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  • 1.
    Dutta, Omjyoti
    et al.
    University of Arizona.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    Department of Physics and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
    Meystre, Pierre
    University of Arizona.
    Polarizing beam splitter for dipolar molecules2005In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 71, no 5, article id 051601(R)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a coherent beam splitter for polarized heteronuclear molecules based on a stimulated Raman adiabatic passage scheme that uses a tripod linkage of electrotranslational molecular states. We show that for strongly polarized molecules the rotational dynamics imposes significantly larger Rabi frequencies than would otherwise be expected, but within this limitation, a full transfer of the molecules to two counterpropagating ground-state wave packets is possible.

  • 2.
    Dutta, Omjyoti
    et al.
    University of Arizona.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    Department of Physics and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona.
    Meystre, Pierre
    University of Arizona.
    Single-mode acceleration of matter waves in circular waveguides2006In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 74, no 2, article id 023609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultracold gases in ring geometries hold promise for significant improvements of gyroscopic sensitivity. Recent experiments have realized atomic and molecular storage rings with radii in the centimeter range, sizes whose practical use in inertial sensors requires velocities significantly in excess of typical recoil velocities. We use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to study the coherent acceleration of matter waves in circular waveguides, with particular emphasis on its impact on single-mode propagation. In the simplest case we find that single-mode propagation is best maintained by the application of time-dependent acceleration force with the temporal profile of a Blackmann pulse. We also assess the impact of classical noise on the acceleration process.

  • 3.
    Dutta, Omjyoti
    et al.
    University of Arizona.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    Department of Physics and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
    Meystre, Pierre
    University of Arizona.
    Thomas-Fermi ground state of dipolar fermions in a circular storage ring2006In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 73, no 4, article id 043610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in the field of ultracold gases has led to the production of degenerate samples of polar molecules. These have large static electric-dipole moments, which in turn causes the molecules to interact strongly. We investigate the interaction of polar particles in waveguide geometries subject to an applied polarizing field. For circular waveguides, tilting the direction of the polarizing field creates a periodic inhomogeneity of the interparticle interaction. We explore the consequences of geometry and interaction for stability of the ground state within the Thomas-Fermi model. Certain combinations of tilt angles and interaction strengths are found to preclude the existence of a stable Thomas-Fermi ground state. The system is shown to exhibit different behavior for quasi-one-dimensional and three-dimensional trapping geometries.

  • 4.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Physics.
    Gravitational self-localization for spherical masses2012In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 86, no 5, article id 052105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, I consider the center-of-mass wave function for a homogenous sphere under the influence of the self-interaction due to Newtonian gravity. I solve for the ground state numerically and calculate the average radius as a measure of its size. For small masses, M≲10−17 kg, the radial size is independent of density, and the ground state extends beyond the extent of the sphere. For masses larger than this, the ground state is contained within the sphere and to a good approximation given by the solution for an effective radial harmonic-oscillator potential. This work thus determines the limits of applicability of the point-mass Newton Schrödinger equations for spherical masses. In addition, I calculate the fringe visibility for matter-wave interferometry and find that in the low-mass case, interferometry can in principle be performed, whereas for the latter case, it becomes impossible. Based on this, I discuss this transition as a possible boundary for the quantum-classical crossover, independent of the usually evoked environmental decoherence. The two regimes meet at sphere sizes R≈10−7 m, and the density of the material causes only minor variations in this value.

  • 5.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on the Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, USA.
    Jeong, Jaeyoon
    Stevens Institute of Technology.
    Search, Christopher P.
    Stevens Institute of Technology.
    Bifurcations and bistability in cavity-assisted photoassociation of Bose-Einstein-condensed molecules2007In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 76, no 6, article id 063615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the photoassociation of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms into molecules using an optical cavity field. The driven cavity field introduces a dynamical degree of freedom into the photoassociation process, whose role in determining the stationary behavior has not previously been considered. The semiclassical stationary solutions for the atom and molecules as well as the intracavity field are found and their stability and scaling properties are determined in terms of experimentally controllable parameters including driving amplitude of the cavity and the nonlinear interactions between atoms and molecules. For weak cavity driving, we find a bifurcation in the atom and molecule number occurs that signals a transition from a stable steady state to nonlinear Rabi oscillations. For a strongly driven cavity, there exists bistability in the atom and molecule number.

