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  • 1.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialteknik.
    Engkvist, Josefin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Comparing 69Ga+ and C60+ for ToF-SIMS sputter depth profiling in a Cr2O3 formed during oxidation of a Ce coated FeCr steel substrate2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Engkvist, Josefin
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialvetenskap. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Niklas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialteknik.
    The initial effect of KCl deposit on alumina scales characterized by ToF-SIMS and AES2013Ingår i: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 445-448Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A FeCrAl alloy was preoxidized to form a protective alumina scale, and the effect of KCl deposits on the alumina scale was investigated while exposed during 1 and 24 h at 600 °C. However, impurity concentrations in the alumina scale change the ion conductivity and hence affect its protective properties. Therefore, Auger electron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to characterize the alumina scales and detect traces of K and Cl. The results showed that K and Cl existed as large sharp-edged crystals surrounded by a dendritic network after 1 h. However, after 24 h, those were dissolved, and K together with Cl was detected only in the outer layer of the duplex alumina scale, which was formed during preoxidation.

  • 3. Hultquist, Gunnar
    et al.
    Graham, M. J.
    Kodra, O.
    Moisa, R.
    Liu, R.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialteknik.
    Smialek, J. L.
    Corrosion of copper in distilled water without molecular oxygen and the detection of produced hydrogen2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on hydrogen pressures measured during the longterm immersion (~19 000 hours) of copper in oxygen-free distilled water. Hydrogen gas evolution is from copper corrosion and similar pressures (in the mbar range) are measured for copper contained in either a 316 stainless steel or titanium system. Copper corrosion products have been examined ex-situ by SEM and characterized by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). XPS strongly indicates a corrosion product containing both hydroxide and oxide. SIMS shows that oxygen is mainly present in the outer 0.3 um surface region and that hydrogen penetrates to depths in the substrate well below the corrosion product.

  • 4.
    Zhou, Nian
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialteknik. KTH.
    Influence of grinding operations on surface integrity and chloride induced stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steels were developed in the early 20th century and are used where both the mechanical properties of steels and corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to allow stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A necessary component in this effort is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

    The central theme of this thesis is the mechanical grinding process.  This is commonly used for producing stainless steel components, and results in varied surface properties that will strongly affect their service life. The influence of grinding parameters including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant were studied for 304L austenitic stainless steel (Paper II) and 2304 duplex stainless steel (Paper I). Surface integrity was proved to vary significantly with different grinding parameters. Abrasive grit size was found to have the largest influence. Surface defects (deep grooves, smearing, adhesive/cold welding chips and indentations), a highly deformed surface layer up to a few microns in thickness and the generation of high level tensile residual stresses in the surface layer along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage when grinding stainless steels. A large degree of residual stress anisotropy is interpreted as being due to mechanical effects dominating over thermal effects.

    The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behaviour of 304L austenitic stainless steel in a chloride environment was also investigated (Paper III). Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bend was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks initiation on the ground surfaces. Grinding along the loading direction was proved to increase the susceptibility to chloride-induced SCC, while grinding perpendicular to the loading direction improved SCC resistance.

    The knowledge obtained from this work can provide a reference for choosing appropriate grinding parameters when fabricating stainless steel components; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

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