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  • 1.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Distance measure and the p-median problem in rural areas2015In: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 226, no 1, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population patronize the nearest facility and that the distance between the resident and the facility may be measured by the Euclidean distance. Carling, Han, and Håkansson (2012) compared two network distances with the Euclidean in a rural region with a sparse, heterogeneous network and a non-symmetric distribution of the population. For a coarse network and P small, they found, in contrast to the literature, the Euclidean distance to be problematic. In this paper we extend their work by use of a refined network and study systematically the case when P is of varying size (1-100 facilities). We find that the network distance give as good a solution as the travel-time network. The Euclidean distance gives solutions some 4-10 per cent worse than the network distances, and the solutions tend to deteriorate with increasing P. Our conclusions extend to intra-urban location problems.

  • 2.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2013In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 226, no 3, p. 658-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, the three arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 3.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    The effect on CO2 emissions of taxing truck distance in retail transports2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 97, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In competitive retail and transportation markets, such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 4.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effects of taxing truck distance on CO2 emissions from transports in retailing2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In the competitive retail market such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 5.
    Espegren, Yanina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Olsmats, Carl
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Smart online grocery delivery and peri-urbanconsumers’ attitudes2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore consumers’ attitudes towards e-commerce, in particular online grocery shopping, and its delivery in non-dense areas for the purpose of designing smart last-mile solutions.

    Approach: The state-of-the-art of smart e-commerce delivery in dense areas was identified by a review of the literature. It was expected that this knowledge could be transferred to non-dense areas. This prediction was examined and explored further by making use of four focus groups recruited in a Swedish mid-sized town.

    Findings: Respondents were generally positive towards e-commerce, although mixed attitudes were found with regard to online grocery shopping. Further, the willingness to pay for flexible, smart and sustainable delivery was low, with a notable exception for local produce.

    Originality: The knowledge acquired and solution developed in dense areas is not readily transferred to non-dense areas. There is scope for developing new Business Models for the supply chain of local produce. For the prototype testing and roll-out of smart e-commerce delivery platforms, the online local produce market is recommended.

  • 6.
    Hallenberg, Josefin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bergström, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Konceptet mobilitet som tjänst: Viktiga kompetenser och möjliga utmaningar vid vidareutvecklingen av MaaS i Sverige.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transport and travel is necessary for our society to function. Today, the privately owned car stands for more than half of all personal trips in Sweden. In the last couple of years researchers have highlighted the idea that personal transport is facing a paradigm shift, which means a reduction in the use and dependent of the privately owned car and an increased focus on individuals buying their Mobility as a Service (MaaS). MaaS is described as an integrated mix of different mobility services which are arranged in the form of customized mobility packages to the customer. These mobility packages can be compared to a mobile phone subscription, which includes various mobility services, such as train, bus, subway, taxi, carpool, etc. in various amounts depending on the individual's changing needs. The individual can take care of their own travel planning, booking and payment via an app in their smartphone. What distinguish MaaS from other mobility services is that the customer can travel from door-to-door instead of a predefine station to another.

    There have been various Maas projects around the world in order to increase understanding of the concept of MaaS, there is still a lot of unanswered questions and researchers would like to see more studies in the field, in order to find factors that are important and vital to the concept MaaS.

    The aim of the thesis is to: Discuss some competences that may be significant for the further development of the concept Maas in Sweden and discuss potential challenges that may arise at further development of the concept MaaS in Sweden.

    This study is based on previous research and experiences and thoughts on the concept MaaS from various stakeholders with knowledge and experience of the concept.

    This study has an abductive approach. Primary data were obtained through qualitative semistructured interviews with eight people who have knowledge and experience of the Maas.

    The main conclusions in this study is that the competences that are most important in the development of MaaS is collaborative skills and competences required to create an attractive mobility package based on customer needs.

    One challenge identified in this study is the challenge of creating individualized mobility package in which different types of mobility services are integrated. Another challenge can arise when public and private organizations collaborate and when new organizations enter the transport network and try to cooperate with the established organizations

  • 7.
    Hägerby, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    HVV.
    V2G backup Skid-VM 20152012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    2015 kommer Skid-VM att hållas i Falun. TV-bolagen kräver redundant kraft som standard för denna typ av arrangemang. Detta sköts normalt med dieselgeneratorer och eventuellt UPS:er. För att utreda detaljerna kring, och möjligheterna med, att ersätta några eller alla dieselgeneratorer med elkraft från elfordon, har en förstudie gjorts under 2011.

    Denna studie tittat djupare på några sätt att göra detta. Slutsatsen är att tekniken finns och är mogen nog att klara uppgiften, men intresset hos fordonstillverkarna är svagt.

  • 8.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effectiveness of trigger speed of vehicle-activated signs on mean and standard deviation of speed2016In: Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, ISSN 1943-9962, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 293-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive or inappropriate speeds are a key factor in traffic fatalities and crashes. Vehicle-activated signs (VASs) are therefore being extensively used to reduce speeding to increase traffic safety. A VAS is triggered by an individual vehicle when the driver exceeds a speed threshold, otherwise known as trigger speed (TS). The TS is usually set to a constant, normally proportional to the speed limit on the particular segment of road. Decisions concerning the TS largely depend on the local traffic authorities. The primary objective of this article is to help authorities determine the TS that gives an optimal effect on the Mean and Standard Deviation of speed. The data were systematically collected using radar technology whilst varying the TS. The results show that when the applied TS was set near the speed limit, the standard deviation was high. However, the Standard Deviation decreased substantially when the threshold was set to the 85th percentile. This decrease occurred without a significant increase in the mean speed. It is concluded that the optimal threshold speed should approximate the 85th percentile, though VASs should ideally be individually calibrated to the traffic conditions at each site.

  • 9.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Bjerre, Bo
    Trafikverket.
    Primary prevention of drink driving by the large-scale use of alcolocks in commercial vehicles2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 1294-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcolocks are commercial breath test devices that prevent a motor vehicle from starting when a driver's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is elevated. This report is an evaluation of the experiences and BAC data from the first use of alcolocks in commercial vehicles as a primary prevention strategy. In most applications, the alcolock is imposed only after an impaired driving conviction. This study, implemented in Sweden, estimates drink driving on a large scale in a variety of commercial vehicles.

    Officials from 118 companies were interviewed representing 3689 alcolock-equipped vehicles used by 9614 professional drivers, an 80% compliance rate. In a contrast group of 230 transport businesses without alcolocks the interview compliance rate was 57%. Survey results probed motivation for and experience with alcolocks. Analysis of BAC test patterns showed alcohol consumption among employees through prevalence estimates of drink-driving attempts at the rate of BAC ≥ the legal limit 0.020%.

    Before alcolock installation, 64% of the employers suspected alcohol problems among their employees and their motive for installing alcolocks (cost averaged 1700 €/vehicle) was to improve the transport quality. Several companies had technical problems with the alcolocks; but 98% recommended that other companies install alcolocks.

    Among 600, heavy vehicles, 0.19% of all starts were prevented by elevated BAC; most during weekends and mornings. Daytime Saturday and Sunday mornings 0.72% of the drivers had elevated BAC.

    Conclusions

    The prevalence of drink driving among professional drivers is probably similar to that among drivers in general. Alcolocks would improve the safety margin and reduce public risk. Provided that the entire fleet of trucks, buses, and taxis in Sweden had installed alcolocks that would correspond to about half a million drink driving trips being prevented every year.

  • 10.
    Landré, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Using GIS to measure regional enlargement and strengthening in Sweden2014In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation and Urban Planning, ISSN 2373-0757, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to determine the size of regional enlargement and strengthening in Sweden over a period of eight years and the relationship with economic growth by analyzing changes in commuting patterns in that period using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. For this analysis, commuting regions have been delimited using the classic concept of commuting field for one-way flows from homes to employment centres functioning as central places. The delimitation procedure is supported by a geo-processing model that automates the process of building such fields. The analysis results show that substantial regional enlargement and strengthening occurred around major employment centres between 2000 and 2008. More than 40% of municipalities could enlarge their commuting field, while for more than 80% of municipalities in these fields their orientation to the core of such a field increased. A significant strong, positive correlation exists between economic growth and regional strengthening, expressed by an increased orientation to the core municipality of a commuting field of commuters living in surrounding municipalities and decreased internal commuting in the core municipality. Municipalities with enlarged commuting fields have on average more employment growth than municipalities whose fields have not changed. There is no indication that regional enlargement of an employment centre is influenced by growing numbers of employed residents in surrounding municipalities.

  • 11.
    Olsmats, Carl
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Förpackningar för ökad lönsamhet: ett Supply Chain Management-perspektiv på förpackningar2018In: Supply Chain Effect: För beslutsfattare i Supply Chain, Vol. 4, p. 22-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Paidi, Vijay
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Developing decision support systems for last mile transportation problems2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Last mile transportation is the most problematic phase of transportation needing additional research and effort. Longer waits or search times, lack of navigational directions and real-time information are some of the common problems associated with last mile transportation. Inefficient last mile transportation has an impact on the environment, fuel consumption, user satisfaction and business opportunities. Last mile problems exist in several transportation domains, such as: the landing of airplanes, docking of ships, parking of vehicles, attended home deliveries, etc. While there are dedicated inter-connected decision support systems available for ships and aircraft, similar systems are not widely utilized in parking or attended handover domains. Therefore, the scope of this thesis covers last mile transportation problems in parking and attended handover domains. One problem area for parking and attended handovers is due to lack of real-time information to the driver or consumer. The second problem area is dynamic scheduling where the handover vehicle must traverse additional distance to multiple handover locations due to lack of optimized routes. Similarly, during parking, lack of navigational directions to an empty parking space can lead to increased fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Therefore, aim of this thesis is to design and develop decision support systems for last mile transportation problems by holistically addressing real time customer communication and dynamic scheduling problem areas. The problem areas discussed in this thesis consists of persistent issues even though they were widely discussed in the literature. In order to investigate the problem areas, microdata analysis approach was implemented in the thesis. The phases involved in Microdata analysis are: data collection, data processing, data storage, data analysis and decision-making. Other similar research domains, such as: computer science or statistics also involve phases such as data collection, processing, storage and analysis. These research domains also work in the fields of decision support systems or knowledge creation. However, knowledge creation or decision support systems is not a mandatory phase in these research domains, unlike Microdata analysis. Three papers are presented in this thesis, with two papers focusing on parking domains, while the third paper focuses on attended handover domains.

    The first paper identifies available smart parking tools, applications and discusses their uses and drawbacks in relation to open parking lots. The usage of cameras in identifying parking occupancy was recognized as one of the suitable tools in this paper. The second paper uses a thermal camera to collect the parking lot data, while deep learning methodologies were used to identify parking occupancy detection. Multiple deep learning networks were evaluated for identifying parking spaces and one method was considered suitable for acquiring real time parking occupancy. The acquired parking occupancy information can be communicated to the user to address real-time customer communication problems. However, the decision support system (DSS) to communicate parking occupancy information still needs to be developed. The third paper focuses on the attended handovers domain where a decision support system was reported which addresses real-time customer communication and dynamic scheduling problems holistically. Based on a survey, customers accepted the use of mobile devices for enabling a real-time information flow for improving customer satisfaction. A pilot test on vehicle routing was performed where the decision support system reduced the vehicle routing distance compared to the route taken by the driver. The three papers work in developing decision support systems for addressing major last mile transportation problems in parking and attended handover domains, thus improving customer satisfaction, and business opportunities, and reducing fuel costs, and pollution.

  • 13.
    Paidi, Vijay
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    A holistic decision support system for last mile handovers2019In: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last mile handover is assumed to be the most problematic part in the delivery process and the costs can go upto 50% of the total logistic cost. Real time consumer communication and dynamic scheduling are the major problem areas associated with effective attended last mile handovers. Therefore, aim of this paper is to report the design and development of a holistic decision support system’s functionalities which simultaneously addresses real time consumer communication and dynamic scheduling. A decision support system was designed and developed based on workshops, expert group interviews and its functionalities were proposed with the use cases. A survey was conducted with consumers of a retailer where majority of the consumers accepted the use of mobile communication devices to enable real time communication and alternate handover location which improves customer satisfaction and facilitates to avoid missed handovers. A pilot test was performed where routing distance was reduced with the use of optimized handover routes. However the improvement is subjected to the experience of driver and real time traffic conditions. We conclude that a holistic decision support system with multi-party communication among the stakeholders facilitates in reducing operational costs for logistic companies and improving customer satisfaction and business opportunities.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-30 21:30
  • 14.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data2017In: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017, 2017, p. 323-334, article id IAC201711035Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error of -10 km/h. Elevation measurements are unreliable with errors bigger than 100 meters.

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