  • 6.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    et al.
    Department of Physics and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
    Meystre, Pierre
    University of Arizona.
    Coherence dynamics of two-mode condensates in asymmetric potentials2006In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 73, no 1, article id 013602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection of weak forces with an accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit holds promise both for fundamental research and for technological applications. Schemes involving ultracold atoms for such measurements are now considered to be prime candidates for increased sensitivity. In this paper we use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to investigate the possible subshot-noise estimation of applied force fields through detection of coherence dynamics of Bose-condensed atoms in asymmetric double-well traps. Following a semiclassical description of the system dynamics and fringe visibility, we present numerical simulations of the full quantum dynamics that demonstrate the dynamical production of phase squeezing beyond the standard quantum limit. Nonlinear interactions are found to limit the achievable amount to a finite value determined by the external weak force.

  • 7.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    et al.
    Department of Physics and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
    Meystre, Pierre
    University of Arizona.
    Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in double-well potentials2005In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 71, no 4, article id 043603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in symmetric double-well potentials following a sudden change of the potential from the Mott-insulator to the superfluid regime. We introduce a continuum approximation that maps that problem onto the wave-packet dynamics of a particle in an anharmonic effective potential. For repulsive two-body interactions the visibility of interference fringes that result from the superposition of the two condensates following a stage of ballistic expansion exhibits a collapse of coherent oscillations onto a background value whose magnitude depends on the amount of squeezing of the initial state. Strong attractive interactions are found to stabilize the relative number dynamics. We visualize the dynamics of the system in phase space using a quasiprobability distribution that allows for an intuitive interpretation of the various types of dynamics.

  • 8.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    et al.
    Laser Physics and Quantum Optics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21 SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenholm, Stig
    echnology, Roslagstullsbacken 21 SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adiabatic propagation in potential structures2002In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 66, no 2, article id 023608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the adiabatic approximation is applied to the propagation of matter waves in confined geometries like those experimentally realized in recent atom optical experiments. Adiabatic propagation along a channel is assumed not to mix the various transverse modes. Nonadiabatic corrections arise from the potential squeezing and bending. Here we investigate the effect of the former. Detailed calculations of two-dimensional propagation are carried out both exactly and in an adiabatic approximation. This offers the possibility to analyze the validity of adiabaticity criteria. A semiclassical (sc) approach, based on the sc Massey parameter is shown to be inadequate, and the diffraction due to wave effects must be included separately. This brings in the Fresnel parameter well known from optical systems. Using these two parameters, we have an adequate understanding of adiabaticity on the system analyzed. Thus quantum adiabaticity must also take cognizance of the intrinsic diffraction of matter waves.

  • 9.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Stenholm, Stig
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Localization in splitting of matter waves2003In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 68, no 3, article id 033607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an analysis of how matter waves, guided as propagating modes in potential structures, are split under adiabatic conditions. The description is formulated in terms of localized states obtained through a unitary transformation acting on the mode functions. The mathematical framework results in coupled propagation equations that are decoupled in the asymptotic regions as well before as after the split. The resulting states have the advantage of describing propagation in situations, for instance matter-wave interferometers, where local perturbations make the transverse modes of the guiding potential unsuitable as a basis. The different regimes of validity of adiabatic propagation schemes based on localized versus delocalized basis states are also outlined. Nontrivial dynamics for superposition states propagating through split potential structures is investigated through numerical simulations. For superposition states the influence of longitudinal wave-packet extension on the localization is investigated and shown to be accurately described in quantitative terms using the adiabatic formulations presented here.

  • 10.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    et al.
    Laser Physics and Quantum Optics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21 SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenholm, Stig
    Quantum-state measurement through ballistic expansion of matter waves2002In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 043612-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a method for state measurement in atomic waveguides is presented. Matter waves exiting a terminated waveguide are allowed to expand ballistically. Measurement is performed by spatially resolved detection of laser-induced fluorescence. We describe in detail the motion of wave packets both in the guiding potential and in the region of free expansion. It is shown that different modes can be distinguished in a straightforward manner and that the same is true for coherent superpositions after introduction of a controlled phase shift. The sensitivity of the transition from adiabatic guiding to free expansion is investigated in detail. It is found that adiabatic readjustment, which will distort the original state, can be considerable but may be avoided by proper choice of potential parameters. The method proposed here is shown to be feasible for experiments in atom optics through utilizing numerical estimates.

