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  • 1. Kántor, Noémi
    et al.
    Chen, Liang
    Gál, Csilla V
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Human-biometeorological significance of shading in urban public spaces: Summertime measurements in Pécs, Hungary2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 170, p. 241-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shading is shown to be one of the most effective strategies to mitigate urban heat stress, especially on a small scale. This paper presents an empirical study investigating the effectiveness of different means of shading—by sun sails and trees—to improve the local thermal environment during the summer. Three different urban settings were investigated through detailed human-biometeorological measurements in the Hungarian city of Pécs. Our study employed the accurate six-directional radiation measurement technique, and calculated Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) from the obtained data to assess outdoor thermal conditions. Our results indicate that in open urban squares trees can mitigate heat stress more effectively than low-hanging sun sails, installed right above the head of pedestrians. In the period of 9:00–16:00, the average PET reduction by trees and low sun sails was 9.0 °C and 5.8 °C, respectively. Sun sails, installed at higher elevation to shade an entire street canyon, and mature trees with dense canopy had more pronounced heat stress reduction ability, and were able to reduce the local PET by over 10 °C. Our study demonstrates the importance of detailed small-scale field measurements, the outcomes of which can be incorporated into climate-responsive urban design strategies with ease.

  • 2. Kántor, Noémi
    et al.
    Gál, Csilla V
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gulyás, Ágnes
    Unger, János
    The impact of façade orientation and woody vegetation on summertime heat stress patterns in a Central-European square: comparison of radiation measurements and simulations2018In: Advances in Meteorology, ISSN 1687-9309, E-ISSN 1687-9317, article id 2650642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing summertime air temperature deteriorates human health especially in cities where the warming tendency is exacerbated by urban heat island. Human-biometeorological studies shed light on the primary role of radiation conditions in the development of summertime heat stress. However, only a limited number of field investigations have been conducted up to now. Based on a 26-hour long complex radiation measurement this study presents the evolved differences within a medium-sized rectangular square in Szeged, Hungary. Besides assessing the impact of woody vegetation and façade orientation on the radiation heat load, different modeling software (ENVI-met, SOLWEIG, RayMan) are evaluated in reproducing mean radiant temperature (Tmrt).Although daytime Tmrt can reach extreme level at exposed locations (65–75°C) mature shade trees can reduce it to 30–35°C. Nevertheless, shading from buildings adjacent to sidewalks plays also an important role in mitigating pedestrian heat stress. Sidewalks facing to SE, S and SW do not benefit from the shading effect of buildings therefore shading them by trees or artificial shading devices is of high importance. The measurement–model comparison revealed smaller or larger discrepancies that raise awareness on the careful adaptation of any modeling software and on the relevance of fine-resolution field measurements.

  • 3.
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMHI, Luftmiljö.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Länsstyrelsen Dalarnas Län.
    Gidhagen, Lars
    SMHI, Luftmiljö.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Umeå Universitet.
    SIMAIRscenario - ett modellverktyg för bedömning av luftföroreningars hälsoeffekter och kostnader2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SIMAIRscenario is a new web based tool developed for estimation of health impacts and economic benefits occurring when populations experience changes in air quality. It is a new member of the SIMAIR family, which is a national air quality system for Sweden. In SIMAIRscenario following can be done: 1. Import air quality data fields from different dispersion models such as SIMAIR and Airviro. 2. Process air quality data by different mathematical operators. 3. Import and store detailed population data and process them by different mathematical operators. Population data for the year 2008 divided in different age groups with the resolution of 100*100 meters for the whole country is now available. 4. Presentation of air quality and population data on maps. 5. Perform exposure calculations and presents results on maps and in tables. 6. Perform health impact assessments and valuation of these impacts in monetary terms. The air quality change is calculated as the difference between the starting air pollution level, also called the baseline, and the air pollution level after some change, also called the scenario. The scenario can be described as a major change in activities or technical solutions in an urban or regional area or a regulation leading to different emissions to the atmosphere compare to the baseline.

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