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  • 1. Kántor, Noémi
    et al.
    Chen, Liang
    Gál, Csilla V
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Human-biometeorological significance of shading in urban public spaces: Summertime measurements in Pécs, Hungary2018Ingår i: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 170, s. 241-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shading is shown to be one of the most effective strategies to mitigate urban heat stress, especially on a small scale. This paper presents an empirical study investigating the effectiveness of different means of shading—by sun sails and trees—to improve the local thermal environment during the summer. Three different urban settings were investigated through detailed human-biometeorological measurements in the Hungarian city of Pécs. Our study employed the accurate six-directional radiation measurement technique, and calculated Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) from the obtained data to assess outdoor thermal conditions. Our results indicate that in open urban squares trees can mitigate heat stress more effectively than low-hanging sun sails, installed right above the head of pedestrians. In the period of 9:00–16:00, the average PET reduction by trees and low sun sails was 9.0 °C and 5.8 °C, respectively. Sun sails, installed at higher elevation to shade an entire street canyon, and mature trees with dense canopy had more pronounced heat stress reduction ability, and were able to reduce the local PET by over 10 °C. Our study demonstrates the importance of detailed small-scale field measurements, the outcomes of which can be incorporated into climate-responsive urban design strategies with ease.

  • 2. Kántor, Noémi
    et al.
    Gál, Csilla V
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Gulyás, Ágnes
    Unger, János
    The impact of façade orientation and woody vegetation on summertime heat stress patterns in a Central-European square: comparison of radiation measurements and simulations2018Ingår i: Advances in Meteorology, ISSN 1687-9309, E-ISSN 1687-9317, artikel-id 2650642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing summertime air temperature deteriorates human health especially in cities where the warming tendency is exacerbated by urban heat island. Human-biometeorological studies shed light on the primary role of radiation conditions in the development of summertime heat stress. However, only a limited number of field investigations have been conducted up to now. Based on a 26-hour long complex radiation measurement this study presents the evolved differences within a medium-sized rectangular square in Szeged, Hungary. Besides assessing the impact of woody vegetation and façade orientation on the radiation heat load, different modeling software (ENVI-met, SOLWEIG, RayMan) are evaluated in reproducing mean radiant temperature (Tmrt).Although daytime Tmrt can reach extreme level at exposed locations (65–75°C) mature shade trees can reduce it to 30–35°C. Nevertheless, shading from buildings adjacent to sidewalks plays also an important role in mitigating pedestrian heat stress. Sidewalks facing to SE, S and SW do not benefit from the shading effect of buildings therefore shading them by trees or artificial shading devices is of high importance. The measurement–model comparison revealed smaller or larger discrepancies that raise awareness on the careful adaptation of any modeling software and on the relevance of fine-resolution field measurements.

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