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  • 1.
    Agirman, Nesim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ali, Mustafa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    U-värde av isoleringsmaterial i en kassett: En experimentell jämförelse mellan en fönsterkassett som har isolering och en utan isolering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Insulation and insulation material is one of the most important components in the construction industry and has a wide range of applications and therefore the demand is huge. Because of the high costs on the market, new and different researches take place every day to find alternative insulation materials. The technology make the opportunities greater to find and use cheaper materials. Therefore, it is not un common to see insulations made of different materials every day.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate two Moniflexcassettes, one with insulation and one without, in a climate chamber, to then compare their u-values.

    The results showed the influence on the insulation, that the u-value was lower on the cartridge with the insulation, and therefore a proof that the insulation can use as an additional insulation. This applied especially for windows and glass portions who have a high u-value, which mean that windows and glass portions do not have to change to newer windows with lower u-values.

    The company Isolight´s current u-value of the cassette with the isolation was not the same as with the tested U-value in Högskolan Dalarnas climate chamber. On the cassette without insulation, there has been no comparison between the tested value and the value of the company because the company does not have a u-value for that.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Linnea
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ekeblad, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energieffektivisering av klimatskal - miljonprogrammets flerbostadshus: Tjärna Ängar, Borlänge2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During The Million Homes Programme, 1964 – 1975, over one million homes were built and it’s now time for an extensive modernization of these buildings.

    The purpose of this work was to see how the building envelope of a multifamily building from the Million Homes Programme can be energy efficient. This was done through enquiries and calculations, and by comparing these to current and future requirements of energy use. The enquiries that have been conducted were tests of impermeability and thermography. The calculations suggest both individual and combined actions to improve the building envelope.  The enquiries and calculations do not consider installations, architectural values, or economy, only how much the energy use can be optimized through improving the building envelope. 

    The best result achieved through combined actions was a reduction of energy use by 32,3 %. The individual action with the best result was the replacement of windows and balcony door: 16,4 % reduction of energy use.

    Only the building envelope has been taken in to account in this rapport which means that a greater improvement is possible if installations also is included.

    An important conclusion of the project is that the building envelope has a great effect on a building’s energy usage. The requirements of energy use that come into effect January 1, 2021 can be accomplished by only correcting the deficiencies in the building envelope.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lind, Christoffer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Genomstansning i betong: En jämförelsestudie mellan Eurokod 2, Strusoft Winstatik Punching och Eurocode Software caeEc230.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computers have become invaluable for advanced calculation tasks in most industries.

    Formerly, designers had to rely on his skills and knowledge to perform calculations.

    Nowadays, designers can execute a calculation without the need to use the actual formulas

    behind. It is recommended by experienced designers that some of the programs used in the

    building industry, which are based on the European Eurocodes needs to be validated.

    The aim of this study has been to calculate the punching capacity of ordinary reinforced

    slab and to design the shear reinforcement, according to Eurocode 2. The method was a

    theoretical study of the Eurocodes. A calculation sheet for punching capacity was made in

    Mathcad. The calculations from the sheet were compared to Winstatik Punching and

    caeEc230. The work has been defined to include only an inner column on a concrete slab

    with a circular cross section without any column heads or other reinforcements. In order to

    achieve realistic calculations, nine cases with different slab thicknesses and spans were

    manipulated.

    The capacities from the three calculations were nearly identical, both at the columns

    perimeter and at the control perimeter. The greatest differences were found in the design of

    the shear reinforcement. They showed similar amount of reinforcement in terms of area, but

    offered no guidance on the design. CaeEc230 suggested about double the amount of rebar

    cuts than the calculations in Mathcad. Winstatik Punching reported no total at all.

  • 4.
    Argårds, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Analys av lägenhetsskiljande bjälklag: Fallstudie av produktion av flerbostadshus i Sälenfjällen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In construction of apartments several parameters determines the choice of production method. Costs and production time for the various operations are two important parts , As early as the planning stage it is important to have a clear picture of the different solutions' and its prerequisites to simplify the choice of production method.

    For new construction projects in Sälenfjällen the tight production times makes it important to know whether any solution could involve considerable delays in production time. On the other hand faster construction methods may also lead to higher costs.

    The thesis has been limited to four different floor constructions which are Finjas “Combi bjälklag”, “plattbärlag”, cross laminated timber and Dala cements “Daladekk”. The calculation has been linked to a reference building in Sälenfjällen and a supposed new production of four similar buildings.

    With the help of the structural design calculations were carried out to estimate the costs each approach brings, it also performed one simple analysis of the time spent.

    The result shows that it is best economical to build with "plattbärlag", followed by cross laminated timber. At the same time plattbärlaget and its construction has a risk for delayed production times, which mean it may be advantageous to chose the solution with cross laminated timber.

  • 5.
    Björling, Jimmy
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Digitala ritningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In todays building industry there is a need for using of digital construction

    drawings. The purpose of this report is to inquire into, the will of the employers in

    Byggpartners to use digital drawings in their daily work and if the different

    drawing systems distinguishes from each other

    The method selections in this report is survey, semi structured interviews, and

    time experiments. The studies show that the new digital technique worked well

    and gave reliable and useful results. One important conclusion of this project is

    that digital drawings are more time saving comparing to paper drawings. By

    reviewing the use of digital drawings, one can easily prevent some problems

    which might otherwise be associated with the opposition of digital drawings out

    in the building place.

  • 6.
    Brinkebäck, Eric
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jönsson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Fallstudie av moderna timmerhus: Kvalitetskontroll av nybyggda timmerhus mot FST:s kvalitetsnormer och BBR:s kommande energihushållningskrav2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A study has been conducted to investigate how log houses will meet the new requirements regarding U-value and specific energy use with primary energy factor as a basis, which will be put into use in 2017. In the study, two houses have been investigated. Both houses were constructed with 200 mm thick logs without any additional isolation. Both houses have geothermal heating systems. The study found that the new requirements will be rough against timber house constructions with geothermal or electricity as a heating system, since a primary energy figure of 1.6 will be multiplied by the total energy consumption when heated by electricity.

  • 7.
    Brosius, Isabelle
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utfackningsväggar i trä: En tid- och kostnadsjämförelse mellan prefabricerade och platsbyggda byggmetoder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To win procurements today, it is important that you as an entrepreneur choose the most effective resource and production methods. That already in the calculation stage, decide how high degree of prefabrication the project should have, is favorable to promptly adapt the workplace in order to get the best output.

    In Mora, Skanska has a block workshop that among other things manufactures curtain walls. Skanska has expressed a desire for a study of the differences in time and cost between their precast curtain walls and site-built curtain walls in order to see for which construction projects it may be appropriate to make use of their precast curtain walls.

    The purpose of this project is to facilitate the choice of production method for the manufacture of curtain walls, depending on the construction project's requirements regarding:

    • If the project has a short or long timetable.
    • How many square meters of curtain-wall the project needs.
    • Distance to block workshop.

    The work is defined to include construction projects that have a bearing frame with lightweight curtain walls of wood. The production methods studied for building curtain walls in wood is prefabrication and site-built.

    The production cost has defined to only conclude the cost of the work and the expenses of the workplace, no costs for the materials that are built-in are included. The cost of the built-in materials is assumed in this work to be the same whether the curtain walls are site built or prefabricated.

    With unit times from the block workshop, has a production time for prefabrication of curtain walls been calculated. For the site-built curtain wall, unit times from Nybyggnadslistan 1999 has been retrieved and used to calculate a manufacturing time for building the wall in place. A cost benefit analysis has been done comparing the different manufacturing cost. The cost benefit analysis show the amount of wall area required to choose prefabricated over place built at the highest profit.

    The result shows that to manufacture and mount one square meter of prefabricated curtain wall takes 0,135 hours less time than that place build the same amount. Time on site is reduced by 0,578 hours per square meter when using precast curtain walls.

    The result also shows that the cost to manufacture one square meter of curtain-wall is 32.77 SEK lower than that place build the same amount of curtain-wall. The thing that pulls up the cost of precast curtain walls is the transport. A fully loaded truck with 370 m² of wall can be transported 43 Swedish miles before profitability ceiling is reached.

    The time at the construction place, is getting shorter when using prefabricated curtain walls, leading to reduced costs in the workplace.

    For a construction project located at a distance of 30 Swedish miles from block workshop, is it profitable to choose prefabricated curtain walls, if the object needs 256 m² or more square meters of wall. For construction projects that require a smaller number of square meters of curtain walls, it is more profitable to use the site-built curtain walls. Especially if the construction project is located at a far distance from the block workshop.

