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  • 1.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Optimal retail location and CO2 emissions2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2 emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2 emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2 emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25percent. 

  • 2.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Optimal retail location and CO2-emissions2013Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 20, nr 14, s. 1357-1361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2-emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2-emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2-emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25 per cent.

  • 3.
    Jia, Tao
    et al.
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Trips and their CO2 emissions to and from a shopping center2013Ingår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 33, s. 135-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have focused on entire trips within a geographical region, while only a few have examined trips to and from a city landmark. This paper examines trips (and their CO2 emissions) to and from a shopping center from a time-space perspective, and it further considers how this information can be used in relocation planning. It is a case study in the Borlänge city in mid-Sweden where trips to the city’s largest shopping mall are scrutinized. We use GPS tracking data of car trips starting and ending at the shopping center. Firstly, we analyze the traffic emission patterns from a time-space perspective where the temporal patterns reveal hourly-based traffic emission dynamics. The spatial analysis uncovers a heterogeneous distribution of areal traffic emissions as well as of single street segments. Secondly, we find the observed trips mostly agree with an optimal route in terms of CO2 emissions. Drawing on this finding, we thirdly evaluate the location of the current shopping center by comparing it to two competing locations. We conclude that the two competing locations, being in the vicinity of the current one, would induce an insignificant improvement in terms of CO2 emissions.

  • 4.
    Landré, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Geoprocessing journey-to-work data: delineating commuting regions in Dalarna, Sweden2012Ingår i: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, nr 1, s. 294-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Delineation of commuting regions has always been based on statistical units, often municipalities or wards. However, using these units has certain disadvantages as their land areas differ considerably. Much information is lost in the larger spatial base units and distortions in self-containment values, the main criterion in rule-based delineation procedures, occur. Alternatively, one can start from relatively small standard size units such as hexagons. In this way, much greater detail in spatial patterns is obtained. In this paper, regions are built by means of intrazonal maximization (Intramax) on the basis of hexagons. The use of geoprocessing tools, specifically developed for the processing ofcommuting data, speeds up processing time considerably. The results of the Intramax analysis are evaluated with travel-to-work area constraints, and comparisons are made with commuting fields, accessibility to employment, commuting flow density and network commuting flow size. From selected steps in the regionalization process, a hierarchy of nested commuting regions emerges, revealing the complexity of commuting patterns.

  • 5.
    Landré, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rule versus interaction function: evaluating regional aggregations of commuting flows in Sweden2013Ingår i: European journal of transport and infrastructure research, ISSN 1567-7133, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of two divergent methods for delineating commuting regions, also called labour market areas, in a situation that the base spatial units differ largely in size as a result of an irregular population distribution. Commuting patterns in Sweden have been analyzed with geographical information system technology by delineating commuting regions using two regionalization methods. One, a rule-based method, uses one-way commuting flows to delineate local labour market areas in a top-down procedure based on the selection of predefined employment centres. The other method, the interaction-based Intramax analysis, uses two-way flows in a bottom-up procedure based on numerical taxonomy principles. A comparison of these methods will expose a number of strengths and weaknesses. For both methods, the same data source has been used. The performance of both methods has been evaluated for the country as a whole using resident employed population, self-containment levels and job ratios for criteria. A more detailed evaluation has been done in the Goteborg metropolitan area by comparing regional patterns with the commuting fields of a number of urban centres in this area. It is concluded that both methods could benefit from the inclusion of additional control measures to identify improper allocations of municipalities.

  • 6.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    An evaluation of the reliability of GPS-based transportation data2017Ingår i: Proceedings of IAC in Vienna 2017, 2017, s. 323-334, artikel-id IAC201711035Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-based data are becoming a cornerstone for real-time transportation applications. Tracking data of vehicles from GPS receivers are however susceptible to measurement errors. The assessment of the reliability of data from GPS receiver is a neglected issue, especially in a real road network setting and in the phase after data transfer but before information identification. An evaluation method is outlined and carried out by conducting a randomized experiment. We assess the reliability of GPS-based transportation data on geographical position, speed, and elevation from three varied receivers GlobalSat BT-338X, Magellan SporTrak Pro and smart phone for three transportation modes: bicycle, car, and bus. The positional error ranging from 0158 meters, and 74% to 100% with an error within 5 meters depending on the transportation mode and route, there is also a non-negligible risk for aberrant positioning. Speed is slightly underestimated or overestimated with errors around 5km/h except for SporTrak Pro which had an error of -10 km/h. Elevation measurements are unreliable with errors bigger than 100 meters.

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