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  • 1.
    Andrén, Sandra
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Man, Nicole
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Uppfattningen av den grafiska designen på teförpackningar: Enkätundersökning och visuell innehållsanalys2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The companies of today all compete to sell the same products and it’s important to stand out. There’s a great variety of packaging in the stores and that’s why graphic design play an important role. This study examines the graphic design of the tea packaging and if graphic design on tea packages has an impact on how consumers perceive the product.

    This study is only focused on tea packages containing tea bags and not loose tea. The focus is on graphic design on the front of the tea package and not the shape of the tea package. The study was implemented with a survey and a visual content analysis. The study aims to find out what it is in the tea packaging graphic design that contributes to how the consumer perceives the product. The results of the survey showed that the brand had a big impact on how consumers perceived the product and its design.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Levinsson, Ronja
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Barn och föräldrars val av bilderbok med fokus på illustrationer: En intervju- och observationsundersökning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was the comparison of children 3–6 years old and parents’ preferences of picture book illustrations, as well as to examine how parents reason about the choice of picture book and the illustration’s role in this context.

    Through individual semi-structured interviews and observations with 22 children (3–6 years) and 10 parents were examined which types of book illustrations that were preferred. The parents then also choose which of five picture books, from which the illustrations were from, they would like to read to their children.

    The results of the study indicate that the illustrations are an aspect for both children and parents in the selection of picture book and that there are factors that are preferred in the illustrations.

    The children in the study seemed to prefer naivistic illustrations with a high number of focal points. The parents preferred realistic illustrations with elements they can connect to real life.

    Parents considered illustrations, moral and knowledge to be of great importance when choosing a picture book for their children. Many parents wanted the opportunity to tell their own story about the illustrations in the picture books.

  • 3.
    Beillon, Nathalie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Runeby, Fanny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Unga vuxnas åsikter kring bokomslags formgivning: En enkät- och fokusgruppsundersökning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reader’s first encounter with a book is through its cover. Therefore it is important that the cover is appealing and sends out the right message. According to book publishers, young adults (individuals aged 16–27 years) are hard to reach because of a lack of knowledge about what attracts them and because of the group’s diversity.

    The objective of this study is to show what young adults are attracted by in book cover designs, using an extensive questionnaire survey and two focus groups investigating their perceptions.

    The results show that young adults argue that a book cover must relate to the potential reader and corresponds to the reader’s identity. The typography should be easy to read. Photographic images are preferred and should depict the contents of the book. Unsaturated colors appeal to the target group – red and black seem to be the most popular colors, while pink is not preferred. Special effects (like varnish and foil) should be used with caution.

  • 4.
    Bäck, Malin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Influencerns användande av företags visuella identitet vid betalt samarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Influencers ar det nya verktyget i foretags marknadsforing. Men vad hander

    med foretags visuell identitet nar en influencer far skapa ett inlagg i samarbete

    efter en forfragan fran foretag.

    Studien bygger pa en visuell innehallsanalys av fyra olika foretag som anvander

    sig av influencers i det sociala medier Instagram. Den visuella

    innehallsanalysen skapades efter riktlinjer som stalldes upp innan studien

    paborjades for att lata alla bedomningar ga efter samma mall. Efter att analysen

    var klara sattes intervjufragor upp for att anvandas vid strukturerade intervjuer

    med influencers for att verkligen fa reda pa hur de arbetade och vilken

    information de fick fran foretag.

