du.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1234 1 - 50 of 160
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Ahmed, Sadeq Mohamed
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Vaziri, Kamran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes: The Case of Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to health problems and the negative externalities associated with cigarette consumption, many governments try to discourage cigarette consumption by increasing its price through taxation. However, cigarette, like the other addictive goods, is viewed as that it is not sensitive to demand rules and the market forces. This study analyses the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. We used Swedish time series data from 1970 to 2010.

    Our results reveal that though cigarette is addictive substance its demand is sensitive to changes in the price. Estimates from this study indicate short-run price-elasticity of -0.29 and the long run price elasticity of -0.47.

  • 2.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Har kommunala sommarjobb under gymnasieåren en positiv effekt på arbetskarriären senare i livet?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att erbjuda sommarjobb till ungdomar ses i många länder som ett sätt att förbättra ungdomars möjligheter att komma in och etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden. I Sverige erbjuder de flesta kommuner, delvis finansierat med statliga medel, sommarjobb till ungdomar. Den forskning som finns kring effekten av sommarjobb för ungdomar pekar dock i olika riktningar och lider ofta av metodproblem. Vi undersöker här med bättre metodologiska förutsättningar om kommunala sommarjobb för gymnasieungdomar i Falu kommun har någon positiv effekt på den postgymnasiala inkomstutvecklingen. Vi följer 2 650 ungdomar som, under första året i gymnasiet, ansökte om kommunalt sommarjobb. Vi följer dem tills de når en ålder av som mest 29 år. De kommunala sommarjobben fördelades genom ett lotteriförfarande där alla som ansökte hade lika stor chans att bli tilldelad ett sommarjobb. Vi finner ingen programeffekt för män. För kvinnor upptäcker vi en positiv effekt och då speciellt för kvinnor med låga betyg från grundskolan.

  • 3.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    High-School Students´ Summer Jobs and their Ensuing Labor Market Achievement: the Long Term Effect2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In part because of high and persistent youth unemployment, adolescent students’ transition from school to work is an important policy and research topic. Many countries have implemented public programs offering summer jobs or work while in high-school as measures to smooth the transition. While the immediate effect of the programs on school attendance, school grades, and disposable income is well documented, their effect on the transition to the labor market remains an open question. Observational studies have shown strong positive effects of summer jobs, but also that the estimated effect is highly vulnerable to selection bias. In this paper, some 3700 high-school students applying for summer jobs in the period 1995-2003,via a program, are followed to 30 years of age. A quarter of the applicants were randomly offered a summer job each year. Among the remaining students, 50% had a (non-program related) summer job while in high-school. We find the income, post high-school, for the offered and non-offered groups to be similar and conclude that the effect of summer jobs on the transition to the labor market is inconsequential.

  • 4.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Nääs, Ola
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    The effect of summer jobs on post-schooling incomes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In part because of high youth unemployment, students’ transition from school to work is an important policy and research topic. Public programs offering summer jobs or work while in high school as measures to smooth the transition is commonplace. The immediate effect of the programs on school attendance, school grades, and disposable income is well documented. However, their effect on the transition to the labor market remains unsettled, partly because of a potential selection bias in previous observational studies. In this paper, 2650 first graders of high school in Falun Council, Sweden, randomly allotted summer jobs via a program in the years of 1997-2003, are followed ten years after graduation. The program led to a substantially larger accumulation of work experience while in high school for offered (particularly weak academically performing) females, but not for offered males. Hence, the immediate program effect was heterogeneous. Females were used to estimate the causal effect of work experience while in high school on post-schooling incomes. The (statistically) significant estimate implies an elasticity of 0.4. Work experience while in high school seems to be of future benefit, but the elasticity is potentially inflated due to heterogeneous effects that we were unable to account for.

  • 5.
    Alam, Moudud
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Noh, Maengseok
    Department of Statistics, Pukyong National Univeristy.
    Lee, Youngjo
    Department of Statistics, Seoul National Univeristy.
    Likelihood estimate of treatment effects under selection bias2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider methods for estimating causal effects of treatment in the situation where the individuals in the treatment and the control group are self selected, i.e., the selection mechanism is not randomized. In this case, simple comparison of treated and control outcomes will not generally yield valid estimates of casual effects. The propensity score method is frequently used for the evaluation of treatment effect. However, this method is based onsome strong assumptions, which are not directly testable. In this paper, we present an alternative modeling approachto draw causal inference by using share random-effect model and the computational algorithm to draw likelihood based inference with such a model. With small numerical studies and a real data analysis, we show that our approach gives not only more efficient estimates but it is also less sensitive to model misspecifications, which we consider, than the existing methods.