  • 11. Jääskeläinen, Markku
    et al.
    Stenholm, Stig
    Laser Physics and Quantum Optics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reflection of matter waves in potential structures2002In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 053605-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the behavior of matter waves in suddenly terminated potential structures is investigated numerically. It is shown that there is no difference between a fully quantum mechanical treatment and a semiclassical one with regards to energy redistribution. For the quantum case it is demonstrated that there can be substantial reflection at the termination. The neglect of backscattering by the semiclassical method brings about major differences in the case of low kinetic energies. A simple phenomenological model is shown to partially explain the observed backscattering using dynamics of reduced dimensionality.

  • 12.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    et al.
    Optical Sciences Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
    Zhang, Weiping
    Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Meystre, Pierre
    Optical Sciences Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
    Limits to phase resolution in matter-wave interferometry2004In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 70, no 6, article id 063612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the quantum dynamics of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate in a time-dependent symmetric double-well potential using analytical and numerical methods. The effects of internal degrees of freedom on the visibility of interference fringes during a stage of ballistic expansion are investigated varying particle number, nonlinear interaction sign and strength, as well as tunneling coupling. Expressions for the phase resolution are derived and the possible enhancement due to squeezing is discussed. In particular, the role of the superfluid-Mott insulator crossover and its analog for attractive interactions is recognized.

  • 13.
    Valyukh, Iryna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper.
    Optical Characterization and Optimization of Display Components: Some Applications to Liquid-Crystal-Based and Electrochromics-Based Devices2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is focused on theoretical and experimental studies of optical properties of materials and multilayer structures composing liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and electrochromic (EC) devices.

    By applying spectroscopic ellipsometry, we have determined the optical constants of thin films of electrochromic tungsten oxide (WOx) and nickel oxide (NiOy), the films’ thickness and roughness. These films, which were obtained at spattering conditions possess high transmittance that is important for achieving good visibility and high contrast in an EC device.

    Another application of the general spectroscopic ellipsometry relates to the study of a photo-alignment layer of a mixture of azo-dyes SD-1 and SDA-2. We have found the optical constants of this mixture before and after illuminating it by polarized UV light. The results obtained confirm the diffusion model to explain the formation of the photo-induced order in azo-dye films.

    We have developed new techniques for fast characterization of twisted nematic LC cells in transmissive and reflective modes. Our techniques are based on the characteristics functions that we have introduced for determination of parameters of non-uniform birefringent media. These characteristic functions are found by simple procedures and can be utilised for simultaneous determination of retardation, its wavelength dispersion, and twist angle, as well as for solving associated optimization problems.

    Cholesteric LCD that possesses some unique properties, such as bistability and good selective scattering, however, has a disadvantage – relatively high driving voltage (tens of volts). The way we propose to reduce the driving voltage consists of applying a stack of thin (~1µm) LC layers.

    We have studied the ability of a layer of a surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal coupled with several retardation plates for birefringent color generation. We have demonstrated that in order to accomplish good color characteristics and high brightness of the display, one or two retardation plates are sufficient.

  • 14.
    Weatherall, James Owen
    et al.
    Stevens Institute of Technology.
    Search, Christopher P.
    Stevens Institute of Technology.
    Jääskeläinen, Markku
    Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, USA.
    Quantum control of electromagnetically induced transparency dispersion via atomic tunneling in a double-well Bose-Einstein condensate2008In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 013830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is an important tool for controlling light propagation and nonlinear wave mixing in atomic gases with potential applications ranging from quantum computing to table top tests of general relativity. Here we consider EIT in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a double-well potential. A weak probe laser propagates through one of the wells and interacts with atoms in a three-level Lambda configuration. The well through which the probe propagates is dressed by a strong control laser with Rabi frequency Omega(mu), as in standard EIT systems. Tunneling between the wells at the frequency g provides a coherent coupling between identical electronic states in the two wells, which leads to the formation of interwell dressed states. The macroscopic interwell coherence of the BEC wave function results in the formation of two ultranarrow absorption resonances for the probe field that are inside of the ordinary EIT transparency window. We show that these new resonances can be interpreted in terms of the interwell dressed states and the formation of a type of dark state involving the control laser and the interwell tunneling. To either side of these ultranarrow resonances there is normal dispersion with very large slope controlled by g. We discuss prospects for observing these ultranarrow resonances and the corresponding regions of high dispersion experimentally.

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