    Resultatet fran bade intervjuerna och den visuella identiteten visar pa att

    influencers far valdigt olika direktiv fran foretag. Det papekas aven att de vill

    skapa sitt material sjalva utan att nagon annan styr for att behalla en akthet mot

    sina foljare, som annars latt ser igenom inlagg ifall de ar fake.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalen University.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalen University.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University.
    Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency2014In: Analyzing Cognitive Processes during Design: Proceedings of the HBiD 2014 / [ed] Mirko Meboldt, Sven Matthiesen, Petra Badke-Schaub, Quentin Lohmeyer, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study aims at illuminating human visual behavior in the interaction with pictorial instructions. The study is a multi disciplinary effort and is informed by the connection between gaze and attention as well as certain aspects of the Visual Literacy field and reveals a few basic visual behavior tendencies related to certain specific pictorial instruction types. By doing so, it is also an evaluation of the usefulness of a methodological framework consisting of six measures.The analysis of this paper is primarily based on eye-tracking data. In addition, an observed assembly that generated video and sound recordings is also part of the method. In the study 12 Film/TV- production students (out of which there is complete data from 9 informants) interacted with three types of types of visual instructions of the same assembled object, a solar powered toy.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR.
    How gaze time on screen impacts the efficacy of visual instructions2018In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 6, article id e00660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores whether GTS (gaze time on screen) can be useful as an engagement measure in the screen mediated learning context. Research that exemplifies ways of measuring engagement in the on-line education context usually does not address engagement metrics and engagement evaluation methods that are unique to the diverse contemporary instructional media landscape. Nevertheless, unambiguous construct definitions of engagement and standardized engagement evaluation methods are needed to leverage instructional media's efficacy. By analyzing the results from a mixed methods eye-tracking study of fifty-seven participants evaluating their visual and assembly performance levels in relation to three visual, procedural instructions that are versions of the same procedural instruction, we found that the mean GTS-values in each group were rather similar. However, the original GTS-values outputted from the ET-computer were not entirely correct and needed to be manually checked and cross validated. Thus, GTS appears not to be a reliable, universally applicable automatic engagement measure in screen-based instructional efforts. Still, we could establish that the overall performance of learners was somewhat negatively impacted by lower than mean GTS-scores, when checking the performance levels of the entire group (N = 57). When checking the stimuli groups individually (N = 17, 20, 20), the structural diagram group's assembly time durations were positively influenced by higher than mean GTS-scores.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Convergence cameras and the new documentary image2012In: Digital Creativity, ISSN 1462-6268, E-ISSN 1744-3806, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 291-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New digital recording technologies pose new creative dilemmas for documentary videographers. The new type high-resolution video camera with 35 mm sized sensors and mounts for real film lenses generate a type of imagery that does not look typically ’observational’. By testing this imagery’s capacity as the guarantor of documentary authenticity and interrelating this with visualisation theories, this paper aims to explain the ontology of the new digital documentary image, its lure for the documentary filmmaker and its ramifications on reception in order to leverage technological production awareness of the documentary videographer and production members. The empirical data presented in this article is based on an explorative reception study in which five different types of moving image sequences were tested on an audience in order to be able to define the level of indexical appeal in shallow depth of field, high resolution, High Production Value, documentary moving images. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sverrisson, Arni
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    New design process models for the audio visual industry: a design science approach2010In: DS 60: Proceedings of DESIGN 2010, the 11th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia: Modelling and Optimization of Engineering Design Processes / [ed] Marjanovic D., Storga M., Pavkovic N., Bojcetic N., Dubrovnik: FSB-The Design Society , 2010, p. 223-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial design processes have several common denominators regardless of the actual design. This is to say that the production of moving images is a kind of design process. Even though every single film- or TV-production is unique, the production processes as such are often similar. Therefore we suggest that a Distributed Creativity Workflow Model will be useful in film- and TV-production. This model will facilitate the design process and make the production of contemporary audio-visual material more cost effective. Hopefully more time can be spent on creativity within the process.

  • 9.
    Gustafson, Karolina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Bergenfelz, Charlotte
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Grafisk profil åt Borlänge Bandy: Framtagning av en sportförenings visuella profil2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Borlänge Bandy is a sports association based in Borlänge. Before this work took place they had no visual identity. To help Borlänge Bandy create better perception, a visual identity was created. The goal was to create a visual identity supported by the target group’s views. To investigate the target group's opinions on Borlänge Bandy’s visual appearance several surveys was conducted. These formed the basis for a renewal of Borlänge Bandy’s logotype. Material to the visual identity was analyzed in a focus group. This then led to an updated version of the logotype along with graphic material. An evaluative focus group then checked that the goal had been achieved. The result was a new visual identity with associated graphic identity manual to Borlänge Bandy that contains information about typography, colors, logotype, visual identity imagery, correspondence materials, business products and graphic elements. If the graphic material is handled with consistency it will create recognition. The conclusions were that the new visual identity is perceived as unified, harmonious, and related throughout the manual. 

  • 10.
    Liljengård, Anton
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Filstorleksoptimering för retuscheringsarbete: Enundersökning med fokus på moderetuschering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the processing of pictures today the file size often becomes large. An effective technological development has made the demand for quality higher. In a world where the photographer's camera has gotten a higher resolution, the image's file size has also increased.

    The aim of this thesis has been to come up with a recommendation for how to work towards getting a smaller file size. The recommendation was intended for retouchers who work in the fashion industry and with pictures meant for print.

    The work has dealt with file sizes associated with retouching and have tried to illustrate what during the retouch procedure that causes a larger file size. This has been done by contacting retouchers who often work with fashion images. The focus has been on the layers in Photoshop and editing options for the retoucher.

    The results showed that the retouchers had similar ways of working towards a small file size, and a certain similarity is apparent in their way of retouching which caused a bigger file size. What also showed was that the file size is the most affected by how layers consisting of pixels and masks look compared to adjustment layers.

  • 11.
    Matsson, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Hur retusch påverkar skönhetsannonsers attraktion: En studie om målgruppens åsikter och köplust2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to answer whether retouching of models in beauty ads increases the desire to buy in the target group and the attitudes held about what is allowed to retouch.

    Two surveys with 1,408 participants was made. In one the participant was shown a beauty ad in a situation imitating the reality where the participant did not know if the picture was retouched. The study showed that the participant preferred that the model's beauty spots and outgrowth were removed. To remove stray hair did not increase the desire to buy. A second study in which participants could compare the retouched picture to the unretouched showed that blemishes and stray hair was preferred and allowed to be removed. Removing outgrowth did not increase the desire to buy the skin cream. Interviews with five women revealed that a prudent and relevant retouching, such as removing blemishes, but to leave some birthmarks, increased the reliability in the ad.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Softproof och färghantering i designprocessen: Från skärm till tryck2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med detta examensarbete har varit att ge en överblick över de parametrar som påverkar möjligheten att upprätta ett färghanterat arbetsflöde. Ett färghanterat arbetsflöde ger möjlighet att förutsäga färgåtergivningen i trycksaker via softproof – skärmkorrektur. Examensarbetet belyser de problem och fallgropar som finns i arbetsflödet och hur de kan påverka relevansen för en bedömning av tryckresultat via softproof. Examensarbetet behandlar hur färgåtergivningen påverkas av betraktningsljus och omgivningsljus samt vikten av att arbeta med en kalibrerad bildskärm – en förutsättning för att kunna utföra en färgriktig softproof. Som utgångspunkt för examensarbetet har arbetsflödet på fyra företag i branschen använts och hur väl de uppfyller gällande standarder, ISO 3664 och ISO 12646. Genom ett visuellt test som utarbetats inom examensarbetet har arbetsmiljöns påverkan på färgseendet kunnat påvisas. Testet kan ge en vägledning om hur avvikelser från ISO 3664 och ISO 12646 i arbetsmiljön påverkar bedömningen av färger vid softproof och provtryck.

  • 13.
    Nordahl, Lina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Fotografers och föräldrars attityder kring skönhetsretuschering i skolfotografier: En semistrukturerad intervjustudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through semi-structured interviews with 8 school photographers and 10 parents,this study attempted to clarify what photographers and parents of children(aged 1–5) in preschool think of photography business in the current situationprovides retouching children’s school photographs and what they considers tobe acceptable. The result shows that companies do not offer photo retouchingfrequent, but performs this service at the direct request of the customer. Themajority of parents agreed that dirt and food was accepted to be removed fromthe photograph, and that this does not affect the child's self image. The photographersbelieve that one should be very careful when it comes to children andretouching, and that the debate is important.

  • 14.
    Påls, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Strategier för presentationav arbetsprover inom grafiskdesign: hur en arbetssökande grafiskdesigner bäst ”säljer sig själv” tillanställning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To get the job of your dreams in a competitive industry like graphicdesign you need that special something. The purpose of this survey is tofind out what that something is and thereby make it easier for jobseeking graphic designers on the road to their dream job.Through three in-depth interviews with employees at medium-sizedfirms in central Sweden investigations were made to find out what theemployers appreciate and expect from a job seeking graphic designer.The issues treated were the role of the portfolio with the industry'sdigitization as a background, and how a job seeker captures theemployer's interest.The results show that although the portfolio represents a large part of thebasis in recruitment of staff, the person behind the portfolio and what ithas to tell about the content is the most important. A portfolio that doesnot describe the context is no good as promotional material. To take careof the personal brand stands out as important to succeed. The digitalportfolio dominates the market, but physical work samples are seen as apossible way to stand out from the crowd. Digital networks arepositively received by the industry, but personal websites are consideredto have more substance.

  • 15.
    Romanczukiewicz, Renata
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Art Education.
    Problems and Issues in Concept Design of Characters: Mapping the process of creative media characters in the first development stages2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Skoglund, Gabriel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic Arts Technology.
    Mikrotypografins inverkan på läsbarheten hos tryckt brödtext: En forskningsöversikt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How the typographic design of a document affects how easy it is to read is a subject that has long been of interest to researchers. The aim has been to reach a better understanding of the reading process, and to find an ideal way to design text for maximum legibility. However, the researchers have seemingly failed to raise awareness about their results in the typographic community.

    The aim of this thesis was to create an overview of the research into how microtypography – the typography concerned with individual letters and sentences – affects the legibility of running text. Ten empirical studies on this subject, published in scientific journals, were selected after literature searches. The methods and results of the studies were described and discussed. The studies were concerned with the following microtypographic factors: differences in legibility between typefaces, the role of x-height and letter spacing in, differences in legibility between lower case, upper case and italic letters as well as differences in legibility between specific letter shapes.

    The conclusion was that legibility research gives interesting insights into how typography can influence the reading process. However, the limited amount of studies found concerning each typographic factor, as well as the lack of studies concerning Swedish typography makes it hard to create typographic guidelines for Swedish typographers based on the research. It was also concluded that studies conducted in cooperation between researchers and typographers might be a way to raise awareness about the research and lead to greater practical application of research results.

  • 17.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    A film editor’s visual intentions and use of perceptual phenomena in designing film edit: an observational study2017In: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the role of perception in film editing, considered as audiovisual design work. The study is an observation of a film editor editing a documentary film sequence, where the perceptual phenomena at stake at edit points are scrutinized, with reference to perception theory. The results show that the film editor’s design goal is to achieve perceptual precision for each edit, either for continuity or for discontinuity, accordingly. The more perceptual phenomena per edit, the more time and the more processing the editor has to spend on the edit until satisfied with the result. This knowledge is of importance to inexperienced film editors in order to make the editing process faster and more precise and thus shorten production time. In the wider design context, other design activities are indicated to find inspiration for future research in this study, regarding perceptual phenomena and gaze framing during design processes.