  • 6. Ankarhem, Mattias
    et al.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Quoreshi, Shahiduzzaman
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Do Regional Investment Grants Improve Firm Performance?: Evidence from Sweden2010In: Technology and Investment, ISSN 2150-4059, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 221-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Swedish regional investment grants during 1990-1999 on firm performance, in terms of returns on equity and number of employees, were studied using a propensity-score matching-method to control for sample selection. Firms that received grants did not perform better in terms of returns on equity when compared to matched firms in the control group. In most years, recipient firms also did not hire more employees. The results thus cast doubt on the use of regional investment grants as a general policy instrument to improve firm performance.

  • 7.
    Areflykt, Lucas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Löne – och sysselsättningseffekter genererade av återinförandet av ROT-avdraget 2008: En undersökning av svenska aktiebolag med Difference-in-Difference metod2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the possible wage and employment effects generated by the reintroduction of the ROT-deduction in 2008. The reintroduction was seen as a permanent measure, and the aim was to counteract undeclared work and to stimulate and increase the building in Sweden. With this paper, we want to evaluate the wage and employment effects that the ROT-deduction contributed to in Swedish construction companies, more specifically limited companies in the ROT industry. A difference-in-difference method will be used to analyze data collected from limited companies in Sweden, aggregated to industry level. Aggregation is made for our results to be directly comparable to previous studies, and to not exclude the effect caused by new companies in the ROT-industry that may have started due to the reform. The difference-in-difference method involves that a treated group consisting of the construction industries affected by the introduction of the ROT-deduction is compared to a control group consisting of other industries before and after the reform. Our results show that the average wage per employee is not affected by the reform, while the reform has increased the average number of employees in the ROT-industry.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Sandra
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sysselsättningseffekter i svenska aktiebolag av införandet av RUT-avdraget: En Difference-in-Differenceanalys2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been done with the purpose to evaluate the employment effects in Swedish limited liability companies from the introduction of the RUT deduction. The RUT deduction was introduced in 2007 and means that individuals can make a tax deduction for various kinds of household work. The data used in this study is annual report data for all Swedish limited liability companies during the years 2000 – 2010, aggregated to the three-digit SNI-code level for all Swedish municipalities. Based on this data the employment effects of the RUT deduction were analyzed using a Difference-in-Difference model. The result shows that the RUT deduction has led to 6930 new jobs created in Swedish limited liability companies in the RUT sector. This means that the RUT deduction has had a positive effect on employment.

  • 9.
    Baboš, Pavol
    et al.
    Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Klimplová, Lenka
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Systematically uncoordinated? The Czech Republic and Slovakia in the view of varieties of capitalism2013In: Contemporary European Studies, ISSN 1802-4289, no 1, p. 71-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict or coordination are the most frequently used words describing the industrial relations in developed economies. What is the relationship between the biggest industrial actors in the former Czechoslovakia and is there any coordination? This paper tries to answer this question focusing on the coordination in the main economic spheres in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The research is based on the analysis of statistical data and a survey in which a group of experts completed a questionnaire stemming from the Varieties of Capitalism approach. Almost 30 experts representing employers, trade unions and the state from both countries provided insight into the amount of coordination that exists among the main economic actors. Our findings not only undermine the recent classifications of the Central Europe in the Varieties of Capitalism literature, but also show a slightly different institutional setting of the industrial relations in these two post-communist countries. The main results of our research shows that there is an emerging pattern of ‘systematic un-coordination’ among the key spheres of the national economy as defined by Varieties of Capitalism. The authors conclude this article with a discussion regarding the results and limitations of their research.

  • 10. Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Market power in the expanding Nordic power market2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 1035-1043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine if the Nordic power market, Nord Pool, has been competitive or if electricity suppliers have had market power. Specifically, since the evolution from national markets to a multi-national and largely deregulated power market has taken place stepwise, we also examine how the degree of market power has evolved during this integration process. The Bresnahan-Lau method together with weekly data during 1996-2004 are used in the analysis, which shows that electricity suppliers have had small, but statistically significant, market power, but that the market power has been reduced as the Nord Pool area has expanded

  • 11.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Institutional Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Economics in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Social trust and central bank independence2014In: European Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0176-2680, E-ISSN 1873-5703, Vol. 34, p. 425-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Central banks have become more independent in many countries. A common rationale has been the existence of a credibility (or lack-of-trust) problem for monetary policy. This indicates a possible and until now unexplored link between social trust and central-bank independence. Our empirical findings, based on data from 149 countries, confirm such a link, in the form of a u-shaped relationship. We suggest that two factors help explain this finding: the need for this kind of reform and the ability with which it can be implemented. At low trust, the need for central-bank independence is sufficiently strong to bring it about, in spite of a low ability to undertake reform. At high trust, the ability to undertake reform is sufficiently strong to bring high independence about, in spite of a low need for it. At intermediate trust levels, lastly, neither need nor ability is strong enough to generate very independent central banks.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå Universitet.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: Consequences for costs per defined daily dose2016In: International Journal of Health Economics and Management, ISSN 2199-9023, E-ISSN 2199-9031, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 201-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products.

  • 13.
    Bergman, Mats A
    et al.
    Södertörn University .
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Squeezing the last drop out of your suppliers: An empirical study of market-based purchasing policies for generic pharmaceuticals2017In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 969-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the average price of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a 1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2% in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%. We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting) effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 14.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Nationalekonomi, Södertörns högskola.
    Granlund, David
    Nationalekonomi, Umeå Universitet.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Apoteksmarknadens omreglering: Effekter på följsamhet, priser och kostnader per dygnsdos2012Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Biedrzycki, Remigiusz
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sports venues’ effect on social welfare: Cost-Benefit analysis of infrastructure investments within Lugnet area in Falun.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Economic analysis and evaluation of sport events and sports infrastructure is a widely

    researched topic, especially when it comes to mega-sports events. As many of major and

    mega events require large amount of resources, governments and municipalities worldwide

    have to make decisions regarding support for the events. To determine whether and to what

    extent events should be subsidised with public resources, a thorough analysis of potential

    impacts of the event has to be conducted. Most of the studies within this field choose

    Economic Impact Analysis as a method, while many researchers point out a need for costbenefit

    analysis, as only a comprehensive analysis of costs and benefits for society can justify

    public subsidies for sport events and sports infrastructure. This paper presents a cost-benefit

    approach of sports venue evaluation. A cost-benefit analysis made in this paper, on the case

    of Swedish outdoor area of Lugnet, Falun, presents possible effects of sports infrastructure

    investments on social welfare. Analysis was aimed towards investments made prior to

    hosting 2015 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Falun. Presenting results for three

    alternative scenarios, this study compares different effects on social benefit. This research

    paper highlights areas that need to be investigated to ensure the better quality of the results,

    thus it can be beneficial for further studies of the topic. Results presented in this paper can

    also be beneficial for policy makers, as many of the potential welfare effects were described.

  • 16.
    Biedrzycki, Remigiusz
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Eriksson, Sebastian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Är det samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt att byta material från impregnerat trä till träkomposit givet att en renovering av Långbryggan i Rättvik är planerad?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För närvarande är Långbryggan i Rättvik gjord av impregnerat trä. Förr eller senare kommer

    det behövas en renovering och då står kommunen inför ett val. Denna studie presenterar två

    av de möjliga alternativen - renovera i impregnerat trä eller träkomposit. Frågan har

    studerats ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv med extra fokus på samhällsekonomisk

    effektivitet. Vi använde oss av en kostnadsnyttoanalys för att bestämma vilket projekt av de

    två som är det lönsammare. I vår analys inkluderade vi kostnader för den initiala

    investeringen, underhållskostnader samt kostnader för olycksfall. Vi testade våra resultat i

    en känslighetsanalys där vi använde oss av Monte Carlo-simulering med avseende på

    diskonteringsräntan och olycksfallskostnader. I vår studie har vi visat möjliga effekter som

    de båda projekten kan ha på trä- och träkompositsmarkander, arbetsmarknaden, Rättviks

    kommun, Långbryggans säkerhet och miljön. Resultatet av våra analyser visade att båda

    projekten har ett negativt nettonuvärde, dock är träkompositprojektet mer

    samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt eftersom det har ett lägre negativt värde.

  • 17. Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Johansson, Dan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sjögren, Hans
    A note on employment and gross domestic product in Swedish family-owned businesses: a descriptive analysis2011In: Family Business Review, ISSN 0894-4865, E-ISSN 1741-6248, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 362-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government gathers information that helps identify family-owned businesses and enabled us to analyze every business in the economy over a longer period than has heretofore been reported. Using these data, we found that family-owned businesses account for up to one fourth of total employment and one fifth of GDP in Sweden. These shares have increased over time, due in part, to economic policy. We compare our findings with other studies and suggest how Sweden and other governments might make family firm data more readily available for researchers.

  • 18.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Dan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    IFN, Stockholm.
    Using self–employment as proxy for entrepreneurship: some empirical caveats2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 290-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self–employment is the most frequently used measure of entrepreneurship. However, its definition varies between countries, which makes comparisons difficult. We present an analysis of Swedish self–employment data and show that even within one country, the depicted development differs greatly depending on the source used. Unlike previous claims in cross–country studies, we find that there is no basis for categorising Sweden as having increased its self–employment rate more than others. This demonstrates a need to carefully specify the characteristics of the data, and their advantages and disadvantages, before drawing conclusions about the frequency of entrepreneurship in different countries.

  • 19. Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Influences of infrastructure and attitudes to health on value of travel time savings in bicycle journeys2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how attitudes to health and exercise in connection with cycling influence the estimation of values of travel time savings in different kinds of bicycle environments (mixed traffic, bicycle lane in the road way, bicycle path next to the road, and bicycle path not in connection with the road). The results, based on two Swedish stated choice studies, suggest that the values of travel time savings are lower when cycling in better conditions. Surprisingly, the respondents do not consider cycling on a path next to the road worse than cycling on a path not in connection to the road, indicating that they do not take traffic noise and air pollution into account in their decision to cycle. No difference can be found between cycling on a road way (mixed traffic) and cycling in a bicycle lane in the road way. The results also indicate that respondents that include health aspects in their choice to cycle have lower value of travel time savings for cycling than respondents that state that health aspects are of less importance, at least when cycling on a bicycle path. The appraisals of travel time savings regarding cycling also differ a lot depending on the respondents’ alternative travel mode. The individuals who stated that they will take the car if they do not cycle have a much higher valuation of travel time savings than the persons stating public transport as the main alternative to cycling.

  • 20. Blom, Carin
    et al.
    Junkka, Fredrik
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Vestin, Henrik
    Den osynliga värdeskaparens framtid2011In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, no 3, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hos gemene man anses partihandel ofta vara detsamma som ledet mellan producent och detaljhandlare. Partihandeln är emellertid betydligt mer komplex än så. Partihandeln består av flera olika delbranscher som kan vara mycket olika varandra. En del partihandelsbranscher ligger närmare detaljhandeln, medan andra har mycket gemensamt med tillverkningsindustrin. I denna artikel presenteras statstik över den Svenska partihandelns betydelse i ekonomin, dess geografiska spridning illustreras grafiskt, och slutligen genomförs tre fallstudier av Svenska partihandelsföretag. I de tre fallstudierna anges några faktorer ha större betydelse än andra för partihandlarnas framtid. Dessa faktorer, som diskuteras utförligt i artikeln, är bland annat teknologisk utveckling, internationalisering, och en förändrad konkurrenssituation.

  • 21.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Unseen job creators and firm growth barriers: the role of capital constraints and seniority rules2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of how the institutional framework affects firms’ hiring decisions.

    The first article focuses on a group of firms, called sleeping gazelles, that do not grow despite having high profits. Sleeping gazelles constitute a much larger share of the firm population than that of high-growth firms. If it is growth barriers that are hindering these firms from hiring more employees, many new jobs could be created if these barriers were removed. To investigate the effects of one of the suggested growth barriers in the literature, the second article, focuses on whether small-firm growth is hampered by lack of capital. Using survey data from business owners matched with register data, we find that firms may face a capital constraint paradox, whereby the supply of external capital might be sufficient, but firm owners might refrain from accessing it due to fear of losing control of their companies. The third article investigates whether employment protection acts as a growth barrier in Sweden. Using a reform of the Swedish last-in-first-out (LIFO) rule, we estimate the causal effects from a liberalization of the employment protection. We find that firm growth increased because of the reform and that a more expansive reform could provide new job opportunities and increase overall employment. The LIFO rule was introduced to protect older workers. The fourth article investigates whether the reform weakened the labor market position of these workers. It is found that more young individuals who were unemployed or previously not in the workforce were hired as a consequence of the reform, showing that the reform lowered youth unemployment. There is no indication of older workers leaving the workforce or becoming unemployed to any greater extent after the reform. The fifth article show that the positive effects of the reform were limited to native workers, with no effects on the labor market position of immigrants. The effects depend on the relative insider-status of employees, so that groups of employees who are closer to being insiders benefit more from less-strict employment protection legislation than groups that are further from being insiders.

  • 22.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro University.
    Unseen Job Creators and Seniority Rules: Two essays on firm growth barriers2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet; HUI Research .
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research .
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Osynliga jobbskapare: En tillväxtpotential för svensk detaljhandel?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den stora merparten av alla detaljhandelsföretag karakteriseras av ingen eller en marginell tillväxt av antalet anställda. Dessa företag betraktas ofta som en homogen grupp bestående av företag med inga tillväxtambitioner och som näringspolitiken inte bör inriktas gentemot. I denna rapport visar vi dock att de företag som inte växer i själva verket är mycket heterogena. Mer än tio procent av alla detaljhandelsföretag som inte växer under en treårsperiod kännetecknas av en relativt hög lönsamhet. Dessa företag kallar vi för de sovande gasellerna eftersom tidigare studier har visat att hög lönsamhet är en viktig faktor för en långsiktigt hållbar framtida tillväxt av antalet anställda. Andelen sovande gaseller inom detaljhandeln är cirka 1,5 till 2,35 procentenheter fler än i ekonomin som helhet. Hälften av dessa detaljhandelsföretag kommer inte heller att öka antalet anställda i kommande perioder, trots att de fortsätter att ha en hög lönsamhet eller en lönsamhet i paritet med det genomsnittliga företaget. Detta visar att det finns en dold tillväxtpotential inom detaljhandeln i Sverige som inte har realiserat. Resultaten från studien visar också att de sovande gasellerna inom detaljhandeln inte är slumpmässigt dragna ur företagspopulationen, utan att det framförallt är små företag som väljer att inte expandera verksamheten mellan två treårsperioder. De sovande gasellerna är inte heller slumpmässigt fördelade geografiskt i Sverige. De kommuner som har en hög andel sovande gaseller inom detaljhandeln under en tidsperiod tenderar att även ha det i kommande tidsperioder, vilket indikerar att det finns geografiska förklaringar till varför vissa företag inte växer trots att de har en god lönsamhet. Avsaknaden av tillväxt hos dessa företag kan antingen förklaras av att de inte har några tillväxtambitioner, oavsett villkoren för företagande; alternativt att de vill växa, men inte under rådande förutsättningar. Om den senare förklaringen är giltig kan reformer som minskar tillväxtbarriärer för detaljhandelsföretagen generera många nya arbetstillfällen.

