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  • 1.
    Pettersson, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Children’s programmes and the narration of TV technology2014In: Contemporary Television Series: Narrative Structures and Audience Perception / [ed] Valentina Marinescu, Silvia Branea & Bianca Mitu, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014, p. 16-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Pettersson, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Public service TV, pedagogy and Swedish childhood: an international story of imagining a child audience2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public Service TV, pedagogy and Swedish Childhood - an international story of imagining a child audience

    This paper draws on TV Studies (e.g., Corner, 1999; Lury, 2005) Visual Studies (e.g., Mitchell, 2005; Rose, 2001) and Childhood Studies (e.g., James, Jenks and Prout, 1998; Lee, 2001) to explore how children and childhoods are represented, visualized and negotiated as an audience for public service television. Television for children is often debated in terms of the risk and assets that the medium is thought to pose for its target audience. However, what is actually broadcast for children on TV is much more seldom looked into either by people engaging in public debate or by research (for exceptions cf. Bignell, 2005; Buckingham, 2000; 2002; Lury, 2005; Oswell, 2002; Rydin, 2000). The present study draws on TV-material broadcast for children in Sweden during 1980, 1992 and 2007, as well as programming from 2015 targeting the youngest audience (0-9 year olds).

    When studying the Swedish broadcasting arena and its focus on a child audience one must bear in mind that some aspects are specific to the national context, such as a very long time period of a public service broadcasting monopoly (1956-1992 for Swedish television) and a thereby linked strong public service TV tradition for the child audience. The specificities of the national context in regard to broadcasting practices are the reason for the years under study.

    When looking into the public service TV content for a Swedish child audience there are a few discourses that cannot be avoided, nature is for example always a valid content to target child viewers with independently if the programmes are home-grown or not.  To ask the viewers to be active is also common in all kinds of programming for this audience group. Last but not the least, TV for children is almost always educational one way or another.

    What I would like to focus my presentation on is three different programmes, all acquired from large international actors on the global media market and all of them linked to Disney Play School in some way. The programmes, JoJo’s Circus, Little Einsteins and Bear in the Big Blue House are broadcast for the youngest Swedish public service TV audience. They can be viewed as commercial programmes, something that has been troublesome in the public service context, but to buy programmes is something that the public service broadcasting company has been doing continuously over the years (Rydin 2000). What I would like to discuss is what kind of educational notions these programmes draw on, for all of them have a clearly defined educational topic intertwined in the programming plot. How this is done, what is actually taught and with what measures are although something that divides them.

    JoJo’s Circus seems to display a joyful fairy-tale school, but when studied the teaching used is in a traditional manner and children in this programmes are to do what they are told by authoritarian adults.

    Little Einsteins can bee seen to focus on highbrow culture such as classical music and art, but in the programme the high culture ingredients gets lost in a fast moving plot and quite bossy child characters.

    Bear in the Big Blue House uses a different way to communicate its educational topic. Here the viewer is invited to join the activity on more friendly terms and what is thought, differences in imagery and perspective, is displayed in a quite complex way.

    These three international, and quite globally spread programmes are in this way displayed on Swedish public service children’s TV and they are, like so many of the other programmes that are broadcast for this audience, educational – or maybe even edutainment (cf. Buckingham & Scanlon 2005). But what is striking is that they display so vastly different educational perspectives and they thereby come to present quite different views on what kind of audience these programmes imagine child viewers to be. However, these programmes put light on how notions of childhood is inevitably entangled with educational aspects in society and this raises questions of how media produces and reproduces stereotype notions of what childhood is supposed to be like.

     

  • 3.
    Pettersson, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    The Best Friend: Exploring the Power Relations of the Child-Pet Co-Construction in Children’s TV Programs2017In: Childhood and pethood in literature and culture: new perspectives on childhood studies and animal studies / [ed] A. Feuerstein & C. Nolte-Odhiambo, New York: Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Purcell Sjölund, Anita
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. University of Otago .
    An analysis of Samoan reaction to The Orator (O Le Tulafale)’s Fāgogo defining Samoan identity2013Student paper otherStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Orator (O Le Tulafale) was promoted as the first Samoan language film shot in Samoa with a Samoan cast and crew. Written and directed by Samoan filmmaker Tusi Tamasese, the film succeeded at several of the movie industry’s prestigious festivals. The Orator (O Le Tulafale) is about an outcast family of a dwarf (Saili), his wife and her teenage daughter. As the main protagonist, Saili battles to overcome his fears to become a chief to save his family and land. The film’s themes are courage, love, honour , as well as hypocrisy, violence, and discrimination. A backlash by Samoans was predicted ; however, the opposite occurred. This raised the following questions: first, what is it about the film causing this reaction? It is a 106 -minute film shot in Samoa about Samoans and the Samoan culture . D espite promotional claims about the film , there have been Samoan -produced films in Samoa . Secondly, to what are Samoans really responding? Is it 1) just to the film because it is about Samoa, or 2) are they responding to themselves , and how they reacted during the act of watching the film? This implies levels of reactions in the act of watching, and examining the dominant level of response is important. To explore this, t he Samoan story telling technique of Fāgogo was used to analyse the film’s narration and narrative techniques. R. Allen’s (1993, 1997) concept of projected illusion was employed to discuss the relationship between Samoans and the film developed during the act of watching. An examination of the term Samoan and a description of the framework of Fa’a Samoa (Samoan culture) were provided. Also included were discussions of memory and its impact on Samoan cultural identity. The analysis indicated that The Orator (O Le Tulafale) acted as a memory prompt through which Samoans recalled memories confirming and defining cultural bonds. These memories constituted the essence of being Samoan. These memories were awakened, and shared as oral histories as fāgogo. The receivers appeared to interpret the shared memories to create their own memories and stories to suit their contexts, according to Facebook postings. An interpretation is that the organic sharing of memories as fā gogo created a global definition of Samoan that Samoans internationally claimed.

  • 5.
    Purcell Sjölund, Anita
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    My Name is Gary Cooper, but it is also Samoan2016In: Transcultural Identity: Constructions in a Changing World / [ed] Irene Gilsenan Nordin, Chatarina Edfeldt, Lung-Lung Hu, Herbert Jonsson, André Leblanc, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, p. 306-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Samoan culture, chiefly titles are a form of oral history and cultural knowledge.  In this chapter, I interpret the term Samoan to be a title that has its own oral history and cultural knowledge. Those who call themselves Samoan belong to this history. However, Samoan is a title which is contested and (re)defined by contemporary Samoan cultural practitioners in immigration destination countries such as New Zealand. Examples are Victor Roger’s play My Name is Gary Cooper, Oscar Kightley and Simon Small’s play Fresh Off the Boat, and Tusi Tamasese’s film The Orator (O Le Tulafale). These works subvert the Western gaze upon the Samoan as the exotic and present a cultural mirror to Samoans to reveal how they view themselves. They form a larger discussion on a transnational or meta-Samoan culture and identity that is inclusive and that reflects the urban and cosmopolitan realities of Samoans whether they are in Samoa or abroad.  

  • 6.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Musical meaning in film: an intermedial perspective2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. Wingstedt, Johnny
    REMUPP: A tool for investigating musical narrative functions2006In: Proceedings of the Audio Mosty Conference : a Conference on Sound in Games, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Sound and Music Production.
    The Aesthetic Potential of Vocal Sound in Online Learning Situations2018In: Multimodality and Aesthetics / [ed] Elise Seip Tønnessen & Frida Forsgren, London and New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 186-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brändström, Sture
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Narrative music, visuals and meaning in film2010In: Visual Communication, ISSN 1470-3572, E-ISSN 1741-3214, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 193-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Narrative media music, music used for narrative purposes in multimedia such as film, television or computer games, is becoming one of the largest sources of musical experience in our daily lives. Though typically experienced on an unconscious and unreflected level, this kind of music actively contributes narrative meaning in multimodal interplay with image, speech and sound effects. Often, what we (think we) see is to a large degree determined by what we hear. Using Halliday’s (1978) metafunctions of communication as a starting point, two short film scenes (from Jaws and The Secret of My Success) are examined, with a focus on the intermodal relationships of music and image. The examples illustrate how musical and visual expressions combine to form multimodal statements where the whole is certainly different than the sum of the parts.

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