  • 18.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Agents, design and creativity: a postproduction analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify major issues in production planning and collaboration in the making of assemblies of moving images and soundtracks (postproduction of film, TV-programs et cetera). We argue that worker creativity in the making of such assemblies is constrained by the digitalization of production technology. We also argue that the members of each craft that collaborate in the process have their own set of aesthetic and technical problems that need to be solved and that the possible solutions are constrained by the creative space accorded to each craft. Participants do not necessarily subscribe to this idea and any theoretical understanding of the process must also account for the variety of notions put forward by the agents. We give examples from the Swedish TV show, Värsta Språket, from interviews and technical writing in order to clarify and support these arguments.

  • 19.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Complex design data joined in audiovisual representation: Benefits and issues in analysis2018In: PIN-C Conference Proceedings 2018, Eskilstuna, 2018, p. 319-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory methods in design or innovationresearch can require several different kinds of datain order to cover the object or process of interest tothe study. This paper addresses the potential anddifficulties of joining and analyzing several datacategories into a unified observational video, whereall data is represented in either audio, visual oraudiovisual form. The core problem of such acomplex body of data is that the analysis requiresefficient tools and/or methods to match the datacomplexity. The current case regards a participatorystudy on film editing, its method and datacomplexity, and discusses analytical approaches.

  • 20.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Editorial intentions and viewer perceptions: Audiovisual methods for studying film editing and eye movements2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation describes the methods used in a research project on continuity film editing and its effects on viewer perception.  Film editing is considered a form of audiovisual design work in which visual perception plays a significant role. The study analyzes audiovisual design work in terms of nine different visual aspects and four different audio aspects. The audio aspects are the making of a soundtrack to a documentary film sequence, recordings of conversations during observations, and the viewing of the film sequence, as well as an analysis of those recordings. The visual aspects include the editing of the documentary film sequence, recordings of the editor at work (together with an observing researcher) generating video images of the work, and a continuous screen-recording including computer keystrokes. An altered second version of the film in which the edits were altered was created, and both versions were used as stimuli in an eye tracking study with 30 participants. Finally, eye-tracking data was analyzed in terms of eye-movements, and areas of interest, in order to determine the importance of perceptual precision. When perceptual precision is poor, the viewer’s eyes make extra movements to adjust or miss the area of interest, or the viewer’s cognitive load increases. Examples are given in the presentation, and it is suggested that these methods make it possible to identify key audiovisual factors that a film editor considers, which constitute viewer-friendly and viewer-challenging (i.e. ’smooth’ and ‘harsh’) moving image editing. This knowledge has not been documented experimentally before, and understanding how perceptual precision determines viewer-friendly or viewer-challenging film editing is a key factor in helping inexperienced film editors learn how to achieve their audiovisual intentions. It also contributes to the academic understanding of perceptual considerations in design work.

  • 21.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme for this doctoral thesis focuses on how a film editor strives actively to perceptually frame and direct the film viewer’s gaze across film edits. The editor’s (audio-)visual intentions concerning the film viewing correspond to perceptual considerations that the editor makes during film editing.

    Film editing in this thesis is considered as a kind of design work, foremost motivated by the possibilities of many new approaches, questions, and answers that a design perspective brings, stretching well beyond what previously adopted perspectives have done.

    The research questions asked, as well as the presented results, are discussed with regard to design theory, established film production field knowledge, and perception research. Apart from considering audiovisual perception in a film editing context, film editing is also discussed as audiovisual design, and tentative implications for the role of perception in other kinds of design work are pointed out.

    The results of my analyses are that there is reason to consider parts of film production as design work; that properties of an audiovisual material affect the creative space; that perceptual considerations are a significant part of the film editor’s treatment of the audiovisual material; that film viewers’ response to film edits varies with the shape of the edits; and that this variation is possible to link with the film editor’s intention regarding the edits, as well as to the degree of fulfillment of the intention.

    I conclude that perceptual precision at the edit point is decisive for attaining a desired film-viewing decoding of a film sequence, and that when the perceptual precision is low, it is likely that the perceived continuity of the film fails.

    The contribution of this doctoral thesis is that it drives the investigation of actual appliance of perception as audiovisual knowledge in film editing. Hence, it also adds to the more general discussion on perception as part of audiovisual thinking, and how audiovisual knowledge is formed.

    The thesis contributes to the area of Innovation and Design through its mix of methods, since the main study considers the creation of new artefacts, the thinking going on during that process, as well as human responses to the artefacts. Conclusively, the thesis provides a thorough example of how a design research perspective can add to the understanding of film production, and its trades and activities.

  • 22.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Media Production or Audiovisual Design?2013In: International Conference on Communication, Media, Technology and Design: Presentations / [ed] Ali Simsek, Agah Gumus, Fahme Dabaj, 2013, p. 128-134Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Media production includes many moments of creative work that would be best addressed as audiovisual design. The two paradigmatic understandings of design, ‘design-as-problem-solving’ (Simon, 1996), and ‘design-as-meaning-creation’ (Krippendorf, 1995), have bearing on those work-moments. The issues dealt with during those media production work-moments, as well as the problems to solve and the characteristics of the work-processes in use, resemble issues, problems and process characteristics familiar within design work (Sato & Poggenpohl, 2009).From a perspective of communication, audiovisual communication preferably is addressed as multimodal (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) where both strata, design and production, are considered to make important impact on a message.This paper discusses the theoretical implications of considering media production as audiovisual communication during its process of being created, where design is an integrated part of that process. The benefits of considering media production as audiovisual design are proposed from a design research perspective, and are compared with other perspectives.

  • 23.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Postproduction agents: audiovisual design and contemporary constraints for creativity2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Visual intention in moving image editing and eye-tracking methodology: an exploratory study2010In: Proceedings, Information Visualisation (IV), 2010 14th International Conference, London, 2010, p. 381-387Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving images production teams’ skills in directing the visual perception of viewers have been confirmed lately through eye-tracking methodology. One interest lies in explaining the use of different techniques by the production team for its realization of visual intentions. These intentions are however many in most moving images. This paper undertakes the development of a method for grasping the film or video editors’ intentions with the editing of moving images, and has been carried out as an exploratory study. The method suggested considers conventions of the trade, observational study with running screen-dump and proximate interviews with editors on specific edits, as well as the testing of moving image sequences where the intention of each edit point is known. The test is conducted on viewers, with the use of eye-tracking techniques. The findings are that the method should be useful in distinguishing between when the editors’ grip on the audience is firm, and when it is rather vague. But the method also suggests new aspects of understanding the viewers’ gazes when watching moving images.

  • 25.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Audiovisuella designprocesser och digitala verktyg2014In: Audiovisuellt: Ljud och Bild: En artikelsamling med bidrag från projektet Audiovisuella medier / [ed] Árni Sverrisson, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Creative Space in Contemporary Swedish Moving Image Production2012In: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, E-ISSN 1875-8959, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of moving images is turning completely digital. This leads to new possibilities and new constraints for creativity within film and TV production chains.

    This paper describes professionals’ current comprehension of the consequences of the shift from celluloid to digital technologies, within the Swedish Moving Image Industry. New technologies bring new workflows, new design processes and new constraints.

    We aim to illuminate factors that affect design creativity in digital moving image production, by addressing questions about production related responses to the digital turn as well as the affects of such responses on creativity.

    Inspired by Ingar Brinck’s creativity theories (1999, 2007) we view aesthetic problem solving as a cognitive process and suggest creative spaces to be the critical phenomenon to manage. We also use organization theories, particularly the work of Katherine Miller (2011) to explain why creativity ought to be a primary management concern.

    The empirical material used is semi-structured interviews with management personnel in Swedish moving image production companies. Outcomes include that the variety of digital formats available today is hard for crafts people to overview. This has brought costly workflow constraints that largely limit creativity.

    We suggest a pre-production file format check-list as a tool to support design management.

  • 27.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Effects of continuity or discontinuity in actual film editing2018In: Empirical Studies of the Arts, ISSN 0276-2374, E-ISSN 1541-4493, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 222-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A film editor’s refining of film edits at a frame-by-frame matching is an effort of perceptual precision. This paper investigates whether a failure of a few frames would jeopardize the perceived continuity of the film. 33 Swedish students, 17 female, average age 26, were eye tracked while watching two versions of the same documentary film sequence, where one version was completed to satisfaction by a film editor, and the other version had its edits altered 4-6 frames against the film editor’s intentions.

    The analysis scrutinized gaze hits in Areas-of-Interest (AoI:s) appointed by the film editor, as well as saccade frequency and pupil dilation after edit points. No significant difference was found for gaze hits in AoI:s, whereas saccade frequency increased 120-400 ms after edit points by  29.4%, and pupil sizes increased by 28% relative size, 200-500 ms after edits, both in the altered version of the film sequence.

    These results indicates that the altered film sequence constrained viewers, with possible cognitive effects, which implies that the frame-by-frame matching of film edits achieved by film editors is crucial to film continuity.

  • 28.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalen University.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalen University.
    Film and TV Industry Responses to Research Results in a Workshop Setting2015In: IASDR2015 Interplay Proccedings / [ed] Vesna Popovic, Alethea Blacker, Ding-Bang Luh, Nithikul Nimkulrat, Ben Kraal, and Yukari Nagai, IASDR , 2015, p. 1917-1931Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immediate return of results to the Swedish film and TV industry from researchers conducting ongoing research within the field is rather unusual. As a design research approach we, as researchers, adopted this method in order to disseminate results and confront a wider group of interest parties than those represented by our informants.

    The results from the research project, New Design Processes in the Audiovisual Industry, revealed that the transition from recording on celluloid with analogue film cameras to using high definition video cameras presented new cruxes for the film and TV industries (Eriksson & Swenberg, 2012). These cruxes preliminary concerned the choice of proper video codecs and file formats and how to configure them, in order to reinforce efficient workflow later in the production chain.

    Members of the industry and educators were invited to participate in public workshops, held at Dalarna University, where these results were presented along with expert solutions to the problems. Questionnaires were distributed among participants before the start of each workshop, as well as at the end. Seminars and panel discussions, both consisting of question and answer sessions for participants were video-recorded.

    The responses extrapolated from industrial representatives show an urgent need for discussion regarding the situation of digital cruxes within the film and TV industry. The Q & A sessions confirmed the widespread need for understanding several of the problems that had emerged. In the questionnaires, many industrial representatives expressed their appreciation for the opportunity to understand the nature of problems, how widespread they were, how to address them, and how to fill some of the most critical prevalent knowledge gaps.

  • 29.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR Design och Visualisering / ID.
    Design Management Support for the Audiovisual Industry2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR.
    Workflow management: design management support in professional audiovisual production2012In: SDPS-2012: PROCEEDINGS OF The Fifteenth International Conference on Technology of Complex Systems / [ed] Dr. Sang Suh, Dr. Wolfgang Reisig, Texas, 2012, Vol. 1, p. 144-151Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the need for design management support within the Audiovisual Industry, due to the increasing variety of video file formats and codecs available to professionals. The amount of video file formats and codecs are referred to as ‘the file format jungle’ by moving image professionals, and needs to be navigated by managerial staff that are not electronic engineers or technicians, but responsible for audio-visual design work within film and TV production.

    We have evaluated a prototype for a design management support tool that compares file formats and codecs for different production tools, with the help of Swedish moving image industry producers. The core principals of the support tool prototype are found to cohere with the needs for design management support within film and TV production, and the tool is therefore an option for commercial development.

  • 31.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR.
    Film and TV production as audiovisual design2018In: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 39-51Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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