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  • 1.
    Abuisha, Hamad
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    NEGOTIATING IDENTITY IN DIFFERENT REPRESENTATIONS OF CUBAN TOURISM2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The visual dimension plays a significant role in tourism, especially in its promotional materials. In promoting and representing their places and people, destinations participate in negotiations over meaning and identity, whether they do so consciously or not. These negotiations have real consequences, especially for third world destinations and minority stakeholders still grappling with the legacies of colonialism.

    This study uses Cuba as a case study to closely analyze the particular role images and representations of tourism play in destinations’ efforts to combat colonialist identities and power relations. Cuba bears many of the features common to other third world (in particular Caribbean) island destinations. There is a rich theoretical background of existing research into the common tropes and consequences of these destinations’ efforts to promote and represent their tourism industries. However, the Cuban tourism context is also very unique, making it a potentially rich area of study in furtherance of this existing research. Cuba is unique in terms of the history of its people and its politics, as well as its tourism industry. After several decades of remaining closed to international tourism, the Cuban government only reopened its borders to tourists in 1989, and tourist relations with the United States were only normalized in 2016. The situation is currently in flux and the future is uncertain. But researchers agree that the reopening of Cuba’s international tourism industry may have profound consequences for the country and its citizens. Many researchers have focused on the potential downsides of tourism for Cuba’s people, places, and identities. Others have expressed optimism that Cuba is uniquely well situated to control its tourism industry and to ensure positive outcomes.

    This study aims to learn more about the strategies and consequences of Cuba’s tourism industry, as seen through the lens of its marketing materials and the visual representations of Cuba, Cubans, and Cuban tourism they contain. First, this study conducts an extensive review of the literature on the unique Cuban context. Content analysis is then used to examine the images produced by Cuba’s official destination marketing organization (DMO), as featured on Cuba’s electronic tourism portal (Cubatravel.cu) and the website of the official tourism agency (Infotur.cu).

    The results affirm the difficulty postcolonial tourism destinations have in representing their people and places without engaging in stereotypes and essentializing discourses that perpetuate the social, economic, and power imbalances associated with colonialism. However, the results also provide some reason for hope. In comparison with other third world tourism destinations and marketing campaigns subjected to similar analysis, Cuba manages to achieve some progressive outcomes in its promotional materials. The visual representations of Cuba and Cubans assert Cuba’s diverse and unique culture and heritage. They also go much further than other third world destinations in depicting the subjectivity of the destination’s own people. It is recommended that further research look more closely at the racial and gender politics at play in Cuban society and Cuban tourism promotion. In addition, further research might examine the feelings of actual Cubans about the ways Cuban tourism promotions represent them and negotiate identity on their behalf.

  • 2.
    Ahlsén Gahns, Malin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Olsson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Current and future shopping conditions in Sälen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Going from having bought the most essential at the small shops close to home, better communications and an increasingly consumption oriented lifestyle has created a change in shopping behavior and has led to phenomenon such as shopping centres and more. These are constantly being built in Sweden: in the cities, outside the cities and more recently even in small cities -small cities as for one reason or another have access to a larger customer base which can have businesses to flourish economically.

    During the first decade of the 21st century, shopping centres have been established along the Swedish/Norwegian border. Since the Norwegian Krone is much stronger than the Swedish Krona Norwegians save a great deal of money on going to Sweden to shop. During the shopping trips to Sweden, it is mostly alcohol, meat, tobacco and candy that are being bought. However, other products such as clothing, technology, household appliances and more are also being purchased, all to save money on the trip. Together these cross border shoppers spent 11, 6 billion in Sweden during the year of 2010. This gives an average spending of approximately 10 900 SEK per cross border shopper on annual basis.

    Nordby, Töcksfors and Charlottenberg (small cities located in southwestern Sweden) are places characterized by Norwegian cross border shopping. Together, they generate billions every year and this only seems to increase. These places are relatively small in size but have prominent attributes such as proximity to the Norwegian border. Apart from these resorts and shopping centres, there are few or none similar places near the Norwegian border in the rest of Sweden. However, a place which is geographically well located and has a relatively large Norwegian and Swedish customer base is the ski resort of Sälen in west central of Sweden.

    Sälen is a village located near the Norwegian border, although fairly sparsely populated. The destination has annually about one million official guest nights, based on the 414 000 visitors who stay an average of about 4, 5 days.  Per visit, these tourists individually spend an average of 862 SEK on shopping at the destination.

    The expenditure of the mountain tourists together with the Norwegian border shoppers makes it very interesting to explore the opportunities for shopping development in terms of a shopping centre in the region of Sälen.

  • 3.
    Al Masharqah, Tareq
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Political Unrest and its effects in the destination image of Egyptian tourism product2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Amcoff, Jan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Dör byn när lanthandeln stänger?2011In: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, no 3, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5. Amcoff, Jan
    et al.
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Understanding Rural Change: Demography as a key to the future2007In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 363-379Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decades have seen a rapidly growing interest in foresight methodology. Methods have been developed in corporate and governmental communication exercises often labelled technology foresight. In reality, these foresights have often drifted into processes of social change, since technological change is hard to foresee beyond what is already in the pipe-line. Forecasting of social change, however, must be based on solid knowledge about the mechanisms of continuity and change. Virtually nothing can be said about the future without relating to the past; foresights and futures studies are about revealing the hidden pulse of history. Hence, the answer to forecasting the future is empirical research within the social sciences. Demographic change has been recognised as a key determinant for explaining social change. Population changes are fairly predictable and the age transition can explain a wide range of socio-economic changes. For rural futures, demographic change is a key issue, since age structure in rural areas is often uneven and also unstable due to migration patterns. A number of policy related questions as well as research challenges are raised as a consequence.

  • 6.
    Asino, Wilhelmina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Evaluating aspects of sustainability in tourism at a mountain destination: Accessibility and economic impacts assessment in Sälen: Case of Sälen in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Travelling to, from and within the destination area accounts for a high level of tourism emissions. Yet, little has been done to improve and direct the travelling pattern at reducing carbon dioxide emissions. By encouraging visitors to use public rather private transport also limits traffic congestion and increases the use of public space by means of walking and cycling therefore enhancing destination competitiveness. Although there have a number of attempts to encourage the use of public transportation over car use, it still remains a challenge. This paper reports the findings of surveys of tourists who visited Sälen during the peak season of Easter break and projected their travel choice and spending patterns within the destination. The results shows that there is a relationship between location, accessibility and tourist expenditure.

    Therefore, understanding the pattern of visitors’ expenditures within a destination can serve as a strategic element in economic sustainability and capturing factors that have a high expenditure at a destination.

  • 7.
    Bauer, Christian
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Tourism in Football: Exploring Motivational Factors and Typologies of Groundhoppers: An example of a German Groundhopper Online Community2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to examine the motivational factors and to explore possible typologies of groundhoppers. Groundhopping as a special form of sports tourism which has grown rapidly over the last couple of decades. Given the fact, that there has been a lot of research in the field of sports tourism it is quite interesting to see that up to this day, there is hardly any in-depth research about groundhopping in particular. Groundhoppers are a very interesting group to both sport and tourism industry. For the latter, groundhoppers might be a potential target group especially when it comes to the promotion and marketing of certain destinations. Just like other types of tourists, groundhoppers bring money to the destinations, spend it at different occasions and hence contribute to the destinations’ development.

    Having an exploratory character, this quantitative research wants to contribute to the lack in current literature, focussing on a German groundhopper online community and its members. A web-based questionnaire has been conducted which had a total number of 909 respondents. Demonstrating the outcomes of the survey, this thesis looks into the individual statistics of the questionnaire and visualises the answers with descriptive tables. Furthermore, with the use of an exploratory factor analysis and a two-step cluster analysis, three potential groups of groundhoppers could be explored.

    The findings from this study should be seen as a starting point, an inspiration for further research, as groundhopping is likely to keep growing in numbers. While quantitative studies like this thesis can contribute to get an overall picture, qualitative research will also be required to get an insight on the more individual and personal level of groundhopping. This again could lead to new ideas and concepts for advanced quantitative research. Until then, groundhopping will remain a mostly unknown niche in the field of sports tourism.

  • 8. Beland Lindahl, K
    et al.
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Global trends affecting future Swedish forest use – outlook among key actors2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Kulturlandskapet som råvara i turismens upplevelseindustri2009In: Astrid Lindgrens landskap : hur landskapets kulturarv förändras, förstås, förvaltas och förmedlas / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus, Vimmerby, 2009, Vol. 69, p. 143-154Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Creating Tourist experiences by interpreting places using GPS and multimedia technologies2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Möjligheten att utveckla ett verktyg för att mäta besöksnäringens konkurrenskraft2013Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Tourism as a vehicle for regional development in peripheral areas – myth or reality?: A longitudinal case study of Swedish regions2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1788-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary so-called ‘competition state era’, many rural and peripheral regions are in decline. Tourism is increasingly viewed as being able to alleviate and rejuvenate regions that are facing economic difficulties. The European Union has launched several programmes with the goal of stimulating growth and employment in peripheral areas. These programmes are often used to support tourism development projects. In this paper, a longitudinal analysis of spatial changes in Swedish tourism is conducted. The analysis is based on statistics regarding overnight stays in Swedish commercial accommodation facilities. The aim is to investigate if tourism and tourism policy contribute to the reduction in disparities between regions. Although there are exceptions, the main findings indicate that the potential for creating sustainable rural tourism growth through tourism policy seems to be much less than the popular discourse suggests. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 13.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Underlag för gränshandel och köpcentrum i Sälen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    A comparison and contrast of the montage of motives among social and lifestyle entrepreneurs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    An investigation of the associated benefits from prioritizing the people through the Fair Hotels Scheme in Ireland2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Fair trade tourism case studies2012In: The Ethics of Tourism: Critical and Applied Perspectives / [ed] Lovelock, Brent; Lovelock, Kirsten, London: Routledge , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Fair trade tourism South Africa: a pragmatic poverty reduction mechanism2011In: Tourism Planning and Development, ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 237-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental premise of social entrepreneurship is to use business knowledge to solve critical economic, social and environmental dilemmas facing a society. Social entrepreneurship is an emerging theme of inquiry in contemporary business, entrepreneurship, marketing and ethics literature. In effect, social entrepreneurs are concerned with making a “mission-related impact” which becomes their central concern. To date, there has been little attention given to the notion of social entrepreneurship in the discipline of tourism. Despite the lack of attention in tourism research there have been a number of significant social entrepreneurial contributions made to various communities in South Africa. Such contributions demonstrate the significance of change makers in the context of rural South Africa signifying progress in the country's new democracy. This paper is a consequence of two phases of field work in South Africa over a 10- month period. The paper discusses the motivational behaviour of six Fair Trade Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) entrepreneurs who have developed businesses with the intention of giving back to their South African communities. However, the study employed critical discourse analysis and in so doing it recognizes some of the inherent contradictions in informants' discourses based on their white privilege experienced during apartheid. Two aims focused on this exploration: 1) to seek information regarding entrepreneurial stimuli for involvement in social action, through FTTSA membership, and 2) to investigate FTTSA members' micro and macro discourses that inform their actions and behaviours.

  • 18.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Fair trade tourism South Africa: consumer virtue or moral selving2011In: Journal of Ecotourism, ISSN 1472-4049, E-ISSN 1747-7638, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The academic focus on tourism impacts has raised questions regarding stakeholder responsibility. From a consumption perspective, many ethical consumers, by enacting their political and moral concerns through their consumer choice demonstrate their virtuous qualities and at the same time construct themselves as ethical. Ethical consumption and the consumption of Fairtrade, Fair Trade Tourism and Fair Trade Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) – which derived from Pro-Poor Tourism and ecotourism principles –, are embedded into a cultural context of global consumer capitalism. This macro discourse informs the way people think about the extent of their responsibility, what constitutes a fair exchange, and how they construct themselves as ethical consumers. Ethical consumption, although virtuous can then be described as a form of conspicuous consumption because consumption in its self is a hedonistic act especially when one uses ethical consumption as a mechanism to demonstrate one's ‘ethical self’. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eleven FTTSA travellers in December–February of 2009 at two FTTSA businesses. The paper employed Critical Discourse Analysis to explore some of the tensions between consumer virtue and the hedonistic behaviours of the informants. The aim of this paper is to investigate the notion of moral selving in the context of ethical travel and in particular FTTSA. Results revealed that motivations for participation in ethical consumption and travel are varied and sometimes influenced by the appeal of moral selving.

  • 19.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    In consideration of a new approach to tourism: a critical review of fair trade tourism2011In: Journal of Tourism and Peace Research, ISSN 1878-7754, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism research has highlighted the negative consequences brought on by tourism development. As a way to address such impacts a proliferation of alternative approaches have emerged in the discourse projecting alternative ways to conduct and participate in tourism which provide greater benefits. A by-product of ecotourism and the Pro-Poor Tourism approach has applied fair trade principles to tourism. The aim of this paper is to explore the development and application of fair trade principles to the tourism industry by reviewing secondary data. The key research questions that this paper addresses are: What has been the impetus to identify and apply fair trade principles in the context of the tourism industry? What countries have gotten involved in Fair Trade Tourism? What are some of the implications, issues and concerns regarding the implementation of Fair Trade Tourism? The critical review of the Fair Trade Tourism concept identifies that tourism practitioners, academics and tourists must pause to reflect on this approach as a way to strive for better treatment of people and a way to eradicate poverty. As such, the author raises a number of key concerns regarding the rhetoric of fair trade and its various meanings, the implementation of fair trade as a poverty eradication mechanism, its context and effect.

  • 20.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Revealing the discourses: white entrepreneurial motivation in black South Africa2011In: Tourism Planning and Development, ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental premise of social entrepreneurship is to use business knowledge to solve critical economic, social and environmental dilemmas facing a society. Social entrepreneurship is an emerging theme of inquiry in contemporary business, entrepreneurship, marketing and ethics literature. In effect, social entrepreneurs are concerned with making a “mission-related impact” which becomes their central concern. To date, there has been little attention given to the notion of social entrepreneurship in the discipline of tourism. Despite the lack of attention in tourism research there have been a number of significant social entrepreneurial contributions made to various communities in South Africa. Such contributions demonstrate the significance of change makers in the context of rural South Africa signifying progress in the country's new democracy. This paper is a consequence of two phases of field work in South Africa over a 10- month period. The paper discusses the motivational behaviour of six Fair Trade Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) entrepreneurs who have developed businesses with the intention of giving back to their South African communities. However, the study employed critical discourse analysis and in so doing it recognizes some of the inherent contradictions in informants' discourses based on their white privilege experienced during apartheid. Two aims focused on this exploration: 1) to seek information regarding entrepreneurial stimuli for involvement in social action, through FTTSA membership, and 2) to investigate FTTSA members' micro and macro discourses that inform their actions and behaviours.

  • 21.
    Boluk, Karla
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Using CSR as a tool for development: an investigation of the Fair Hotels Scheme in Ireland2013In: Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, ISSN 1528-008X, E-ISSN 1528-0098, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores an opportunity for the accommodation sector in Ireland to engage in Corporate Social Responsibility. The aim of this article is to investigate the Fair Hotels Ireland scheme and explore its potential to create social cohesion which may then influence the economic and social progress in both theory and praxis. The research question that supports the aim of this study is: has the Fair Hotels Ireland scheme created value and influenced consumer purchasing? To respond to this research question ten interviews were carried out with Fair Hotel managers in Ireland. A content analysis was used to examine the data. The results indicated that hotel managers noticed an increase in business as a consequence of their CSR and becoming a Fair Hotel; and the scheme was described as creating value for their hotel and staff. However, the managers had not noticed a significant difference in the level of employee satisfaction. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 22.
    Boluk, Karla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the discourses used to sell heritage in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage tourism is a form of niche tourism which has emerged as an alternative to mass tourism. However the discourses used to market some heritage products generally appeal to an elite group in society who are demanding. Thus heritage tourism is marketed and packaged in a way to appeal to an exclusive group who are interested in tailor-made products that provide some entertainment value. The aim of this paper is to investigate the marketing strategies and goals for tourism development, from the perspective of two World Heritage Sites (WHS) in Sweden including the Great Copper Mountain in Falun and the Old Church Town in Luleå. Accordingly, the discourses used to sell heritage in the context of Sweden are discussed. A mixed-methods approach was used by the authors to carry out this investigation. The results of the analysis revealed that the heritage presented in the two cases are marketed as exclusive and as such, preclude the participation of some individuals. Furthermore, it was established that enhanced communication between WHS products and Sweden and other tourism products would improve visitation.

  • 23. Book, Tommy
    et al.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Ghettot: Fysisk gränsdragning och social barriär1999In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, no 4, p. 212-219Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24. Book, Tommy
    et al.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhälls- och beteendevetenskap.
    Ghettot som geografisk, historisk och sociologisk företeelse2004Book (Refereed)
  • 25. Book, Tommy
    et al.
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Staden en etnisk spelplan1999In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 0346-6566, no 1, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Fransson, Urban
    Institutet för byggforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Tollefsen, Aina
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Att flytta till glesbygden1993Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Population and Housing Dynamics in a Metropolitan Region: The case of Stockholm1998Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Population Concentration and Dispersion in Sweden since the 1970s1997In: Population planning and policies / [ed] Borgegård, L-E., Findlay, A.M., Sondell, E., Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 1997Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Spridning och koncentration av befolkningen i Sveriges kommuner 1973-19921995In: Då, Nu och sedan: Geografiska uppsatser till minnet av Ingvar Jonsson / [ed] Ian Layton, Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 1995, p. 127-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Where is Sweden multi-Ethnic?: The geographical distribution of immigrants on municipality level 1960-19951998In: International conference  Housing in transition, Piran, Slovenia, Conference proceedings, 1998, p. 476-491Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Population redistribution in Sweden: long term trends and contemporary tendencies1995In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Concentration and Dispersion of Immigrants in Sweden, 1973-19921998In: The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, ISSN 0008-3658, E-ISSN 1541-0064, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Hur förändras bosättningsmönstret när invandrarna blir fler?1995In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, no 5, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Turism och mobila informationssystem2009In: Astrid Lindgrens landskap : hur landskapets kulturarv förändras, förstås, förvaltas och förmedlas / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus, Vimmerby, 2009, Vol. 69, p. 113-126Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Wage determinants in the Swedish tourism sector 2002-20112015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Firm entry in the Swedish wholesale trade sector: dDoes market definition matter?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 703-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm entry into local markets has often been studied using administrative areas such as municipalities as the assumed relevant markets. However, administrative areas and the actual relevant markets based on local demand for firms’ products often do not coincide, which could bias the results of studies treating administrative areas as the relevant markets. Based on a behavioral assumption regarding how retailers act when purchasing products from wholesale trade firms, we create alternative markets using Voronoi diagrams. We then compare the empirical results of investigating the determinants of firm entry using municipalities as the relevant markets with the results obtained using Voronoi markets. The results indicate that, in both cases, the same variables are statistically significant in affecting entry, though the estimated effects differ in size.

  • 37.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Education and careers in the Swedish tourism sector: How important is education for building a successful career?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38. Braunerhielm, Lotta
    et al.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Berättelsedestinationer: Från Astrid Lindgrens ideallandskap till vandringar i deckarförfattarnas fotspår2009In: Astrid Lindgrens landskap : hur landskapets kulturarv förändras, förstås, förvaltas och förmedlas / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus, Vimmerby, 2009, Vol. 69, p. 101-112Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Var ska sjukhusen ligga?2013In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, no 3, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel visar på en metod för att undersöka hur optimal befolkningens fysiska tillgänglighet till sjukvården är. Detta är relevant med tanke på den svenska storregionala omdaningen som säkerligen kommer provocera fram omprövningar av sjukhusens framtida placering.

    Med Dalarna som exempel fann vi att en ökning från dagens två till tre optimalt lokaliserade sjukhus skulle minska befolkningens genomsnittliga reseavstånd med 25 %.

    På basis av transportsektorns standardkalkyler för samhällsekonomisk effekter vid resande, samt av kostnader för drift av sjukvård sluter vi dessutom oss till att en komplettering av nuvarande två sjukhus i Dalarna med ett tredje vore samhällsekonomiskt effektivt.

  • 40.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 41.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 42.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Measuring transport related CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2015In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 40, p. 28-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in transport related carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their transport CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 43.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    An empirical test of the gravity p-median model2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to it and the attractiveness of it. However regarding the location of the facility, the presumption is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility.This paradox was recently solved by the introduction of the gravity p-median model. The model is yet to be implemented and tested empirically. We implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating locksmiths, vehicle inspections, and retail stores ofv ehicle spare-parts, and we compared the solutions with those of the p-median model. We found the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  • 44.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Testing the gravity p-median model empirically2015In: Operations Research Perspectives, ISSN 2214-7160, Vol. 2, no 124, article id 132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  • 45.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2013In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 226, no 3, p. 658-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, the three arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 46.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Short Communication: A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended the gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, Drezner and Drezner’s arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 47.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 48.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 16p. 382-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 49.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    CERUM, Umeå university.
    Asymmetric information and distance: an empirical assessment of geographical credit rationing2005In: Journal of Economics and Business, ISSN 0148-6195, E-ISSN 1879-1735, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 39-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does the geographical proximity between the borrowing firm and the lending bank, matter in credit risk management? If so, the bank might expose itself to a greater risk by lending to distant firms and should therefore respond by rationing them harder. In this paper, we incorporate geographical credit rationing in a simple theoretical model, and derive implications, which are empirically testable. We use data on corporate loans granted between the years of 1994 and 2000 by a leading Swedish bank, and find no evidence of geographical credit rationing.

  • 50.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    A stopping rule while searching for optimal solution of facility-location2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization, such as p-median problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The minimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. However, pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. A small branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to estimate the minimum and use the estimate for either stopping or evaluating the quality of the solution. In this paper we use test-problems taken from Baesley's OR-library and apply Simulated Annealing on these p-median problems. We do this for the purpose of comparing suggested methods of minimum estimation and, eventually, provide a recommendation for practioners. An illustration ends the paper being a problem of locating some 70 distribution centers of the Swedish Post in a region.

12345 1 - 50 of 240
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