    Important conclusions from this thesis are:

    • Shorter production time for precast curtain walls, which results in a lower production cost.
    • The time on the construction site is reduced by the use of precast curtain walls.
    • For long trips, a larger number of square meters precast curtain walls is needed to make the use of prefab to be profitable.
    • The use of precast curtain walls means less need for storage of materials on the construction site.
  • 8.
    Candell, André
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ehn Jansson, Oskar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Synsättet på förnyelsebara elkällor inom fastighetsbranschen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between the years 1965 and 1975 one million residences in Sweden were built.

    Today the work of renovating these buildings has begun, in connection with this

    work there are many measures taken to reduce energy usage.

    The purpose of this work was to find out what is the most economical choice of

    various green power sources.

    Also the thoughts and beliefs of the property owners are set in relation to the

    conclusions of the calculations to get an idea of how different the property

    owner’s beliefs are compared to the calculations.

    To avoid making the work too large and demanding these boundaries have been

    set:

     To get appropriate conclusions the work has been limited to the region

    of Dalarna.

     The work has also been limited to examining the economic factor when

    choosing between various green power sources.

    Two surveys were conducted with several different property owners as

    participants and then two calculations of the payback period for solar power,

    wind power, and green electricity were conducted. These two results were then

    compered to each other to be able to analyze and present these conclusions.

    Conclusions:

     Wind power is not profitable at today’s electricity prices.

     Real estate owners are uncertain of what choice gives the best

    profitability of wind power, solar power or green power.

  • 9.
    Danielsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hansson, Christopher
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Planindikatorer som utvärderingsverktyg för hållbar fysisk planering: En konsekvensbedömning på detaljplanenivå2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urbanization that has occurred in the last century results in an increasing awareness of urban planning and assessment tools are increasingly used to demonstrate that development in the direction of sustainable occurs.

    The purpose of this study is to produce indicators and analyze how the municipality development plans for the station area in Borlänge meet the national-, regional- and local objectives in terms of sustainable urban planning. The method applied in the development of indicators is based on Boverkets and Naturvårdsverkets model that was developed in conjunction with the SAMS-project. Applying this method has resulted in eleven indicators that have been applied to the present situation and the development plans in which the result shows that any major change to the assessment ladder has not occurred.

    As a result of some municipal goals beeing vaguely designed, the difficulty in meeting them increases. This creates a difficulty in applying the assessment tools in the form of indicators that can guide planning in the right direction. The development plans extent is not enough for the municipal goals to be met. The produced planning indicators can be the basis for a dialogue with the municipality in order to sharpen the objectives and generate a better goal achievement.

  • 10.
    Djärv, Jesper
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Israelsson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Uttorkning i betong: En jämförelse av uttorkningstider mellan bascement och byggcement.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In construction projects, moisture problems have been discovered in concrete slabs where plastic mats have been released from the substrate. One of the problems reported in the media is the change from Portland cement to fly ash cement. Fly ash cement is a cement with 14% fly ash mixed with portland clinker. The reason that cement manufacturers use fly ash, which is a residual product from powder-fired coal power plants, is that it reduces the amount of portland clinkers that release large amounts of carbon dioxide during production.

    Cement is the concrete binder and when fly ashes are used, less amount of water is bound in the concrete's hydration process. To investigate the difference in dehydration found in concrete with fly ash cement and Portland cement, two concrete samples were obtained with the same concrete recipe and VCT numbers, but with different cement types. These concrete samples were stored in a heated local with low relative humidity. Moisture measurements were carried out according to the current regulations. These results were compared with the moisture predictions from TorkaS and BI Dry, which are the most commonly used moisture calculation programs. At the same time, various actors from the construction industry were interviewed to investigate how they perceived the problem of dehydration in concrete.

    The moisture measurements showed no significant difference between concrete with base cement and building cement. When compared with the forecasted values from the moisture calculation programs, it was found that the Dry values were very close to the measured moisture values, while BI Dry's values were well below the measured values. The interviews revealed that the construction industry has many questions about dehydration in concrete. On the other hand, there are difficulties in determining what is the basis for the problems. If there is a change from the portland cement to the fly ash cement, or the handling of the concrete at an early stage after the casting affects. However, if the moisture issue is taken up early in the construction process, it is possible to save both time and money. The construction industry needs to be educated how the process of desiccation works to increase understanding of the problem.

  • 11.
    Emborg, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Miljöbetong för hållbart byggande: En analys av betongblandningar med mer miljövänliga tillsatsmaterial2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to study how concrete can be made more environmentally friendly with as well as without fly ash and how this can then be evaluated using a new computer program for the Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). This work also includes studies using a simulation tool, Production Planning Concrete (PPB) on the temperature and strength development of concrete.

    Concrete is an important construction material that has been used for thousands of years. The concrete ingredients are mostly natural materials that have a low environmental impact: stone, gravel, sand and water. The cement is, however, a material that still requires high energy consumption during manufacturing and produces large carbon emissions, at present about 2-3% of Sweden's total amount of carbon emissions.

    Environmental impact is an important topic and building industry operators today are keen to develop building materials that make as little environmental impact as possible. The materials must also be evaluated in a fair and timely manner in order to be compared with each other. There are new rules for the admixtures used in concrete, which means that it is now possible to add, for example, fly ash or slag in the mix at the concrete factory to produce concrete with less environmental impact. Cement and Concrete Research Institute (Cement- och Betonginstitutet), together with the trade association Swedish Concrete (Svensk Betong) also developed a tool to make declarations for these more environmentally friendly concrete mixes. These declarations are called Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). At the same time, there is now on the market a new program that calculates early strength growth in various production scenarios. The program is called Production Planning Concrete (PPB).

    The work has involved a literature review and preparation of background data to insert in the two calculation programs used. The theory addresses the environmental impact of the various constituent materials of the concrete, how the concrete's properties are determined and what these mean, and what EPDs are and how they are made. After the literature review, calculations and simulations have been done in computer programs, which have resulted in a variety of charts and tables presented in the report.

    One of the conclusions of the work is that the production of cement is the part of the concrete that has the largest impact on the environment, and by replacing a portion of the cement with fly ash reduces the environmental impact evidently. Another conclusion from the work is that concrete with fly ash has a slower rate of strength development and are more likely to freeze in the early stages, which should be taken into consideration in the planning and design of the building process.

    The work also shows that the results of the EPD calculations and strength simulations can be useful for concrete manufacturers developing new products, while they also can be used by clients and contractors to get information about a concrete's environmental impact and characteristics.

  • 12.
    Embretsen, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Häggström, Joel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Slitlager på broar: En kunskapssammanställning om slitlager på broar med fokus på slitbetong2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a study conducted to try to identify the most important factors affecting the choice of surface course on bridges. The study also aimed to clarify the reasons for which surface course were previously chosen and should be chosen in the future. The result of the study is that the surface course are likely to be chosen on unclear grounds without a clear motivation and unclear guidelines. It is often that private opinions have a big influence on the choice of the surface course. Economics, type of contract or aesthetics are other crucial factors in choosing of the surface course. The study has been conducted using in-depth interviews with people having knowledge in the field.

  • 13.
    Erlingsson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tillskottseffektens påverkani klimatkammare: En fallstudie av U-värdet för en massivträskiva2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Näringslivet i Dalarna har efterfrågat möjligheten att testa byggkomponenters energiprestanda för att utveckla dessa ytligare ur energisynpunkt. Högskolan Dalarna har i och med det investerat i en klimatkammare. I klimatkammaren skapas det två klimat, ett kallt utomhusklimat och ett varmt inomhus klimat.

    En av de första byggkomponenter som testades var en massivträskiva. De initiala mätningarna av massivträskivan påvisade ett bättre U-värde än teoretiskt förväntat. Detta stärkte behovet av att innan fortsatta mätningar kunde göras utreda orsaken till avvikelsen. Därmed ändrades huvudinriktningen på examensarbetet till att utveckla metoden för klimatkammaren. Fokus lades på att ta fram beräkningsmodeller för tillskottseffekt till mätlådan i klimatkammaren, då denna tillskottseffekt inte var implicerad.

    Massivträskivan testades vid fyra olika ute temperaturer, +10°C, 0°C, -10°C och -20°C. Resultatet från massivträskivan var att U-värdet förbättrades vid kallare temperatur men de var alla bättre än teoretiskt förväntat.

    Tre olika beräkningsmodeller för tillskottseffekt har arbetats fram och applicerats på mätdata för en kalibreringsvägg med kända termiska egenskaper. Resultatet från beräkningsmodellerna visar att kalibreringen av klimatkammaren är bristfällig vid 0°C då kalibreringsväggens U-värde är cirka 4.5 % bättre än vad de borde vara, vid de andra kalibrerings temperaturer är skillnaden endast 1 %.

