of the Swedish mountain range and is therefore one of the most vulnerable destinations when it comes to the effects of climate change. The aim of this paper is to examine and discuss adaptation strategies to climate change that have been implemented in Sälen, with a special focus on increased snowmaking. We discuss snowmaking in relation to alternative adaptation strategies such as increased summer tourism, and relate the adaptation strategies encountered in Sälen to how destinations in the Austrian Alps, which have warmer temperatures, have approached the situation. Those that we interpret as adaptation strategies are mainly focused on maintaining the mass touristic character of winter sports destinations and even extending the production of downhill skiing. These strategies of adaptation and development demand continued intensive snowmaking and an even accentuated quest for snow. However, Sälen is trying to overcome its dependence on downhill skiing as its sole and dominant activity. The strategy of developing summer tourism is problematic, however, not least in relation to the parallel advance in increased snowmaking. 

  • 44.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Andersson, Hans
    SLU.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter av hästnäringen: Skattningar baserat på en B.I. – modell av hästnäringen för 20162018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar skattningar av den svenska hästnäringens samhällsekonomiska effekter på nationell och regional nivå. År 2016 uppskattades hästnäringen i Sverige generera en direkt omsättning på 31,3 miljarder kronor motsvarande en sysselsättning om ca 16 900 helårsarbetskrafter. Skattningarna bygger på en modell för hästnäringens samhällsekonomi som har sin utgångspunkt i summering av total konsumtion av hästrelaterade varor och tjänster i Sverige under ett år. Rapporten presenterar även den Business Intelligence (BI) lösning som ligger till grund samt hur bakgrundsdata har samlats in, lagrats och paketerats för att slutligen presenteras med hjälp av ett BI-verktyg (https://hastnaringen-i-siffror.se).

  • 45.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Svenska Skidspelen 2012: Förstudie kring ekonomisk effekt- och konsumtionsmätning inför Skid-VM i Falun 20152012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ska ses som en förstudie kring metoder för insamling av information över besökarna vid Svenska Skidspelen samt för att uppskatta Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse. Resultaten baseras på insamlat material via enkäter till besökare till Skidspelen 2012. Totalt 404 svar i enkätform från besökare inom området samt från bil och bussåkande besökare har använts i analysen. Därutöver intervjuades 718 besökare vid entrén om ålder, bostadsort, vistelselängd samt färdmedel till evenemanget.

     

    Rapporten innehåller uppskattningar av Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse med hjälp av flera typer av modeller; turism-, boende- samt ålderssegmenteringsmodell. Resultat från studien visar att engångs­kostnader för boende, resor och biljett kunde uppskattas relativt bra, medan konsumtion under dagen inte fångades tillräckligt bra i någon modell. Resultaten från studien visar också att en försiktig uppskattning av Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse mätt som direkt konsumtion kan sägas ligga mellan 14 - 18 miljoner kr för år 2012.

     

    För att få ett mer korrekt resultat vid eventuella vidare studier eller vid studier av Skid-VM 2015 i Falun så bör en samhällsekonomisk välfärds analys göras för att inkludera samtliga effekter. Beräkningen av Skidspelens ekonomiska effekt skulle kunna göras mer precis genom att tillfråga ett större urval av besökare samt utveckla insamlingen av data över besökarnas totala konsumtion kopplat till besöket vid Svenska Skidspelen. 

  • 46.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Does euclidian distance work when location models are applied in rural areas?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI-Borlänge.
    How does employment density influence individuals’ wages?: A micro data approach.2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effect of employment density on wages in Sweden in a large geocoded data set on individuals and workplaces. Employment density is measured in four circular zones around each individual’s place of living. The data contains a rich set of control variables that we use in an instrumental variables framework. Results show a relatively strong but rather local positive effect of employment density on wages. Beyond 5 kilometers the effect becomes negative. This might indicate that the effect of agglomeration economies falls faster with distance than the effects of congestion.

  • 48.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI.
    Is the spatial scope of agglomeration economies on wages the same across the wage earnings distribution?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the spatial scope of employment density across the wage distribution within four distance bands around each individual’s place of work. Observable and unobservable individual and workplace characteristics are controlled for. Remaining endogeneity in the wage model framework is assessed with an IV approach. Results indicate a positive effect of employment density on wages within 5 kilometres. The effect is negative beyond 50 kilometres. The spatial scope of employment density is larger at the higher end of the wage distribution but the effect closest to the establishment seems larger at the lower end of the wage distribution.

  • 49.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    VTI-Borlänge.
    Wieweg, Lena
    VTI-Borlänge.
    Extended local labor markets due to high speed trains: Visualization of estimations in the Swedish national travel demand forecasting tool, SAMPERS2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wider economic benefits resulting from extended geographical mobility is one argument for investments in high-speed rail. More specifically, the argument for high-speed trains in Sweden has been that they can help to further spatially extend labor market regions which in turn has a positive effect on growth and development. In this paper the aim is to cartographically visualize the potential size of the labor markets in areas that could be affected by possible future high-speed trains. The visualization is based on the forecasts of labor mobility with public transport made by the Swedish national mobility transport forecasting tool, SAMPERS, for two alternative high-speed rail scenarios. The analysis, not surprisingly, suggests that the largest impact of high-speed trains results in the area where the future high speed rail tracks are planned to be built. This expected effect on local labor market regions of high-speed trains could mean that possible regional economic development effects also are to be expected in this area. However, the results, in general, from the SAMPERS forecasts indicaterelatively small increases in local labor market potentials.

  • 50.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Strategic alliances in a town centre: Stakeholder’s perceptions of property owner’s role2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for town centres to manage increased competition in retailing, co-operation between stakeholders in a strategic alliance has become more important. A typical set of stakeholders in a strategic alliance for strengthening retailingare retailers, local authorities and property owners. The roles of retailer’sand local authorities’ are well researched. However, the role of property owners is not. The aim of this paper seeks to unfold the role of property owners in a strategic alliance. This is a case study of a medium-sized town in which semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders were conducted. In the chosen town there is a TCM alliance co-operation at work. The above mentioned stakeholders are possible members in an alliance. The case studied shows a fragmented property owner market with no dominant property owner, as it is in many medium-sized towns. Our study shows that many stakeholders look at the role of property owners as crucial for town centre development. However, property owners do not see that they can significantly contribute to or benefit from the development.The main reasons for this opinion are that they consider themselves as not having enough resources or the capability to influence the town development.

12 1 - 50 of 89
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf