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  • 1.
    Blomberg, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social and Political Studies.
    EN NY MÄNNISKA?: Tidigare forskning och teorier om internationella utbyten i skolsammanhang2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to deepen the knowledge of international exchanges in a school

    context, focusing on what effect the exchanges have for mainly the students involved, and in connection

    to this deepen the knowledge of the key theories and concepts that are applicable in this

    context. The legitimacy of the study has arised from the increasing interest in international exchanges,

    particularly in the school context, and the focus of globalization and international issues in the curriculum

    for the Swedish school.

    The work has been realized through a systematic literature review of previous research on the

    subject and a review of the theories and concepts used in the previous research. The research of the

    effects of international exchanges arrive at different conclusion, and it is difficult to draw any clear

    definitive conclusions. International exchanges in the school context can provide positive effects on

    students' academic studies, identity construction and other skills, but it requires that the arenas for

    learning are created and that the pupil is active. If not the intercultural learning, often considered to be

    the main goal, can be lost and instead the exchanges can have the opposite effect.

    The previous research relates mainly to the theories and concepts of globalization, human interaction

    and interculturalism, which allows themto move in both a sociologically and psychological

    field. In addition, some of the studies relate to a educational science and it is clear that international

    exchanges can affect students in numerous ways: their relationship to society, to other people and to

    themselves

  • 2.
    Borg, Johan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergman, Anna-Karin
    Ostergren, Per-Olof
    Is ‘legal empowerment of the poor’ relevant to people with disabilities in developing countries?: An empirical and normative review2013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Legal empowerment of the poor is highly relevant to public health as it aims to relieve income poverty, a main determinant of health. The Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor (CLEP) has proposed legal empowerment measures in the following four domains: access to justice and the rule of law, property, labor, and business rights. Despite being overrepresented among the poor, CLEP has not explicitly considered the situation of people with disabilities. Objectives: To examine the empirical evidence for the relevance of the CLEP legal empowerment measures to people with disabilities in low-and lower middle-income countries, and to evaluate the extent to which the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) addresses those measures. Methods: Critical literature review of empirical studies and a checklist assessment of the CRPD. Results: Fourteen included articles confirm that people with disabilities experience problems in the domains of access to justice and the rule of law, labor rights, and business rights. No texts on property rights were found. Evidence for the effectiveness of the proposed measures is insufficient. Overall, the CRPD fully or partially supports two-thirds of the proposed measures (seven out of nine measures for access to justice and the rule of law, none of the five measures for property rights, all seven measures for labor rights, and six out of nine measures for business rights). Conclusions: Although most of the domains of the CLEP legal empowerment measures are relevant to people with disabilities from both empirical and normative perspectives, it is uncertain whether the devised measures are of immediate relevance to them. Further research is warranted in this regard.

  • 3.
    Carstensen, Gunilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sociology.
    Dahlberg, Leif
    KTH.
    En intervjustudie om rättstolkning i domstol2016In: Ny juridik, ISSN 1400-3007, Vol. 4, no 16, p. 107-123Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska är språket som ska talas i domstol i Sverige. Sedan 2013 måste domstolar använda sig av auktoriserade tolkar om en eller flera av parterna i ett mål inte talar svenska. I dagsläget råder det brist på auktoriserade tolkar, det finns enligt uppgift bara drygt 200 rättstolkar i Sverige. Att inte använda en specialutbildad tolk innebär stora risker för rättssäkerheten; om tolken inte är insatt i ämnet eller har bristfälliga kunskaper i juridisk terminologi är risken stor att tolkningen blir fel. I denna artikel av fil. dr Gunilla Carstensen1 och professor Leif Dahlberg2 presenteras en intervjustudie med domare, advokater och rättstolkar om hur villkoren för tolkning ser ut, vilka valideringsmetoder som finns och hur tolkning i domstol kan förbättras.

  • 4.
    Grahn, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Sund, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Cloud computing - Moving to the cloud2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing involves the use of computer resources that are available through a network, usually the Internet and it is an area that has grown rapidly in recent years. More and more companies move entire or part of their operations to the cloud.Sogeti in Borlänge needs to move their development environments to a cloud service as operating and maintaining of these are costly and time-consuming. As a Microsoft Partner, Sogeti wants to use Microsoft´s services for cloud computing, Windows Azure, for this purpose. Migration to the cloud is a new area for Sogeti and they do not have any descriptions of how this process works.Our mission was to develop an approach for the migration of an IT-solution to the cloud. Part of the mission included the identifying of cloud computing, its components, benefits and drawbacks, which lead to us acquiring basic knowledge of the subject.To develop an approach to migration, we performed several migrations of virtual machines to Windows Azure, and based on these migrations, literature studies and interviews we drew conclusions that resulted in an overall approach for migration to the cloud.The results have shown that it is difficult to make a general but detailed description of an approach to migration, as the scenario looks different depending on what to migrate and what type of cloud service is used. However, based on our experiences from our migrations, along with literature, documents and interviews we have lifted our knowledge to a general level. From this knowledge, we have compiled a general approach with greater focus on the preparatory activities that an organization should implement before migration.Our studies also resulted in an in-depth description of cloud computing. In our studies we did not find previous works in which the critical success factors have been described in the context of cloud computing. In our empirical work, we identified three critical success factors for cloud computing and in doing so covered up some of the knowledge gap in between.

  • 5.
    Holtz, Hajo Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Law.
    Affiliatenätverkens marknadsrättsliga ansvar och andra mellanhänders omsorgsplikter i det digitala reklamlandskapet2018In: Ny juridik, ISSN 1400-3007, no 2, p. 47-63Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den teknologiska utvecklingen har medfört ett förändrat reklamlandskap med nya marknadsföringsmetoder. En av de nya metoderna utgör användningen av s.k. affiliatenätverk som fungerar som en förmedlare mellan annonsörer och ägare av digitala kanaler. Affiliatenätverkens och andra mellanhänders tjänster är i grunden helt legitima. Samtidigt försvårar användningen av dessa nya metoder försök att motverka förekomsten av otillbörlig marknadsföring i det nya digitala reklamlandskapet. Av den anledningen inställer sig frågan vem som bär ansvaret för eventuell otillbörlig marknadsföring som förekommer inom ramen för den här typen av samarbeten. I denna artikel analyseras och diskuteras mellanhänders marknadsrättsliga ansvar.

  • 6.
    Holtz, Hajo Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Law.
    Corporate Social Responsibility – en marknadsrättslig fråga?2017In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, E-ISSN 2002-3545, Vol. 2017-18, no 2, p. 321-342Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumenterna blir alltmer medvetna om vilka samhälleliga konsekvenser olika konsumtionsvanor får. I samma takt integrerar företagen ett hållbart förhållningssätt till affärer i sina strategier, ökar sitt frivilliga engagemang och utvecklar grundläggande etiska standarder som ska respekteras oavsett var i världen de verkar. Denna utveckling beskrivs oftast med begreppet "Corporate Social Responsibility" (CSR) – man talar om att företag har ett socialt ansvar. Den här artikeln undersöker huruvida företagens frivilliga engagemang kan få marknadsrättsliga implikationer. Artikeln behandlar bl.a. följande frågor:

    • Vilka åtgärder i samband med CSR utgör överhuvudtaget "marknadsföring"?
    • När kan CSR-åtgärder som utgör marknadsföring vara vilseledande? 
    • Kan den allmänna generalklausulen i 5 § marknadsföringslagen tillämpas på CSR?

    Som en konsekvens mynnar undersökningen ut i de mer övergripande frågorna om CSR tillhör den affärsetiska eller den affärsjuridiska sfären samt om frivilliga CSR-policyer eller CSR-uppförandekoder kan ges en bindande rättsverkan med hjälp av marknadsföringslagen eller inte.

  • 7.
    Holtz, Hajo Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Law.
    Den nya allmänna dataskyddsförordningen – några anmärkningar2018In: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, no 3, p. 240-264Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När EU:s allmänna dataskyddsförordning ersätter den svenska personuppgiftslagen i maj 2018 kommer det innebära påtagliga förändringar. Redan rättsformen EU-förordning utgör en relevant förändring, samtidigt som flera konceptuella nyheter införs. Hur dataskyddsförordningen faktiskt kommer att tillämpas i samtliga medlemsstater kan dock vid denna tidpunkt inte sägas definitivt, då den ger utrymme för många olika tolkningsmöjligheter. Den här artikeln analyserar några utvalda bestämmelser i dataskyddsförordningen och försöker att i det sammanhanget diskutera eventuella frågor.

  • 8.
    Holtz, Hajo Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Law.
    Det marknadsrättsliga ansvaret för länkar på Internet2017In: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, no 2, p. 106-123Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillhandahållande av länkar som ett fenomen på Internet har sysselsatt immaterialrättsjurister i många år. Fokus vid den juridiska bedömningen av detta fenomen har hittills legat på upphovsrätten. Den här artikeln intar i stället ett marknadsrättsligt perspektiv och försöker på det sättet att komplettera bilden. Artikeln ger svar på frågorna om användningen av länkar i sig kan vara otillbörlig och huruvida marknadsföringslagen reglerar ett ansvar för material som en näringsidkare hänvisar till via länkar.

  • 9.
    Holtz, Hajo Michael
    Leibniz Universität Hannover.
    Die AGB-Kontrolle im Wettbewerbsrecht: Zugleich ein Beitrag zum Verhältnis von UWG und dem Recht der Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under German law, standard business terms (German Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen, Swedish allmänna villkor) are regulated by contract law, namely sections 305 to 310 of the German Civil Code (BGB). The law imposes, inter alia, requirements as to the content of standard business terms. As part of contract law, these provisions have an effect only on the parties to a contract and formally do not affect third parties. Third parties may, however, be actually affected by standard business terms. In practice, this is particularly relevant in competitive situations where standard business terms do not comply with the legal requirements and may thus be considered illegal. Consider that companies compete with each other and one of them uses illegal standard business terms. Under these circumstances, the question can be raised whether competitors as third parties may invoke legal remedies against the company using such terms. Using illegal standard business terms may provide competitive advantages since they rationalize contracts and pass on risk to the other parties beyond what is allowed by law. Legal remedies of competitors may be found in the German Unfair Competition Act (UWG). It is, however, controversial whether competitors may file for injunctive relief against the company using illegal standard business terms. Required is a violation of a provision of law which is intended to regulate the market behaviour in the interests of market participants. Sections 307 to 309 BGB, which relate to the content of standard business terms, may represent such provisions of law. Still, the German Federal Supreme Court (BGH) has yet to decide on this matter. This dissertation therefore tries to analyse and assess the different existing approaches and is even developing a new approach to this question. The analysis focuses on section 4 No.11 UWG and investigates whether sections 307 to 309 BGB actually intend to regulate the market behaviour in the interest of market participants. It will be shown that sections 307 to 309 BGB provide a level playing field for all competitors as regards the rationalization of contracts and the passing on of risk. They consequently protect not only the other party to a contract but also competitors as third parties. This quite surprising finding illustrates that competition law and contract law, in this context, have significant similarities and overlaps. For this reason, the general relationship between these two fields of law will be analysed and studied in detail as well.

  • 10.
    Holtz, Hajo Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Law.
    Die Prospekthaftung im Franchiserecht2014In: Zeitschrift für Vertriebsrecht, ISSN 2193-5769, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Prospectus liablity in German franchise law"

    German franchise law is, as compared to other countries, relatively unregulated. Legal rules applicable to franchise agreements are general in nature. For instance, the legal basis for the liability of the franchisor due to the failure to disclose information to the franchisee before signing the franchise agreement can be found in general rules of contract law.

    In connection with the breach of the pre-contractual duty to disclose following from general contract law, a legal opinion exists that wants to apply the so-called principle of prospectus liability, developed by the German Federal Supreme Court (BGH), to pre-contractual situations between a franchisor and a potential franchisee. The principle of prospectus liability states that persons responsible for the conception of an investment scheme can be held responsible for the information contained in a prospectus marketing the investment. The consequences of prospectus liability, if applied to franchising, would be that persons involved in the development and management of a franchise system could be personally liable for an alleged misinformation of the franchisee before signing the franchise agreement. 

    This article analyses the question whether the application of the principle of prospectus liability to franchisor-franchisee relationships is desired and whether it can be justified in accordance with the legal practice of the German Federal Supreme Court. The article argues that, for several dogmatic reasons, this is not the case.

  • 11.
    Holtz, Hajo Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Law.
    Lagstridighetsprincipen: ett jämförande perspektiv2015In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, Vol. 2015-16, no 1, p. 120-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt 5 § marknadsföringslagen skall marknadsföring stämma överens med god marknadsföringssed. I detta ligger bl.a. att marknadsföringen, i enlighet med den s.k. lagstridighetsprincipen, skall vara laglig, vilket betyder att den inte får strida mot annan lag. Lagstridighetsprincipen är så självklar och välförankrad i svensk rätt att det fram till denna tidpunkt inte har ansetts nödvändigt att lagfästa den. Hur självklar och välförankrad lagstridighetsprincipen än må vara i svensk rätt finns det inte mycket skrivet om den. Den här artikeln försöker därför att belysa denna princip med hjälp av en analys av Marknadsdomstolens rättspraxis samt en jämförelse mellan det svenska och det tyska rättsläget med utgångspunkt i EU-rätt.

  • 12.
    Holtz, Hajo Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Law.
    Oskäliga avtalsvillkor som otillbörlig marknadsföring: Får konkurrenter väcka talan enligt marknadsföringslagen?2016In: Svensk Juristtidning, ISSN 0039-6591, no 5-6, p. 383-398Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Individuellt förhandlade avtal har på många områden ersatts av på förhand formulerade avtal. Sådana standardavtal rationaliserar hanteringen av ett stort antal avtal, förskjuter affärsriskerna till användarens förmån och kan på det sättet leda till kostnadsbesparingar. Däremot kan användningen av villkor i standardavtal som är oskäliga i lagens mening innebära en otillbörlig konkurrensfördel. Därför undersöker den här artikeln huruvida oskäliga avtalsvillkor är att anse som en otillbörlig affärsmetod och om enskilda näringsidkare med hjälp av marknadsföringslagen är berättigade att väcka talan mot en konkurrents oskäliga avtalsvillkor.

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