    Slutsatsen är att klimatkammaren på Högskolan Dalarna behöver finjusteras och om kalibreras för att få verifierbara resultat för U-värdes mätningar.

  • 14.
    Franzon, Joffe
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hur en armerad betongbalk dimensioneras för hål i livet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the design stage, conflicts between installations and bodies often arise. In multi-story

    buildings huge profits can be made from being able to make holes in concrete beams in

    order to carry an installation through the beam. But the knowledge of how the beam is to

    be dimensioned for larger holes is not generally known.

    Two concrete manuals with different calculation methods have therefore been analyzed to

    evaluate which of these could be the basis for a calculation template. The prerequisites

    were defined as beams without prestressed concrete, with rectangular cross-sections and

    square or rectangular holes.

    The Mathcad calculation program was used to make two calculation templates for the

    Swedish and Norwegian methods. As a calculation example, dimensions and loads were

    used from an experimental study in Egypt 2005. In that study, the beam was exposed to

    loads that brought it to failure. Their theoretical failure capacity was in line with the

    practical values.

    A comparison of the amount of reinforcement and execution was made between the three

    different models. It turned out that the Norwegian model was the most similar to the

    Egyptian. The reinforcement of the Norwegian model was the most similar to that of the

    Egyptian model, but the amount of reinforcement was slightly less.

    The Swedish model was not considered reliable for design purposes. As the Norwegian

    model had a little less reinforcement, it was considered necessary to add a safety factor or

    perform a load capacity test in order to ensure the beam’s capacity.

  • 15.
    Fredin, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Snöborgs, Oscar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energimässig och kostnadsmässig jämförelse av FTX och FX system i landet: Jämförelse av två alternativa renoverings lösningar för värmeåtervinning i flerbostadshus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes an energy- and geographical comparison between two alternative renovation solutions for heat recovery in apartment buildings. The survey includes a typical apartment building that is representative of the ‘Miljon Program’, and was carried out because of the ongoing debate about which system works best for the renovation of apartment buildings. The project work was carried out with simulations through an Excel-based program called TMF Energy 2.2 developed by SP, Sweden’s Technical Research Institute.

    he purpose of this project was to develop two geographical representations of Sweden that would show where in the country the two different ventilation and heat recovery systems worked most efficiently regarding primary energy and energy costs for heating.

    The results showed that there was no threshold, boundary of grey area in the country, one of the systems was more efficient in terms of primary energy use and the other system was more energy cost efficient.

    The discussion section of this report includes a variety of topics such as primary energy factors, how to manage requirements, why airtightness affects the systems differently and energy costs for district heating.

    The conclusions that were drawn from the results includes that the FTX-system is the most primary energy efficient and that the FX-system is the most energy cost efficient. There was no boundary or grey area in the country for the chosen building, and the FTX-system is affected more by varying airtightness than the FX-system.

  • 16.
    Gesar, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hansson, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Uppvärmningslösningars klimat- och resurspåverkan i Dalarna: Jämförelse mellan fjärrvärme och andra uppvärmningslösningars klimat- och resurspåverkan beroende på renoveringsstrategi och geografisk placering i Dalarna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att nyttja jordens resurser på bästa sätt är det viktigt att använda rätt energityp till dess mest effektiva ändamål. Att energieffektivisera och minska utsläppen av växthusgaser är något som har fått mycket uppmärksamhet under 2000-talet och är fortsatt en högt prioriterad fråga i dagens samhälle.

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att jämföra byggnaders klimat- och resurspåverkan inom Dalarnas fjärrvärmenät. Genom olika renoveringssenarier påverkas en byggnads primärenergianvändning och utsläpp av koldioxid olika beroende på vart i Dalarna den är placerad. I arbetet ingår även en jämförelse av vanliga värmesystem jämfört med Dalarnas kommuners fjärrvärmesystem. Vid jämförelserna användes data från en byggnadssimulering för att simulera olika förhållanden i byggnaden. Beräkningar och jämförelser av resultaten belyser vilka faktorer som har stor inverkan på energianvändning, utsläpp samt vilka åtgärder som ger den bästa förändringen.

    Resultaten visar att variationen är stor mellan fjärrvärmesystemen i Dalarnas kommuner och de olika värmesystemen, där kommunernas bränslemix har en stor inverkan på resultatet. Bränslen med höga primärenergifaktorer leder till en stor ökning av primärenergianvändningen. Eftersom el har en hög primärenergifaktor är det viktigt att minimera elanvändningen. Renoveringsresultaten tyder på att en sänkning av inomhustemperaturen ger den största förändringen i primärenergianvändning och koldioxidutsläpp. Att installera en frånluftsvärmepump till fjärrvärmesystemet är överlag sämre ur miljösynpunkt. Att byta till en oljepanna är mycket dåligt i samtliga kommuner medan en pelletspanna kan minska koldioxidutsläppen i stora kommuner.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Annica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Granberg, Per
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energieffektivisering av klimatskal i tropiskt klimat: Fallstudie av en byggnad i Surabaya, Indonesien2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien omfattar en undersökning av en byggnad i Surabaya, Indonesien

    belägen på universitet UBAYA. Användningen av luftkonditionering ökar kraftigt i

    utvecklingsländer. Detta gör att behovet av förbättringar i såväl

    klimatanläggningar som i byggnader kommer att vara nödvändiga för att inte

    orsaka ytterligare påfrestningar på miljön genom ökad energianvändning

    Syftet med studien är att hitta energibesparande åtgärder på byggnadens

    klimatskal med hänsyn till det tropiska klimatet utan att orsaka fuktproblem i

    ingående byggnadsdelar.

    Byggnaden fungerar i dagsläget bra ur fuktsynpunkt och har inga direkt synliga

    skador orsakade av fuktproblem i konstruktionen. Däremot påvisar det höga uvärdet

    för byggnaden dess ineffektivitet gällande energibehov. Fyra olika

    åtgärdsförslag med utgångspunkt i den nuvarande konstruktionen presenteras i

    studien. Åtgärdsförslagen utvärderas ur fuktsynpunkt med programmet WUFI

    samt ur ett energimässigt perspektiv med programmet Polysun.

    Resultatet visar att störst energibesparing kan ske genom att isolera taket då det

    visar sig vara en stor värmekälla till byggnaden. Denna åtgärd innebär samtidigt

    en viss risk för fuktproblem på grund av höga relativa fukthalter och

    temperaturer. Även en tätning av de nuvarande läckagen i byggnaden påverkar

    energiförbrukningen i stor utsträckning, vilket gör dessa två åtgärder till den

    bästa kombinationen för att sänka energiförbrukningen. Att byta ut nuvarande

    englaskassetter mot tvåglas samt isolera de befintliga ytterväggarna är de

    åtgärder som påverkar energibehovet minst.

    Några av de slutsatser som dras ur studien är att totalt sett kan byggnadens

    energiförbrukning sänkas med 50 % om samtliga åtgärdsförslag genomförs.

    Fuktriskerna ökar vid isoleringsåtgärder men är genomförbara.

  • 18.
    Hammar, Mimmi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utformning av arbetsmetod för betongreparationer med PPA, preplaced aggregate2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vanlig betong består av ballast, cement, vatten och eventuellt tillsatsmedel. Detta

    blandas samman till en homogen massa som sedan placeras i form där det härdar

    under värmeutveckling. Under härdningen uppstår krympningar i cementen som

    orsakar spänningar. Genom att använda sig av större andel ballast i betongen kan

    krympningen reduceras.

    Fram till 1980-talet var en metod där ballasten först packades i en gjutform och sedan

    injekterades med cementbruk som band samman stenarna vanlig för att bygga och

    reparera betongkonstruktioner. Denna betong kallas bland annat för

    injekteringsbetong, two-stage concrete eller preplaced aggregate (PPA). Genom

    reparationen av Gamla Årstabrons valv 2007 fick PPA-betong en pånyttfödelse då

    reparationen krävde en betong med minimal krympning för att krympspänningarna

    inte skulle slita sönder underliggande konstruktion.

    Vid byggandet av Citybanans järnvägsbro, som sträcker sig mellan Älvsjö och

    Årstaberg i Stockholm, upptäcktes skador på undersidan av de balkar som gjutits för

    att bära delar av spårbanan. Dessa skador behövde åtgärdas och beställaren,

    Trafikverket, valde att reparera bron med PPA. Tack vare entreprenören E-Schakt har

    författaren fått möjligheten att följa arbetet med PPA-reparationerna och

    sammanställa denna rapport vars syfte var att utveckla arbetsmetoden och försöka

    hitta alternativa lösningar till utförandet.

    Arbetet genomfördes genom platsbesök och intervjuer med personer som bidrog med

    information, erfarenheter och nyttiga infallsvinklar. En litteraturstudie gjordes för att

    samla grundläggande information om vilka egenskaper betong och PPA har och hur

    dessa egenskaper påverkar utförandet

    Rapporten visar att form utav plexiglas och en helt rund ballast skulle kunna förenkla

    arbetet och förbättra resultatet. Dessutom framkommer att samarbete, engagemang

    och gemensam uppfattning om varför just PPA används är viktigt för ett lyckat

    slutresultat.

  • 19.
    Husanov, Fuad
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kunskap hos privatpersoner om termisk komfort inomhus: En fallstudie av kunskapen om termisk komfort2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal comfort indoors is a big factor in how you feel comfortable in your home. It is important to know how individuals are experiencing their thermal comfort indoors. To get there you must also find out how much knowledge they have for thermal climate, as this may affect the way they behave to control their experience of the thermal climate in their homes.

    The aim is answered on the following issues

    • How much

    knowledge individuals have about thermal comfort

    • What are the problem areas that might arise based on measurements taken of each home

    • Is there a connection between how much knowledge they have on their residence and higher risk of

    poor thermal comfort

    • The proportion of satisfied / dissatisfied with their thermal comfort

    and to compare measurements to results of the interview.

    The individuals were found to have thorough knowledge of the thermal climate and differed between the different home. In total 13 people are in interviewed which includes 5 houses. Homeowners were found to have more knowledge than those who lived in apartment. But no one knew which factors influence thermal environment other than trim level and the temperature of the air. There were two residents that had problems and higher risk of illness. You could also see a link between low knowledge of the thermal climate and the higher risk of poor thermal climate. It turned out that the majority were satisfied with the thermal climate in their homes. What was interesting, however, was that those who had too warm indoors were still satisfied while those who had it a bit too chilly were dissatisfied. According PMV index that I got was that both parties should be dissatisfied. One possible explanation for this not being the case could be that when you have it too warm in the winter indoors then you have a greater opportunity to cool down the house by lighter clothing, reducing the temperature of the radiator or open the balcony door so that it comes in fresh air while also cooling the house. All this are free from charge.

    While for those who has a bit too chilly can not control the temperature free of charge during winter.

    According to measurements, the carbon dioxide content are normal in all houses except the above mentioned which had too high levels. The house with high carbon dioxide content also had slightly higher relative humidity, which was 41.5% which is higher than others, in comparison. The temperature was within reasonable levels but some had air temperature below 20C

    0. After looking at the house, I found a possible cause of high carbon dioxide content. They had closed the air ducts that sat across the windows in the belief that it would lead to warmer housing. Although house 1, which had the air temperature of about 20.3C0, they felt cool at home. The cause of that was long curtains that hung and covered the radiator, which could rub the heat circulation and the distribution of heat. Although house 1 who had air temperature about 20.3C0, felt chilly at home. Sick Building Syndrome house was also investigated and a very likely cause were found in house ventilation system.

    In this theses it has shown that the majority is satisfied with their thermic comfort, but the minority is over 30 %.

    This investigation is clearly showing problem areas with thermal climate which can occur and the need of informing house owners of thermal climate to avoid any problem caused by them.

  • 20.
    Jansson, Tom
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utvärdering av terrester laserskanning i framställandet av en 3D-modell: Baserat på underlag från ritning och terrester laserskanning av en fackverksbro2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the implementation of building information modeling (BIM) in the Swedish civil engineering industry has increased. This is due to directives from the government stating that the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), in greater occurrence, will benefit from the digital possibilities with the BIM concept. Trafikverket is the government agency responsible for the long-term planning and management of public roads, construction in the infrastructure such as tunnels and bridges, and has great influence in the Swedish civil engineering industry. They claim that the key to enhance the use and development of BIM is to raise their demands towards the rest of the industry. Transitioning from a drawing-based to an object-based approach will affect the entire industry. The idea is to be able to handle all the information in 3D-data and the BIM concept throughout the entire life cycle of the construction. To reach that ambition, the already-built constructions need to be represented as 3D-models in terms of being a part of the BIM concept.

    Terrestrial laser scanning is a method of measurement that is being used worldwide for 3D-documentation of complex objects and environments. The result of a scan is comprehensive with low uncertainty of measurement; therefore the method is well suited to assist in the creation of 3D-models.

    The primary aim of the study is to examine the differences between 3D-models, depending on the measurement method that was used to create them.

    An analysis of the current situation in these fields-of-study was made by a literature study to place this thesis in its proper context. Although the two 3D-models were the same exact object, they were created using two different methods of measurement. The models were compared to identify the differences between them.

    The study unveils that the choice of measurement method influences the results of the 3D-model, where the terrestrial laser scanning method could help to improve the quality of the final product. On the other hand, there were areas where the two methods of measurement could complement each other for even better results.

  • 21.
    Janérs, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kommunikation mellan arbetsledning och yrkesarbetare: En kartläggning över informationsflödet på arbetsplatsen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inadequate communication has for a long time, cost both time and money for the construction industry. Large savings can be made by the construction companies by improving the communication. Improvements can be made both internally, by the organization, and externally between the client and the contractor.

    Purpose: The main purpose of the study is to make a survey of the information flow between project management and professional workers and to locate the weaknesses related to the communication. Those studies and results will give additional grounds to improve the communication within NCC.

    Restrictions: The study was limited to only be done within NCC:s department Infrastructure in Dalarna and manage three ongoing projects. Restrictions were also made to only manage the internal communication between project management and professional workers in the projects.

    Method: In the start phase, a survey of how the information is spread internally within NCC today, what information channels are used and how communication is conducted between project management and professional workers. This by: review follow-ups on projects, participate in meetings and join the professional workers on site.

    Interviews were made with the project management and professional workers. Finally, the shortcomings of the results are presented. The identified problems can later form the basis of a development model in communication, for both project management and professional workers at NCC.

    Result: Shows that some are happy with the communication in the projects while others are not entirely satisfied with the way the communication is handled in the workplace.

    Conclusion: Some of the conclusions obtained from the thesis work are as follows:

    o For a project to be a successful project, both in cost and time, it is necessary to clarify who will participate in the project from start to finish.

    o Closer cooperation and daily communication between professional workers and project management not only lead to less misunderstandings but also to effective and innovative solutions to both execution as a whole and the problems that arise along the way.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse mellan energiberäkning med TMF Energi och IDA ICE -fallstudie för ett småhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For each newly produced house, an energy calculation will be made in the production state and after the building has started to be used, a measurement will form the basis for the energy declaration. This is done to make demands on the energy consumption of the house, in order to reach the targets by 2020 and 2050. There are many different methods for calculating energy consumption.

    In this report, two energy calculation programs will be compared and look at how the energy usage responds to the solar radiation in the different methods. A hand calculation will be made to validate if the energy usage level is reasonable.

    The two programs are TMF Energy and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). The calculations are made on a standard house from the house supplier Fiskarhedenvillan.

    The method is based on having the same conditions and inputs in the different methods, so that the results can be compared and see how they differ from one another. The house will be placed differently to see how the orientation affects the energy consumption.

    The results for the simulations are close to each other and the hand calculation differs from the programs. Even if solar factors change in the different computer programs, results can be matched to form a pattern.

    The same patterns can be seen in the hand calculation, but with a greater deviation.

  • 23.
    Kamaludin, Abdulkani
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ahmed, Abdurahman
    Omräkningsfaktor för jämförelse av investeringskostnader vid nyproduktion av olika lägenhetstyper: Fallstudie på Hyttkammaren, ett fler bostadshus i Falun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nybyggnation av bostäder är en av de viktigaste uppgifterna i

    dagens samhälle. Bostadsbolag bygger varje år nya lägenheter för

    mycket stora pengar och för att det ska vara ekonomiskt lönsamt

    är det viktigt att det byggs lägenheter som drar ned på kostnaderna

    så mycket som möjligt.

    Genom många års lägenhetsbyggande har bostadsbolag samlat på

    sig erfarenheter som bekräftar att små lägenheter är dyrare att

    bygga än större lägenheter per kvadratmeter.

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att ta reda på hur mycket

    dyrare små lägenheter är i förhållande till de större lägenheterna

    samt vad det är som drar upp kostnaderna för de små lägenheterna.

    Bakgrunden till det här arbetet är att Kopparstaden, ett

    bostadsbolag som ägs av Falu Kommun, har märkt att

    bostadsbyggande är olika dyrt på olika platser i landet och vill ta

    reda på vad orsaken till detta är. De har inlett en undersökning där

    de jämför ett dussin bostadsprojekt utspridda över Dalarna och

    jämför deras projektkostnader för att ta reda på vilka som är dyrast

    och vad som orsakar deras skillnader. För att kunna göra en rättvis

    jämförelse mellan projekten måste justeringar göras efter faktorer

    som byggtid, storlek, standard samt tomt- och fastighetskostnad.

    Syftet i den här studien är att ta fram de procentuella

    kostnadsskillnaderna mellan olika lägenhetsstorlekar för ett

    testobjekt som Kopparstaden sedan kan använda till att göra

    storleksjusteringar mellan olika byggnadsprojekt

  • 24.
    Karlsson, Sara
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ljungkvist, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ytterväggars värmegenomgångskoefficient och förmåga att lagra värme: En jämförande studie av två ytterväggskonstruktioner gjord genom mätningar i klimatkammare och en datorsimulering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted in order to investigate wheater the u-value of an outer wall

    construction can be improved by changing isolation- and board material. The negative

    impact the emissions of greenhouse gases has on the environment require development of

    new approches to make our buildings more energy efficient. A new wall that is thinner with

    equivalent or better u-value and with a better heat storage capacity will make the building

    more energy efficient and the indoor environment more pleasant without large temperature

    changes that can occur with a wooden framework.

    A new exterior wall was made and compared with Bra Hus existing wall by doing

    measurements on both of them in a climate chamber and build them in WUFI Pro, a

    computer simulation program. The material was changed from mineral wool and a regular

    gypsum board to cellulose insulation and PCM Comfortboard, a gypsum board with cells

    of a special vax mixture which has a heat storage capacity. The measurements in the climate

    chamber were made to calculate the u-value and analyze how fast the temperature dropped

    with and without the PCM Comfortboard.

    The measurements showed that the wall with the new material had better u-value than the

    existing one, but theoretical calculations indicated that the existing wall should be better.

    A conclusion of this is that PCM Comfortboard is the element effecting the u-value the

    most because the isolation material have equal thermal resistance. With a great heat storage

    capacity and ability to contribute to a more even indoor temperature the PCM

    Comfortboard makes an excellent board to use with intension of reducing the energy need

    for heating.

    Another conclusion is that cellulose insulation is equal to mineral wool and can be used

    instead as an environmentally friendly choice.

  • 25.
    Kifle, Eyob
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Fart, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Luftläckningens inverkan på energiåtgången i byggnader med väggar av massivträ utan fuktspärr2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the training to become building engineers the writers of this essay have been committed to the development of energy and climate smart houses. In several courses there have been discussions on how to save nature's resources by decreasing the consumption of energy. In order to achieve this, houses which are air tight so that the warmth is prevented from leaking out of the building, are being built. An example of such a house is a "Passive House".

    Högskolan Dalarna has since 2013 carried out a research project where a building with the measurement 15 m2, named the "Test Cube", has been erected as a Passive House with a frame of massive wood without a plastic based moisture barrier. Measurements of the air tightness have been performed regularly over 24 months and the result of these measurements indicates a systematic variety of the air tightness over the year.

    In this essay the authors are examining how the yearly variety of a building's air tightness affects the energy need in a building without a plastic based moisture barrier. Furthermore are the authors examining the energy performance as well as how the measured air tightness in the "Test Cube" theoretically will change if a corresponding building system will be used in a 120 m2 fictitious building. This is done with the help of the measurements done over the 24 months in the "Test Cube".

    The result of these investigations is that the yearly variety of air tightness barely affects the energy performance of the fictitious building despite the air tightness varying between 0,15-0,20 l/sm2.

  • 26.
    Knutz, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energibehovsanalys av passiva massivträhus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a project which created a test building designed to advance and improve passive houses. The so-called “test building” can help to evaluate different scenarios for moisture transport and tightness. The test building has advanced HVAC systems to control temperature and moisture levels, which makes the test building a good tool to check if theoretical energy calculation formulas match reality.

    The aim of this thesis was partly to investigate how different energy calculation programs match reality and each other, as well as to investigate if the test building fulfills its goal of being classified as a passive house. The method used was based on energy calculations made by hand as well as four different energy calculation programs on the computer. These were compared with each other and with real energy measurements from the test building.

    From the results of the energy calculations the following conclusions could be made; the comparison between the programs shows a difference of up to 12 kWh/m2, yr or 8 % between the highest and lowest results. The electricity consumption of the household and the habits of the inhabitants has a large influence on the result. The comparison between measured energy usage and calculated energy usage is < 15%. Here there is an uncertainty between the weather data used in the calculations and the real weather data. The test building cannot fulfill the claim of a passive house at 150m2 that have a central heating system installed today.

  • 27.
    Lassbo, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lindholm, Rikard
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hållfasthetsegenskaper hos gammalt konstruktionsvirke: Jämförelse med nytt konstruktionsvirke med avseende på böjhållfasthet och tryck vinkelrätt mot fibrerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there are many older buildings with old wood that need renovation and remodeled to adapt to today's living standards . To be able to renovate and change the houses correctly, it is important to know how the materials in the houses change. This study investigates how the strength properties of old construction timber relate to new construction timber. Data collection has been done by testing the strength properties of construction timber older than 80 years. The tests performed are the compression perpendicular to the grain to obtain the elastic modulus perpendicular to the grain (E

    c,90), and the bending strength to obtain the elastic modulus parallel to the grain (Em). Both tests have been implemented according to EN 408: 2003 with some exceptions. The result of compression perpendicular to the grain shows that the timber is in good quality according to current requirements, the average is in the class C18. For bending strength, the timber keeps a good quality according to today's requirements and the average is in class C18. It indicates that old construction timber retains a large proportion of its strength properties and keeps a good quality in relation to new construction timber.

  • 28.
    Lindberg, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelsestudie avseende stomsystem: Ramverk eller fackverk/balk/pelar-system2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project included a comparison study on frame systems. The study investigated framework and truss/beam/column-system and was conducted independently with support of Ramboll AB 's office in Falun. The aim was primarily to examine what differences there are between frameworks with two joints and truss/beam/column-systems for light industrial buildings and try to determine why the truss/beam/column-system is the dominant system in Sweden because the rest of Europe has taken a different development and dominated by framework with two joints. The study examines the differences between the systems in a industrial building with predetermined dimensions in steel.Initially, a literature study was conducted to gain a broader view of the systems and to create a better understanding for the conditions for each system. After the literature study was conducted could a exampelhouse and underlay for the comparison study be developed. A survey study were also conducted and the purpose was to create a clear picture of which system the frame system designers in Sweden usually choose and why. The results of the study showed that frameworks with two joints give an increased cost compared with truss/beam/column-system in material consumption and production, and the calculations become more complicated for the framwork. Should further studies be done with these systems in buildings with other measurements, it might possible to obtain specific measures of buildings where the cost of frameworks with two joints will be the same as for a building with truss/beam/column-system and therefore become an equivalent alternative.An important conclusion of this project is that a framework with two joints is used much more rarely than truss/beam/column-system as frame systems in light industrial buildings in Sweden because the cost will be much higher with a framework with two joints and that it is a more complicated system in the computational work . The main conclusions from comparative study can be summarized as follows:

    • Framwork with two joints is more expensive to use.
    • Framework with two joints is a more complicated system computationally.
    • The tradition of using framework with two joints does not exist and it's therefore the system does not being used.
  • 29.
    Ljungdahl, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Caroline, Norrström
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utveckling av träregelvägg anpassad förframtida energikrav2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Various proposals on wooden joist walls are presented in this report, forFiskarhedenvillan’s standard wall. Boverket has issued a new referral where the energyrequirements for houses has been intensified and become more accurate, depending tothe county and city. The climate zones have been replaced by an adjustment factor.The aim is to develop four new improved wall structures and to do moisture simulations toinvestigate how the constructions are able to be exposed to moisture. The walls should fitinto the company's system solutions.The insulation alternatives that are studied are rock wool and cellulose insulation.Tests are made in the degree thesis to see what would happen if the vapour barrier isreplaced with a thicker OSB and also if the exterior gypsum is replaced by a“Västkustskiva”. Although a thicker construction with cellulose insulation is developed.Calculations and simulations are made to see if the wall structures passed the energyrequirement, depending on house-style and geographical location.Three of Fiskarhedenvillan’s houses were investigated based on two locations, Lund andUmeå.The investigation resulted that all wall structures passed the moisture simulations andalso did the walls pass the coming energy requirements set in Boverket’s referral.Three of the walls has very similar U-value but are different in thickness and insulationmaterials.The conclusion is that the structure of cellulose insulation and OSB got the best results inall areas. The wall:

    • has the lowest U-value, which means a low energy consumption
    • manufactured from recycled materials
    • economically feasible to Fiskarhedenvillan’s customers
  • 30. Norberg, Magne
    Korrosionsgrad och vidhäftning av stålbroars målningssystem: Fallstudie av tre broar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En betydande del av Sveriges brobestånd består av stålbroar. En avgörande faktor i broars livslängd är vilket målningssystem som används till ytskikt för stålet. Målningssystemets uppgift är att skydda stålet från korrosion.

    Syftet med föreliggande examensarbete är att utvärdera och jämföra två olika målningssystem med avseende på beständighet; utifrån korrosionsgrad och vidhäftning i ytskikt. Mätningar och provtagningar utfördes på tre stålbroar längs Dalälven, målade med två olika sorters målningssystem; ett oxidativt torkande och ett kemiskt härdande system. Mätningar för vidhäftning utfördes med instrumentet Elcometer modell 106 och korrosion uppmättes visuellt.

    Färgen i det kemiskt härdande målningssystemet visade sig ha en bättre vidhäftning till stålet än vad färgen i det oxidativt torkande målningssystemet hade. Broarna med det oxidativt torkande målningssystemet visade även på högre grad av korrosion. Kvalitén på den underliggande färgen visade sig ha en avgörande betydelse för vidhäftningen.

    Ett målningssystems vidhäftning kan inte bli bättre än vidhäftningen för det lager som det nya grundas på. Även om det är dyrare på kort sikt att ta bort all befintlig färg vid ommålning, gör det att den nya färgen får bättre vidhäftning och kan hålla längre.

    För att i jämförelsen mellan de aktuella målningssystemen få ett helhetsperspektiv bör fortsatt forskning bedrivas, där ekonomiska samt miljömässiga faktorer beaktas.

  • 31.
    Norin, Joakim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Israelsson, Calle
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelseanalys av källarkonstruktioner: Studie med avseende på fuktbelastning, bärighet, värmeisolering, ekonomi och miljöpåverkan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fiskarhedenvillan har för avsikt att kunna rekommendera och tillhandahålla erforderliga konstruktionsritningar över en lämplig källarkonstruktionslösning som är integrerbar med deras byggsystem. Dagens rekommenderade konstruktionslösning anses ha utrymme för utveckling vilket ligger till grund för denna rapport.

    Syftet med denna rapport var att utvärdera och analysera fyra olika källarkonstruktioner med hänsyn till utvalda parametrar, där den mest fördelaktiga konstruktionen presenteras. Dessa parametrar omfattade fuktbelastning, bärighet, värmeisolering, ekonomi och miljöpåverkan.

    Studien utfördes främst genom en litteraturstudie samt att data som framkom av genomförda mätningar och beräkningar utvärderades och analyserades för respektive konstruktion och parameter. Resultaten jämfördes sedan mot övriga utvalda konstruktionslösningar.

    Efter jämförelseanalysen kunde Jackon Thermomur 350 rekommenderas och presenteras som den mest fördelaktiga lösningen. Konstruktionen valdes främst ut för att den inte påvisar några direkta negativa egenskaper samt att den redovisar det bästa U-värdet. En betydande fördel är även enkelheten till integration med Fiskarhedenvillans befintliga byggsystem.

    En av de viktigaste slutsatserna från arbetet är att det krävs stor noggrannhet vid uppförande av en källarkonstruktion med avseende på den fuktbelastning som konstruktionen utsätts för. Därför bör stor vikt läggas på säkerställande av tillräcklig och tillförlitlig dränering.

    En intressant reflektion var att Leca® som är ett av de mest populära byggmaterialen vid byggnation av källare och som beskrivs som fuktsäkert påvisade tendenser att öka det totala fuktinnehållet vid icke motfylld suterrängkonstruktion. Vidare kan det även diskuteras vilken egenskap som efterfrågas vid uppförande av en källarkonstruktion, något som möjliggör att valet av konstruktion kan variera.

  • 32.
    Olin, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Palm, Alexander
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energieffektivt byggande: Konkreta aspekter att beakta vid uppförandet av kommunala förskolor i Dalarna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy issue is becoming more relevant to handle and consider in the construction industry, particularly

    energy efficiency has become a rapidly growing subject. In the current situation efforts is made to improve

    energy-efficient construction. Counties choose to go in and invest in energy efficient development.

    The purpose of this report is to relate the standpoint of the underlying controlling aspects when

    establishing energy efficient preschools. Aspects covered include the application of management systems

    and communal goals. The choice of contract form and the use of new techniques and placement of the

    property.

    The task is being limited to only compare two Dala-counties establishment of preschools with energy as

    focal point the two counties compered were Leksand and Säter. Contact was made for determination of

    interviews with people responsible for the establishment of the preschools. The interviews were open for

    free answers and reasoning. The literature review was done to get a related theory and to establish the

    foundation of knowledge work based on. The information that emerged from the interviews have been

    compiled on the basis for responding to the work issue.

    The shortage of preschools have resulted in an effort to satiate the covered demand by establish building

    suited for kids. The counties involved new concepts such as new methods for floor heating when they

    established the preschools to secure energy and climate friendly standards to reach EU targets. Careful

    planning is something to take into considering when establishing buildings in this case one of the counties

    started their establishment before the planning was completed which was a reason why the project dissented

    from its planned budget.

    The conclusion from this report is that the accuracy in the planning stage of the building process is crucial

    if building projects are to achieve their goals, in this case, both achieved their local requirements. In contrast

    one of the municipalities did get a more winding road than planned. To establish and operate pilot projects

    in the construction industry, which means to test new areas resulting in a "ripple" effect. Meaning that

    resembled municipalities can choose to start their own energy efficient constructionproject. The municipal

    goals in energy-efficient construction is controlled by the municipality's own established policy documents

    and the municipality's position in energy-efficient construction. Attractiveness is something that

    municipalities among themselves competing with each other, for a municipality to appear attractive it is

    required that modernization takes place within the municipality. If the municipality choose to invest in

    energy efficiency, this appears to be positive and raises the status of the municipal energy thinking.

  • 33.
    Olsson Thor, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Fuktutredning av massivträkonstruktion: Analys av vägg utan ångspärr2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is part of a research and development project for Dalarna University,where the goal is to produce a design without a vapour barrier that will meettoday's measure of airtightness and moisture requirements.

    The purpose of this report is to investigate how moisture affects a building withsolid wood and various insulation materials without vapour barrier. Mineral woolinsulation and wood fiber insulation will be compared against each other to seehow they affect the moisture load in a wall. The test object is located in Dalarna,no additional moisture load affect the indoor environment.

    To carry out this work, three different methods are used. A moisture simulationwas performed using the program WUFI, measured values in terms of relativehumidity and temperature were collected over two years from the wall of thebuilding. A sampling was performed with a physical operation on the same levelin the wall where measurement sensors were placed.

    Results are presented in form of graphs and tables where you can read thecurrent state of the construction in terms of relative humidity, temperature,moisture content and microbiological fouling. Insulation materials demonstrate ahigh relative humidity at outer layers of the construction during the wintermonths. The external environment has been shown to play a major part for theresults. No direct microbiological fouling has been detected despite a highcontent of moisture.

    The result of wood fiber insulation demonstrates a better ability to handlemoisture. A further study with a moisture load and 21 degrees indoors should beperformed. But for this study to work it’s recommended to change the currentfacade solution to a two- step sealed facade solution to manage the moistureload in the wall.

  • 34.
    Palmqvist, Camilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Strömeus, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Behovsstyrd frånluftsventilation: - Jämförelse med två andra ventilationssystem2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the demands on energy efficiency in the community is getting higher. Buildings and products are becoming more energy efficient. It is possible to influence energy consumption by choosing ventilation systems with lower energy consumption without risking poor air quality.

    The purpose of the study is to compare the demand-controlled exhaust ventilation to exhaust and supply air ventilation with heat exchanger and exhaust ventilation in terms of energy consumption. The study includes simulations in the computer program TMF Energy and studies of a single-family house located in Borlänge. The program has been used as a calculation tool to survey the theoretical specific energy of the three selected ventilation systems. In order to measure the demand-controlled exhaust ventilation an obligatory ventilation control and effect- and comfort measurements was performed. The measurements were made to determine how demand-controlled exhaust ventilation affects the indoor climate and the ventilation rate that is sufficient to maintain good air quality.

    The result shows that demand-controlled exhaust ventilation can reduce energy consumption compared to exhaust ventilation. The result also shows that a low ventilation rate can be sufficient to ventilate a single-family house.

  • 35.
    Pehrson, Oscar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Analys av omkostnader vid byggande av flerfamiljshus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The profit margins for companies in the construction sector have been low for a long time even though the market has been good. One explanation for the low profit margins is that costs have increased at the same rate as income. This means that a good control over the finances for a project is essential for the success of a good result.

    At spreadsheet work for a project, it is not the direct costs but the overhead cost that creates uncertainty. Overhead costs can be described simply as the cost of the temporary factory in the workplace and includes rental of equipment, barracks and cost of formwork, clothes etc. Previous projects have shown that the calculated overhead cost and the actual outcome are not always corresponding well.

    When there is uncertainty among calculation engineers and site managers how big the costs are, and under which account every expense should be placed. The purpose of the thesis is to show how the distribution of costs varies between projects. Results will give key indicators that can be used as the basis for future calculations. The key indicators formulated are cost per gross area, cost per profession working hours and cost per apartment. The analysis is focused on the economic outcome of production of seven multifamily houses in central Sweden, where all projects are equal in terms of construction.

    The results gave values of 1320 SEK/gross area, 310 SEK/hour and 143 000 SEK/apartment. The key indicators SEK/gross area and SEK/hour had even values between all projects and are therefore reliable. The key indicator SEK/apartment varied significantly and is therefore not reliable. The reason of the variation is attributed to the fact that some of the projects not only contain apartment, but also offices, business premises and collaboration facilities.

    To get extra accuracy around overhead cost management, there should be a more consistent approach around the concept of overhead cost within the company. Creating a search document will help the site manager’s work with placement of overhead cost. To keep the key indicators updated in the future, there should also be a template created which the site manager fills in at the end of each project. This can be used in experience feedback.

  • 36.
    Pettersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Danielsen, Carl
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jämförelse av fuktskydd för träsyllar: Fallstudie av fem stycken fuktskyddande åtgärder2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid byggnation av hus med träregelstomme monteras en liggande regel på en

    betongplatta, en så kallad syll. Syllen är oskyddad under lång tid av byggtiden

    och kan då utsättas för nederbörd i form av regn och snö. Fukthalten i syllen får

    inte vara för stor när väggbeklädnad monteras för att fukten skall ha en chans att

    torka ut vilket annars kan orsaka mögelpåväxt med konsekvenserna att den

    huvudsakliga funktionen blir sämre genom att svampar bryter ned träets fibrer.

    Dessutom kan dålig lukt uppstå.

    Det finns möjlighet att montera fullskaligt väderskydd under byggtiden för att

    säkerställa torr miljö, men då detta är en stor kostnad är det få husbyggare som

    väljer detta alternativ.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att analysera och jämföra olika typer av

    fuktskyddslösningar för syllen under byggskedet. Respektive lösning kommer att

    utvärderas och jämföras utifrån i examensarbetets framtagna

    jämförelseparametrar.

    Resultatet visade att varianterna med en obehandlad syll av sibirisk lärk och en

    syll från Kebony visade sig ge bra beständighet mot fukt. Den av sibirisk lärk

    värderades högre då produkten från Kebony inte är beprövad under längre tid

    och behöver analyseras mer ingående.

    Det visar sig att olika omfattning av fuktpåverkan alltid förekommer, men dess

    skadeverkan är av olika omfattning och att det kan accepteras i sådan

    utsträckning att inte konstruktion eller människor tar skada.

    Viktiga slutsatser från detta projekt är: Det är ovanligt att fuktproblemet i syllarna

    blir omfattande att de ger märkbara problem, men då problem uppstår krävs

    stora och dyra insatser.

    Ytterligare slutsatser är att tätade ändar på syllarna begränsades uppsugningen

    av stående vatten väldigt bra från kortändorna och att vid extrema

    vädersituationer behövs något väderskydd eller annat material som syll för att

    kunna garantera ett fuktsäkert bygge.

  • 37.
    Romppainen, Joel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Sundberg, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Teoretiska och praktiska tester av byggsystemet Lignea2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under den senaste tiden har miljömedvetenheten ökat i Sverige och nya miljömål ställer krav på energibesparingar i byggbranschen. Bygg- och fastighetssektorn är den som förbrukar mest av Sveriges totala energianvändning. Minskning av energianvändning och koldioxidutsläpp är ett måste, ifall miljömålen ska uppnås. Nya innovationer och energismarta lösningar för byggnader måste utvecklas och testas för att undersöka möjligheterna och de framsteg de skulle kunna bidra med.Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en utförlig beskrivning av ett nytt byggsystem som kallas Lignea. Lignea är ett byggsystem av förtillverkade trämoduler som riktar sig till produktion av småhus. Byggsystemet eftersträvar att vara ett energieffektivt och miljövänligt alternativ till dagens traditionella byggsystem. Modulerna i byggsystemet Lignea består av trä och isoleringen av träfiberisolering, vilket gör Lignea till ett miljöanpassat byggsystem där ingående material består av naturliga material och skulle kunna återanvändas eller återgå till kretsloppet på olika sätt. Rapporten syftar också till att redovisa resultat och slutsatser av de studier och tester som utfördes på ett testhus uppfört med byggsystemet. Studierna gjordes för att utvärdera byggsystemets täthet, fukt- och värmetekniska egenskaper.Olika metoder användes för att uppnå resultaten för respektive undersöksområde. En fuktsimulering genomfördes i programmet WUFI. Fuktsimuleringen jämfördes sedan mot verkligt uppmätta värden från fyra fuktsensorer inbyggda på olika platser i testhusets väggar, de verkliga mätningarna varade i 21 månader. Tryckprovningsutrustning användes för att undersöka tätheten i konstruktionen samtidigt som testhuset termograferades för att lokalisera luftlekagen. U-värdesberäkningar genomfördes för att undersöka värmegenomgångsmotståndet.Resultatet och slutsatserna grundar sig på teoretiska beräkningar och praktiskt utförda tester som kan användas för att klargöra byggsystemets täthet, fukt- och värmetekniska egenskaper.De verkliga fuktmätningarna visade att den relativa fuktigheten i väggkonstruktionen inte innebär någon risk för byggsystemet. Undersökningarna som genomförts på byggsystemet har resulterat i slutsatser som bidragit till förbättringsförslag och förslag på fortsatta studier av byggsystemet.

  • 38.
    Selo, Jovan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tayfur, Bora
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Frånluftsåtervinning i ett äldre flerfamiljehus: Hovgården - Borlänge2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we have studied a building located in Hovgården in Borlänge. The report investigates two energy saving installations that can help to reduce the amount of oil used today in the house. The purpose of the report was to examine the possibilities and viability of exhaust heat pump (FVP) and VBX module that can recover heat from the exhaust air. The investigation showed that neither VBX nor FVP can replace the oil-fired boiler in an acceptable way. With VBX the COP of the existing heat pump is increased from 2.8 to 3.11 leading to 17 MWh/year electricity saving. However FVP can recycle 59 MWh/year from the exhaust air but still cannot cover the power demand of the building during the coldest days. The result was that the two investigated systems are not able to replace oil heating.

  • 39.
    Sundholm, Sebastian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energirenovering av befintliga bostadsbeståndet för att uppnå energi- och miljömål för 2020, 2030 och 20502018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim to examine how Sweden's existing housing stock needs to adapt to achieve the objectives and agreements signed to counteract climate change as well as, what specific measures should be prioritized in order to achieve the objectives within the set timeframe. To answer the purpose, the study has used theoretical and real objects where extensive energy savings have been performed. This potential has been applied to the entire housing stock and its environmental impact has been calculated.The study focused on the category of single-family homes and apartment buildings. The results showed that when all renovation measures were applied, greenhouse gas emissions fell by 88% from 1990 years, energy efficiency increased by 47% from 2016 years, and the share of renewable energy was considered to continue to increase. The proportion of fossil fuels was relatively large 1990 for heating homes and hot water that were phased out to more environmentally friendly alternatives over time. This meant that 2016 was the housing stock were significantly below the targets set for greenhouse gas emissions for years 2020 and 2030 i.e. The targets were already fulfilled in 2016. However, the target for 2050 was set at a reduction of at least 80%, which meant that all the measures for reducing energy consumption in the study needed to be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to set targets.The study shows that all the goals that Sweden has adopted can be achieved or achieve great improvement as all of the study's energy saving and carbon reduction proposals are implemented.

  • 40.
    Sundkvist, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Attraktiva egenskaper hos lägenheter: En studie om vad byggherren, projektörer och entreprenörer bör tänka på vid nybyggnation eller renovering av flerbostadshus2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det råder idag en stor bostadsbrist i Sverige och detta på grund av urbanisering,

    dvs. en stor befolkningsökning i städerna. Det betyder att mycket bostäder

    behöver byggas och då är det viktigt att projektörerna vet vad de

    bostadssökande vill ha när det gäller lägenheter.

    Som huvudsyfte för arbetet står att samla information och få en bild av vad de

    bostadssökande söker när de letar lägenheter. Resultatet av detta kan fungera

    som ett underlag för kommande lägenhetsbyggnationer och renoveringar. Ett

    sekundärt syfte är att med hjälp av insamlad och analyserad data ta fram en

    principskiss på hur en lägenhet skulle kunna se ut och denna ska även stämma

    överens med dagens byggnormer.

    I rapporten har en lägenhet tagits fram baserat på svaren från en

    enkätundersökning, tre intervjuer med mäklare och intervju med det kommunala

    bostadsbolaget Tunabyggen i Borlänge samt gällande krav och byggregler i

    BBR.

    De viktigaste slutsatserna i rapporten är att pris och månadsavgift eller hyra är

    viktigast för de sökande. Vidare bör det finnas en balkong men att den är

    inglasad är oviktigt. Att sätta in ett badkar är inte heller något som lockar de

    bostadssökande.

  • 41.
    Svensson, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Prefab kontra platsbyggd stomme: En fallstudie ur ett kostnadsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report consists a comparative analysis between a prefabricated and place-built body for which selection is the most advantageous in hall buildings, office buildings and store buildings. Investigations of the advantages and disadvantages of building methods from a perspective that have costs, environmental and external factors have been affected. However, in the pursuit of more efficient production and industrial construction, the proportion of prefabricated components for the Swedish building industry does not increase at the rate that the market wants. This necessitates an investigation of what makes the use of prefabricated bodies stagnant. Therefore, does the report examines the pros and cons of the two cases. In constructions of prefabricated concrete elements, connections that do not exist in corresponding place-built constructions are created, which affects the choice. Building and assembling with prefabricated elements increases the quality of the material as they are not exposed to cold or moisture before assembly when the manufacturing is done at the factory. The house is being built faster because the construction site becomes almost a mounting site of parts that are finished, which means that the material storage in the workplace disappears when the elements are delivered when they are assembled. If delivery times are kept

    short, the construction time will also decrease which will result in lower costs. The purpose of the report is to make the choice between these two depending on the type of project easier and it should be achieved with increased knowledge of place-built body and prefabricated body. What has been used as the basis for the report has been produced through a survey and literature study. There have also been interviews on leadership roles in the construction industry. The result shows that the design of the building affects but is not the single deciding factor for the choice between prefabricated or place-built body. If you look primarily at Sweden, the economic factor is usually the basis for the choice of body. The big difference between the stomach alternatives lies in the construction time, which can be up to 1/5 shorter in prefabricated stems than at the place -built frame.

  • 42.
    Viberg, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tilluftsradiatorns effektivitet: En jämförande studie av tre tilluftsintegrerade rumsvärmare och en konventionell radiator2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radiators are one of the most common and proven systems for space heating. Their limited heat-emitting surface, however, has limited the temperatures the systems work for. New solutions improve efficiency opening up systems for heating by using energy of lower grades and temperatures. By bringing outside air directly through the radiator, heat transfer can be improved. The purpose of the study is to examine how the outdoor temperature 0 ° C and -15 ° C, and the constructive details, affects the effectiveness of six different solutions for space heating. The study included four test objects of which one is a new type of a so-called ventilation radiator. The other test objects were a more conventional panel radiator and two existing heating’s – and were supply air terminals. Other aims were to investigate how three different types of bottom plates of the prototype affect the efficiency and suggest solutions for the ventilation radiator. The tests were conducted in a climate chamber in which actual conditions could be created and the efficiency of the respective solution were studied. An aggregate and a water circuit supplied heat to the test objects while a pressure creating fan created enough airflow. The results show that the degree of outdoor air mixed up with room air plays a major role in the effectiveness of the ventilation radiator. If the room air mix is limited the prototype can improve their efficiency by 15 to 18%. Even the outdoor temperature plays a big role in efficiency. The prototype increases its efficiency by 19 to 26%, while the radiators with supply air increased its efficiency by 10 to 15% when the outside temperature was changed from 0 ° C to -15 ° C. The two supply air terminals are equivalent in effectiveness, one raises, however, its effectiveness somewhat more when the outdoor temperature is lowered. All solutions where the outside air was passed through the radiators are more effective than the more conventional radiator, where the outdoor air never come in direct contact with the radiator. The study shows that it is important that the outside air that comes in contact with the radiator has been preheated as little as possible for good efficiency.

  • 43. Weicker Frost, Jacob
    Partneringi byggbranschen: En studie avolika aktörers inställning till partnering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen i Sverige kan ses som ett stafettlopp mellan olika aktörer där juridiken spelar en allt för stor roll. På grund av detta så kom i början på 2000-talet partnering till Sverige som en ny samverkansform. Av de partneringprojekt som utförs i Sverige så står den offentliga sektorn för ungefär 80 %.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att kartlägga partnering på Skanska för att se vilka utvecklingsmöjligheter som fanns och vilken inställning olika aktörer har till partnering. För att få ett strukturerat och enkelt syfte så stolpades följande frågeställningar upp:

     Vad kan Skanska göra för att utveckla och förbättra sitt arbetssätt i partnering?

     Vad ä viktigt fö ett lyckat partneringprojekt?

     Vilka för- och nackdelar finns med partnering jämfört med traditionellt samarbete?

     Vad karaktäriserar ett projekt där partnering anses som ett bra arbetssätt?

     Varfö väjer vissa bestälare att inte jobba i partnering?

     Vad kan Skanska göa fö att fåfler bestälare att väja partnering?

    För att arbetet inte skulle bli för tidskrävande utifrån den givna tidsramen som fanns så avgränsades det till att endast behandla åsikter hos produktionschefer, beställare och underentreprenörer. De aktörer som deltog i studien var från Gävle-/Dalaregionen och endast offentliga beställare tillfrågades.

    Arbetet inleddes med en litteraturstudie för att ge en djupare inblick i vad partnering är och hur det fungerar. I denna fas gjordes även litteraturstudier för att finna den mest lämpade metoden för att genomföra arbetet. Dessa studier resulterade i att den halvstrukturerade intervjuformen samt enkäter användes som metod.

    I resultatet redovisas de tillfrågades svar som sedan sammanställs i analysen där de ställs i relation till teoridelen. Analysen mynnar sedan ut i ett antal slutsatser.

     Några slutsatser som kunnat dras av detta arbete är att det inom partnering är viktigt att:

     Se till att endast personal som är engagerad och intresserad av partnering deltar i projekten.

     Läga mycket tid i föstudien.

     Alla aktöer släper täket som finns i traditionellt samarbete.

     Alla parter har bra koll på ekonomin och har en tydlig och öppen redovisning.

     Sätta upp tydliga gemensamma mål där alla i projektet involveras.

  • 44.
    Åkerman, Hampus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Larsson, Eric
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lipton - Det smarta trähuset: Energieffektivisering av Dalahus lägenhetskomplex i trä2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's climate is affecting all countries and Sweden is no exception. With agrowing global environmental problem everyone needs to contribute to change.The project's contribution to the environment is to show how energyconsumption of a multi-family apartment block can be reduced. By calculatingUm for the house Lipton's current building envelope and identify the parts whereimprovements could be made, and compile the elements of design which aremost promising for improving the building envelope. Technical measures witch isnot directly related to the building envelope, such as demand controlledventilation, electrically efficient fans and other energy-smart solutions will beutilized to reduce Lipton specific energy consumption.Buildings lose heat through the building envelope but by harnessing the sun'senergy, think carefully about the building's placement, increase insulationthickness and use smart ventilation solutions, the project aims to reduce thehouse Liptons specific energy consumption to at least half of Boverkets energydemands in 2014 for new buildings in climate zone 2 which is set to110 kWh/m2 year.To calculate the specific energy consumption in use phase, a simple calculationprogram, TMF-Energy 2.3, will be used. In the project, the heating system,water/sewer and use of household energy is not to be included.The original design of the house Lipton has a specific energy consumption of56.9 kWh/m2 year which is relatively low and almost half of Boverkets energyrequirementsThe energy consumption of Lipton will be decreased by:• Improving Um for Lipton's building envelope.• Using a double-shell technology.Högskolan Dalarna• Plan where the house is located for favorable outer conditions• Using demand-controlled ventilation with energy efficient fans

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