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  • 1.
    Jonsdottir, Rakel J.
    et al.
    Norðurlandsskógar, Krókeyri, IS-600, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.
    Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, IS-311, Borgarnes, Iceland.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 43, 739 21 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Effects of nutrient loading and fertilization at planting on growth and nutrient status of Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii) seedlings during the first growing season in Iceland2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 631-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low availability of nitrogen (N) is believed to be one of the major limiting factors of forest regeneration inIceland and frequently under Boreal conditions. Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii Littl.) seedlings were nutrient loadedusing four fertilization regimes in the end of nursery rotation in autumn 2008 and planted in the following spring,with or without a single dose of fertilizer, on two treeless sites in N-Iceland with contrasting soil fertility.Measurements were made after one growing season. The highest loading level without additional field fertilizationincreased new needle mass by 122% and 152%, for the poor and more fertile site, respectively. The highest loadinglevel with field fertilization increased new needle mass equally, by 188% and 189%, for the poor and more fertilesite, respectively. Retranslocation of N, from old needles to current needles, increased with more loading.However, it was clear that nutrient loading could not replace field fertilization, as the seedlings generally showedan additive response to field fertilization and nutrient loading; doing both always gave the best results in seedlingperformance. As the study only covers field establishment during the first year, the long-term effect of nutrientloading of Lutz spruce cannot be predicted. However, it was concluded that loading might provide an additionalinput for faster plantation establishment during the first growing season after planting.

  • 2.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Response to a social dilemma: an analysis of the choice between an economic and an environmental optimum in a policy making context2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries have begun to require benefit-cost analysis as a way of informing key regulatory decisions. However, its actual use seem to be limited, especially in the area of environmental, health, and safety regulation. Reasons for this seem to be lack of knowledge and experience among decision makers and that established quality objectives prevent the use of this type of analysis and deliberation. We present the results from an experiment designed to investigate choice behavior in a public sector context. Students with different academic majors were asked to act as decision makers. There were two choice situations: one in a municipality deciding on an action plan and one in a government agency having to propose a national limit value. In both settings, the outcome that would pass a benefit-cost test would not achieve a natural state of the environment, hence a social dilemma choice situation. We find that a majority of the respondents prefer outcomes that can be considered environmental “optimum” but that there is a difference depending on academic major. The choice context also influences the response behavior and so does the information about an international standard. The latter increases the likelihood to accept alternatives that imply higher costs.

  • 3. Skarin, A.
    et al.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Reindeer habitat use in relation to two small wind farms, during preconstruction, construction, and operation2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 3870-3882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide there is a rush toward wind power development and its associated infrastructure. In Fennoscandia, large-scale wind farms comprising several hundred windmills are currently built in important grazing ranges used for Sámi reindeer husbandry. In this study, reindeer habitat use was assessed using reindeer fecal pellet group counts in relation to two relatively small wind farms, with 8 and 10 turbines, respectively. In 2009, 1,315 15-m2 plots were established and pellet groups were counted and cleaned from the plots. This was repeated once a year in May, during preconstruction, construction, and operation of the wind farms, covering 6 years (2009-2014) of reindeer habitat use in the area. We modeled the presence/absence of any pellets in a plot at both the local (wind farm site) and regional (reindeer calving to autumn range) scale with a hierarchical logistic regression, where spatial correlation was accounted for via random effects, using vegetation type, and the interaction between distance to wind turbine and time period as predictor variables. Our results revealed an absolute reduction in pellet groups by 66% and 86% around each wind farm, respectively, at local scale and by 61% at regional scale during the operation phase compared to the preconstruction phase. At the regional, scale habitat use declined close to the turbines in the same comparison. However, at the local scale, we observed increased habitat use close to the wind turbines at one of the wind farms during the operation phase. This may be explained by continued use of an important migration route close to the wind farm. The reduced use at the regional scale nevertheless suggests that there may be an overall avoidance of both wind farms during operation, but further studies of reindeer movement and behavior are needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms behind this suggested avoidance.

  • 4.
    Skarin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Nutr & Management, Uppsala.
    Nellemann, Christian
    GRID Arendal, United Nations Environm Programme, Lillehammer, Norway..
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Sandstrom, Per
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resource Management, Umea, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Henrik
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Nutr & Management, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wind farm construction impacts reindeer migration and movement corridors2015In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1527-1540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, we have seen a massive increase in the construction of wind farms in northern Fennoscandia. Wind farms comprising hundreds of wind turbines are being built, with little knowledge of the possible cumulative adverse effects on the habitat use and migration of semi-domesticated free-ranging reindeer. We assessed how reindeer responded to wind farm construction in an already fragmented landscape, with specific reference to the effects on use of movement corridors and reindeer habitat selection. We used GPS-data from reindeer during calving and post-calving in the MalAyen reindeer herding community in Sweden. We analysed data from the pre-development years compared to the construction years of two relatively small wind farms. During construction of the wind farms, use of original migration routes and movement corridors within 2 km of development declined by 76 %. This decline in use corresponded to an increase in activity of the reindeer measured by increased step lengths within 0-5 km. The step length was highest nearest the development and declining with distance, as animals moved towards migration corridors and turned around or were observed in holding patterns while not crossing. During construction, reindeer avoided the wind farms at both regional and landscape scale of selection. The combined construction activities associated with even a few wind turbines combined with power lines and roads in or close to central movement corridors caused a reduction in the use of such corridors and grazing habitat and increased the fragmentation of the reindeer calving ranges.

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