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  • 1. Askebjer, P
    et al.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    On the Age vs Depth and Optical Clarity of Deep Ice at the South Pole1995In: Journal of Glaciology, no 41, p. p 445-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Askebjer, P
    et al.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Optical properties of the South Pole ice at depths between 0.8 and 1 km1995In: Science, no 267, p. 1147-1150Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effects of taxing truck distance on CO2 emissions from transports in retailing2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In the competitive retail market such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 4.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions induced by a shopping center2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies have focused on entire trips in a geographic region, while a few of them addressed trips induced by a city landmark. Therefore paper explores trips and their CO2 emissions induced by a shopping center from a time-space perspective and their usage in relocation planning. This is conducted by the means of a case study in the city of Borlänge in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall in its center are examined. We use GPS tracking data of car trips that end and start at the shopping center. Thereafter, (1) we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where temporal patterns reveal an hourly-based traffic emission dynamics and where spatial patterns uncover a heterogeneous distribution of traffic emissions in spatial areas and individual street segments. Further, (2) this study reports that most of the observed trips follow an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. In this respect, (3) we evaluate how well placed the current shopping center is through a comparison with two competing locations. We conclude that the two suggested locations, which are close to the current shopping center, do not show a significant improvement in term of CO2 emissions.

  • 5.
    Mattsson Petersen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Berg, Per E O
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Quality control of waste to incineration: waste composition analysis in Lidköping2005In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 527-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to decrease environmental impacts in waste management the choice of treatment method must be based on the characteristics of the waste. Present sampling procedures do not provide statistically representative samples of solid waste and this provides difficulties in characterization. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for waste component analysis and sampling of waste after collection and at plant level. A further objective was to characterize the waste delivered to an incineration plant for physical and chemical properties and to determine the amounts of delivered waste that could be classified as biofuels and fossil fuels. The proportions of recyclables and hazardous waste were also examined. Samples were taken randomly from waste trucks and divided by square implementation. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the number of sub-samples could be decreased with only a moderate increase in the confidence interval. This means that future waste composition analyses could be made more efficient and thereby less expensive. The analysis of the waste delivered to the Lidkoping incineration plant (Central Sweden) showed that 66.4% of the household waste was composed of biofuels and 21.3% of non-renewable combustibles, of which 40.3% were recyclables. In addition, 11.6% of the household waste was non-combustible and 0.6% hazardous waste. The heat value for the biofuels was 18.0-19.7 MJ kg(-1) dry mass (DM) and for the fossil fuels 28.2-33.9 MJ kg(-1) DM. The industrial waste consisted of 35.9% biofuels, 62.0% fossil fuels, 1.6% non-combustible and 0.5% hazardous waste. The heat value was 19.5 MJ kg(-1) DM for the biofuels and 31.4 MJ kg(-1) DM for the fossil fuels.

  • 6.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Exhaust emissions and environmental classifications of cars: what indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium. We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: • differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass, • the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations.

  • 7. Price, Buford
    et al.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Optical Properties of South Pole Ice for Neutrino Astrophysics1995In: The XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference, Rome 1995, 1995Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Miljöpolitik på samhällsekonomisk grund: en fallstudie om styrmedlet miljökvalitetsnormer för partiklar och kvävedioxid2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards for nitrodioxid and particles in air. Such assessments arc regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision- making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. A finding in this study is that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in a number of activities at different levels of society. At the municipality level measurements of air quality are undertaken and information on these levels is provided to the public, while the Swedish EPA develops regulations and also makes assessments and decides on research programmes. The impact of the standards on air quality and societal costs however has so far been limited since few of the abatement measures presented in the action programmes have been implemented and these are to some extent introduced for other reasons than air quality. There is however a risk that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in abatement measures which have had a minor impact on human health. The conclusion is that socioeconomic analysis and quantified assessments are and have been lacking in the decision making regarding environmental policies for improved air quality in Sweden. Therefore policy makers are not notified about possible conflicts between improvements in air quality and other objectives in society and neither are they notified about possible synergies between different abatement measures. Quantified economic analysis is used in the transport sector partly for the reason of assessing trade-offs and possible conflicts between different policy objectives. This is also likely to be an important aspect to consider in the design of environmental policies and it is therefore troublesome that this kind of a systematic approach to evaluation is not used on a regular basis.

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