  • 24.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Employment protection legislation and firm growth: Evidence from a natural experiment2017In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 169-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish reform in 2001 made it possible for firms with less than 11 employees to exclude two from the last-in-first-out principle in case of layoffs. The reform increased employment growth with over 4000 additional jobs per year among firms with five to nine employees. Firms with 10 employees became 3.4 percentage points less likely to increase their workforce, indicating that the introduced threshold kept them from growing. Thus, employment protection legislation seems to act as a growth barrier for small firms.

  • 25.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro university.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Employment Protection Legislation and Firm Growth: Evidence from a Natural Experiment2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural experiment is used to identify the causal relationship between employment protection legislation and fi…rm growth. The natural experiment occurred in Sweden in 2001, when an exemption made it possible for fi…rms with less than eleven employees to exclude two workers from the last-in-fi…rst-out principle when dismissing personnel. The estimated average treatment effect of the reform show that the number of employees increased with 0.135 percent in fi…rms with 5-9 employees relative to fi…rms with 10-15 employees, which corresponds to over 5,000 additional jobs per year created by the reform. Firms with ten employees, just below the size threshold, became 3.4 percent less likely to increase their workforce to a level surpassing the threshold, indicating that the last-in-…first-out rule prevented these …firms from growing. Thus, employment protection legislation seems to act as a growth barrier for small fi…rms.

  • 26.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Sleeping gazelles: High profits but no growth2014In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, ISSN 0740-7416, Vol. 34, no 17, p. 1-16, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 104,231 limited liability firms in Sweden with at least two employees during 1997- 2010, almost 10% did not hire new employees in any given 3-year period despite having high profits. Nearly half of these firms continued to have high or medium profits in the next threeyear period, but still no growth. Regression analysis indicates that these firms were not randomly distributed; rather they were small and young, did not belong to an enterprise group, and operated in local markets with high profit-opportunities. We conclude that it might be more beneficial to focus policy towards these firms instead of towards a few high-growth firms that, having just grown exponentially, may not be best positioned to grow further.

  • 27.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro university.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The unseen job creators: Growth potential among non-growing …firms2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 104,231 limited liability fi…rms in Sweden with at least two employees during 1997-2010, almost 10 % did not hire new employees in any given 3-year period despite having high profi…ts. Nearly half of these …firms continued to have high or medium pro…fits in the next three-year period, but still no growth. Regression analysis indicates that these fi…rms were not randomly distributed; rather they were small and young, did not belong to an enterprise group, and operated in local markets with high profi…t-opportunities. We conclude that it might be more benefi…cial to focus policy towards these …firms instead of towards a few high-growth fi…rms that, having just grown exponentially, may not be best positioned to grow further.

  • 28.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Örebro universitet; HUI Research.
    Johansson, D.
    Palmberg, J.
    The capital constraint paradox in micro and small family and nonfamily firms2016In: Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, ISSN 2045-2101, E-ISSN 2045-211X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 38-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of the entrepreneur’s quest for independence and control over the firm for governance and financing strategies with a special focus on family firms and how they differ from nonfamily firms.

    Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on 1,000 telephone interviews with Swedish micro and small firms. The survey data are matched with firm-level data from the Bureau van Dijks database ORBIS.

    Findings – The analysis shows that independence is a prime motive for enterprises, statistically significantly more so for family owners. Family owners are more prone to use either their own savings or loans from family and are more reluctant to resort to external equity capital. Our results indicate a potential “capital constraint paradox”; there might be an abundance of external capital while firm growth is simultaneously constrained by a lack of internal funds.

    Research limitations/implications – The main limitation is that the study is based on cross-section data. Future studies could thus be based on longitudinal data.

    Practical implications – The authors argue that policy makers must recognize independence and control aversion as strong norms that guide entrepreneurial action and that micro- and small-firm growth would profit more from lower personal and corporate income taxes compared to policy schemes intended to increase the supply of external capital.

    Originality/value – The paper offers new insights regarding the value of independence and how it affects strategic decisions within the firm.

  • 29.
    Bostedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lundberg, Magdalena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    RUT-avdragets påverkan på löner ochsysselsättning inom sektorn för hushållsnäratjänster2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis has been to study what the introduction of the RUT deduction 2007

    has meant for employees in existing Swedish limited companies in the RUT industry. The

    RUT deduction is a tax subsidy that allows the public to buy household services at a reduced

    price. The study has been conducted by empirically studying how average wages per

    employee and average number of employees in existing Swedish limited companies have

    changed within the RUT industry between 2006 and 2008, ceteris paribus. For this, a

    Difference-in-Difference method was used with fixed effects and robust standard errors. The

    data used for the study was accounting data from companies, collected by PAR. The dataset

    consisted of 2,506 companies in the RUT industry and a total of 74,798 observations. The

    result shows that on average, within the existing companies in the industry, 1.4 new jobs have

    been created per company and the annual salary for employees in these companies has

    increased by an average of SEK 10,931 per employee. In total, 3,065 new jobs have been

    created in these existing limited companies, which can be compared with previous studies

    where the average number of employees on average was approximately 5,700. Previously,

    wage effects resulting from the RUT deduction have not been studied, which means that this

    work contributes to new research in a previously unexplored area.

  • 30.
    Bruset, F
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hagberg Andersson, M
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Konsumentöverskott på Peace & Love-festivalen: En jämförande undersökning av betalningsvilja och konsumentöverskott på Peace & Love-festivalen 2011 och 20162018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate willingness to pay and consumer surplus

    for the Peace & Love festival 2016 and then compare it to an earlier study of

    willingness to pay and consumer surplus for the Peace & Love festival 2011. The

    study of the festival year 2011 is written by Dahlqvist and Laham (2016). The

    study of the festival year 2016 is done by means of a regression analysis. The

    analysis is built on data from a survey conducted during the festival. The visitors

    self-reported total budget, which is the dependent variable, is treated as their

    maximum willingness-to-pay. The independent variable gender was found not to

    be statistically significant,

    ceteris paribus, while income has a positive effect on

    the total budget by an average of 281 SEK per income group of 10 000 SEK

    (monthly and before taxes). Furthermore, it was found that a tourist spends in

    average 652 SEK more than a non-tourist. Moreover, if the respondents paid the

    ticket themselves it affects the total budget negatively by an average of 1 695 SEK

    while the number of days they spent at the festival increases the total budget by an

    average of 413 SEK for each day. Lastly each additional year of age decreases the

    total budget with 17 SEK, on average. When the ratio between an independent

    variable and a dependent variable is described, every other independent variable is

    presumed to be held constant,

    ceteris paribus. Visitors average willingness to pay

    was estimated at 2 223 SEK per visitor and 31 122 000 SEK for all 14 000 visitors.

    Average consumption was estimated at 2 444 SEK per visitor and 34 211 965 SEK

    for all visitors. Additionally, the consumer surplus is estimated at -221 SEK per

    visitor and for all visitors the consumer surplus is estimated at -3 089 965 SEK,

    which means a change of -130 percent from the year 2011 when the estimated

    consumer surplus was around 37 million SEK.

  • 31.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 32.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 33.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effects of taxing truck distance on CO2 emissions from transports in retailing2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In the competitive retail market such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 34.
    Chaudhry, Sajjad Mahmood
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The Difference Between De Jure and De Facto Central Bank Independence2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, many central banks of the world over have been made independent. This paper empirically analyzes the difference between de jure and de facto independence; examining the concept of central bank independence (CBI) and with a focus on social trust, and the effectiveness of these two variables with regard to reducing the rate of inflation. Countries are grouped into four categories in line with Arnone et al’s (2007) index. The categories are i. All countries, ii. Advanced countries, iii. Emerging countries and iv. Developing countries. The results are obtained by simple correlation and the ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis. The results indicate that both CBI and social trust have a significant effect on inflation in all countries while social trust also has a significant effect on inflation in advanced countries to reduce inflation. It seems social trust plays a more critical role than CBI in affecting inflation. Developing countries with high levels of social-trust usually also have fewer independent central banks, which could be an indication that such countries feel no need to implement CBI-reforms. For more developed countries, it appears trust is not as important for the level of CBI. That being said, in low-trust countries, social trust does not seem to have any effect.

  • 35.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Umeå university.
    CO2 emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2017In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960–2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bidirectional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

  • 36.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    CO2 Emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data sets spanning the period 1960-2008: one for 150 countries and the others for sub-samples comprising OECD and Non-OECD economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries

  • 37.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Economic growth and environmental quality: an econometric and a decomposition analysis2007In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 568-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the emissions of CO2 in Italy during 1861 to 2002.The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is applied to explore the relationship between CO2 emissionand Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. An Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA) is also appliedto investigate changes in emissions between 1990 to 2002. Several factors contribute to change in theemission of CO2. These factors generally include a scale effect, a technological effect and a compositioneffect.

    Design/methodology/approach – The main discussion in the paper is about the exiting of EKC in Italy and how a decomposition analysis can be used to look behind the time series of the environmentalaccounts.

    Findings – The findings in the paper indicate the typical inverted “U” form of EKC is not confirmedwith our data set for Italy. According our econometric results, there is a positive relationship betweeneconomic growth and CO2; following the trend, the maximum emission of CO2 per capita in Italy wouldbe reached when the GDP per capita will be about 26900 US$ (turning point). Basically, two majorforces have determined the increase of CO2 pollution in Italy over time: eco-efficiency (pollution permonetary unit of output) and volume effect (volume growth of Value Added).

    Practical implications – The decomposition method performed in this paper allows us to analysewhich sectors are responsible for CO2 emissions and quantify the magnitude of the theoretical factorsexpected to influence the emission. The method used for the decomposition analysis can also beapplied by countries with lack of time series Input-Output data.

    Originality/value – The investigation in the paper of the existing of EKC allows to know at whichlevel of income the CO2 emissions will start decreasing in Italy. The analysis is based on a long timeseries (141 years). Decomposition analysis can be considered a tool, which helps to detect whether theincrease of CO2 is mainly due to economic growth or technological change.

  • 38.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Essays on growth and environment2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a summary and four self-contained papers.

    Paper [I] Following the 1987 report by The World Commission on Environment and Development, the genuine saving has come to play a key role in the context of sustainable development, and the World Bank regularly publishes numbers for genuine saving on a national basis. However, these numbers are typically calculated as if the tax system is non-distortionary. This paper presents an analogue to genuine saving in a second best economy, where the government raises revenue by means of distortionary taxation. We show how the social cost of public debt, which depends on the marginal excess burden, ought to be reflected in the genuine saving. We also illustrate by presenting calculations for Greece, Japan, Portugal, U.K., U.S. and OECD average, showing that the numbers published by the World Bank are likely to be biased and may even give incorrect information as to whether the economy is locally sustainable.

    Paper [II] This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960-2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and Non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

    Paper [III] Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their growth rates differ, whether their growth rates tend to converge, and what key factors contribute to explain economic growth. This paper deals with the average income growth, net migration, and changes in unemployment rates at the municipal level in Sweden. The aim is to explore in depth the effects of possible underlying determinants with a particular focus on local policy variables. The analysis is based on a three-equation model. Our results show, among other things, that increases in the local public expenditure and income taxe rate have negative effects on subsequent income income growth. In addition, the results show conditional convergence, i.e. that the average income among the municipal residents tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

    Paper [IV] This paper explores the relationship between income growth and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model, where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper part of the income distribution) are examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality in the upper part of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality in the lower part of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the income growth. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in municipalities with a low level of average income.

  • 39.
    Cialani, Catia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Growth and Inequality: A study of Swedish municipalities2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between the growth rate of the average income and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper ends of the income distribution) are also examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality, measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality at the upper end of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality at the lower end of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the growth rate. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in those with a low level of average income.

  • 40.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Giannantoni, Corrado
    ENEA (National agency for new technologies, Energy and sustainable economic development)).
    A new approach to future energy strategies based on GDP2000In: 2nd International Workshop "Advances in Energy Studies, Exploring Supplies, Constriants, and Strategies" / [ed] Prof Sergio Ulgiati, SGE Editoriali, Padova, 2000, p. 397-408Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University.
    Growth, migration and unemployment across Swedish municipalities2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their economic growth rates vary, whether their growth tends to converge and the key factors that contribute to the variations. These questions have not yet been fully addressed, but changes in the local tax base are clearly influenced by the average income growth rate, net migration rate, and changes in unemployment rates. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to explore in depth the interactive effects of these factors (and local policy variables) in Swedish municipalities, by estimating a proposed three-equation system. Our main finding is that increases in local public expenditures and income taxes have negative effects on subsequent local income growth. In addition, our results support the conditional convergence hypothesis, i.e. that average income tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

  • 42.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Econometric Estimation of Energy Demand2017In: Energy futures, environment and well-being / [ed] Sergio Ulgiati and Laura Vanoli, 2017, p. 547-556Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a relatively simple procedure to examine the responsiveness of energy demand to measures of economic activity and electricity price. We estimate the demand function for electricity both for households and for industry in 29 countries, mainly European countries, in the last 10 years, using a panel aggregate data.

    Preliminary results suggest, as expected, that price has a negative significant effect on the electricity consumption. This is the case for both households and industry level for the same sample of countries. Our results also suggest that short-run elasticity of electricity consumption with respect to aggregate output seems to have been stable and unit elastic during the last decade. Moreover, price elasticity is more elastic and more stable in the industry sector than households are.

  • 43.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis. Dalarna University.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis. Dalarna University.
    Household and industrial electricity demand in Europe2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 122, p. 592-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the electricity demand, and its determinants, in 29 European countries during the liberalization of the electricity market. Based on panel data for these countries for the years 1995–2015 and using a dynamic partial adjustment model, price elasticities are estimated for both residential and industrial electricity demand. These elasticities and effects of other variables on electricity consumption are estimated using both GMM (generalized method of moments) and ML (maximum likelihood) approaches. It is found that the price elasticities are very small, especially in the short run, while the income elasticities are relatively large, especially for households and in the long run.

  • 44. Coad, Alex
    et al.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Res.
    Hoelzl, Werner
    Johansson, Dan
    Nightingale, Paul
    High-growth firms: introduction to the special section2014In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 91-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-growth firms (HGFs) have attracted considerable attention recently, as academics and policymakers have increasingly recognized the highly skewed nature of many metrics of firm performance. A small number of HGFs drives a disproportionately large amount of job creation, while the average firm has a limited impact on the economy. This article explores the reasons for this increased interest, summarizes the existing literature, and highlights the methodological considerations that constrain and bias research. This special section draws attention to the importance of HGFs for future industrial performance, explores their unusual growth trajectories and strategies, and highlights the lack of persistence of high growth. Consequently, while HGFs are important for understanding the economy and developing public policy, they are unlikely to be useful vehicles for public policy given the difficulties involved in predicting which firms will grow, the lack of persistence in high growth levels, and the complex and often indirect relationship between firm capability, high growth, and macro-economic performance.

  • 45. Coad, Alex
    et al.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Res.
    Johansson, Dan
    Wennbergz, Karl
    Whom do high-growth firms hire?2014In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 293-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study employment and new hires among high-growth firms (HGFs) in the Swedish knowledge-intensive sectors 1999-2002. Using matched employer-employee data, we find that HGFs are more likely to employ young people, poorly educated workers, immigrants, and individuals who experienced longer unemployment periods. However, these patterns seem contingent on the stage of the firm's evolution. HGFs that have already realized some rapid growth are more likely to hire individuals from other firms, even though immigrants are still overrepresented among new hires. In the case of both HGF employees and HGF new hires, employment opportunities in HGFs are provided by young and small firms.

  • 46.
    Dahlqvist, Hampus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Laham, Tarek
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Uppskattning av betalningsviljan för Peace & Love 20112016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the willingness to pay among the visitors of peace & love-festival year 2011 is valued. With survey data based on revealed and stated preferences a regression analysis is presented with different independent variables that characterizes a festival visitor. Total budget is the dependent variable in the regression analysis and is, in this thesis, to be regarded as equivalent to visitors’ willingness to pay. The analysis shows that men in general spend 301 SEK more than women, tourists in general spend 1 124 SEK more than non-tourists and that the average visitor has a willingness to pay valued to 4 183 SEK. A consumer surplus has also been valued, which amounted to 743 SEK per visitor and around 37 million SEK in total for all 50,000 visitors. This thesis does not take into account the economic effects the festival holds on the city of Borlänge.

  • 47.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    When is Gibrat's law a law?2012In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 133-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate if the industry context matters for whether Gibrat’s law is rejected or not using a dataset that consists of all limited firms in five-digit NACE-industries in Sweden during 1998–2004. The results reject Gibrat’s law on an aggregate level, since small firms grow faster than large firms. However, Gibrat’s law is confirmed about as often as it is rejected when industry-specific regressions are estimated. It is also found that the industry context—e.g., minimum efficient scale, market concentration rate, and number of young firms in the industry—matters for whether Gibrat’s law is rejected or not.

  • 48.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Elert, Niklas
    Johansson, Dan
    Are High-Growth Firms Overrepresented in High-tech Industries?2016In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Start-ups and firm in-migration: evidence from the Swedish wholesale industry2013In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 471-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a data set covering 13,471 Swedish limited liability firms in the Swedish wholesale industries during 2000–2004 to ascertain the determinants of new start-ups and of in-migration of firms. Access to a large harbor, international airport or large railroad classification yard in the municipality nearly triples the number of start-ups and increases the expected number of in-migrating firms with 53 %. The presence of a university, many educated workers and low local taxes are also associated with more start-ups and firm in-migration.

  • 50.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Fabian, Wallen
    Svenska citroner: Åtta fräscha idéer som lämnade en sur eftersmak2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1234 1 - 50 of 160
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf