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  • 1. Fox, Caroline S
    et al.
    Matsushita, Kunihiro
    Woodward, Mark
    Bilo, Henk J G
    Chalmers, John
    Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers
    Lee, Brian J
    Perkins, Robert M
    Rossing, Peter
    Sairenchi, Toshimi
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Vassalotti, Joseph A
    Yamagishi, Kazumasa
    Coresh, Josef
    de Jong, Paul E
    Wen, Chi-Pang
    Nelson, Robert G
    Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals with and without diabetes: a meta-analysis2012Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 380, nr 9854, s. 1662-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is characterised by low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high albuminuria, and is associated with adverse outcomes. Whether these risks are modified by diabetes is unknown.

    METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of studies selected according to Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium criteria. Data transfer and analyses were done between March, 2011, and June, 2012. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) associated with eGFR and albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes.

    FINDINGS: We analysed data for 1,024,977 participants (128,505 with diabetes) from 30 general population and high-risk cardiovascular cohorts and 13 chronic kidney disease cohorts. In the combined general population and high-risk cohorts with data for all-cause mortality, 75,306 deaths occurred during a mean follow-up of 8·5 years (SD 5·0). In the 23 studies with data for cardiovascular mortality, 21,237 deaths occurred from cardiovascular disease during a mean follow-up of 9·2 years (SD 4·9). In the general and high-risk cohorts, mortality risks were 1·2-1·9 times higher for participants with diabetes than for those without diabetes across the ranges of eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). With fixed eGFR and ACR reference points in the diabetes and no diabetes groups, HR of mortality outcomes according to lower eGFR and higher ACR were much the same in participants with and without diabetes (eg, for all-cause mortality at eGFR 45 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) [vs 95 mL/min per 1·73 m(2)], HR 1·35; 95% CI 1·18-1·55; vs 1·33; 1·19-1·48 and at ACR 30 mg/g [vs 5 mg/g], 1·50; 1·35-1·65 vs 1·52; 1·38-1·67). The overall interactions were not significant. We identified much the same findings for ESRD in the chronic kidney disease cohorts.

    INTERPRETATION: Despite higher risks for mortality and ESRD in diabetes, the relative risks of these outcomes by eGFR and ACR are much the same irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, emphasising the importance of kidney disease as a predictor of clinical outcomes.

    FUNDING: US National Kidney Foundation.

  • 2. Hallan, Stein I
    et al.
    Matsushita, Kunihiro
    Sang, Yingying
    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K
    Black, Corri
    Ishani, Areef
    Kleefstra, Nanne
    Naimark, David
    Roderick, Paul
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Wetzels, Jack F M
    Astor, Brad C
    Gansevoort, Ron T
    Levin, Adeera
    Wen, Chi-Pang
    Coresh, Josef
    Age and association of kidney measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease2012Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 308, nr 22, s. 2349-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in older individuals, but the risk implications of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high albuminuria across the full age range are controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate possible effect modification (interaction) by age of the association of eGFR and albuminuria with clinical risk, examining both relative and absolute risks.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual-level meta-analysis including 2,051,244 participants from 33 general population or high-risk (of vascular disease) cohorts and 13 CKD cohorts from Asia, Australasia, Europe, and North/South America, conducted in 1972-2011 with a mean follow-up time of 5.8 years (range, 0-31 years).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) according to eGFR and albuminuria were meta-analyzed across age categories after adjusting for sex, race, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking. Absolute risks were estimated using HRs and average incidence rates.

    RESULTS: Mortality (112,325 deaths) and ESRD (8411 events) risks were higher at lower eGFR and higher albuminuria in every age category. In general and high-risk cohorts, relative mortality risk for reduced eGFR decreased with increasing age; eg, adjusted HRs at an eGFR of 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs 80 mL/min/1.73 m2 were 3.50 (95% CI, 2.55-4.81), 2.21 (95% CI, 2.02-2.41), 1.59 (95% CI, 1.42-1.77), and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.23-1.48) in age categories 18-54, 55-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively (P <.05 for age interaction). Absolute risk differences for the same comparisons were higher at older age (9.0 [95% CI, 6.0-12.8], 12.2 [95% CI, 10.3-14.3], 13.3 [95% CI, 9.0-18.6], and 27.2 [95% CI, 13.5-45.5] excess deaths per 1000 person-years, respectively). For increased albuminuria, reduction of relative risk with increasing age was less evident, while differences in absolute risk were higher in older age categories (7.5 [95% CI, 4.3-11.9], 12.2 [95% CI, 7.9-17.6], 22.7 [95% CI, 15.3-31.6], and 34.3 [95% CI, 19.5-52.4] excess deaths per 1000 person-years, respectively by age category, at an albumin-creatinine ratio of 300 mg/g vs 10 mg/g). In CKD cohorts, adjusted relative hazards of mortality did not decrease with age. In all cohorts, ESRD relative risks and absolute risk differences at lower eGFR or higher albuminuria were comparable across age categories.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both low eGFR and high albuminuria were independently associated with mortality and ESRD regardless of age across a wide range of populations. Mortality showed lower relative risk but higher absolute risk differences at older age.

  • 3. Huang, Xiaoyan
    et al.
    Sjögren, Per
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Risérus, Ulf
    Carrero, Juan Jesús
    Serum and adipose tissue fatty acid composition as biomarkers of habitual dietary fat intake in elderly men with chronic kidney disease2014Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 128-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Fatty acid (FA) composition in serum cholesterol esters (CE) and adipose tissue (AT) reflect the long-term FA intake in the general population. Because both dietary intake and FA biomarkers associate with renal function, our aim was to identify which CE and AT FAs are useful biomarkers of habitual FA intake in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

    Methods Cross-sectional analysis was performed in 506 men (aged 70 years) with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort. Dietary habits were evaluated with a 7-day dietary record. FA compositions in CE and AT were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography in two random subsamples of 248 and 318 individuals, respectively.

    Results Both CE and AT linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were strongly associated with their corresponding intake, after adjustments for non-dietary factors. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and palmitic acid in CE and AT moderately correlated with dietary intake, whereas correlations of other FAs were weaker or absent. Proportions of EPA and DHA in CE and AT were positively associated with the total energy-adjusted fish intake. Results were confirmed in adequate reporters as identified by the Goldberg cutoff method. These relationships held constant, regardless of a GFR above or below 45 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) or the prevalence of microalbuminuria.

    Conclusions Proportions of EPA, DHA, palmitic and linoleic acid in serum CE and AT are good indicators of their dietary intake in men with CKD. They can be considered valid biomarkers for epidemiological studies and assessment of compliance.

  • 4.
    Nerpin, Elisabet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Geriatrik.
    The kidney in different stages of the cardiovascular continuum2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with chronic kidney disease are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The complex, interaction between the kidney and the cardiovascular system is incompletely understood, particularly at the early stages of the cardiovascular continuum.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to clarify novel aspects of the interplay between the kidney and the cardiovascular system at different stages of the cardiovascular continuum; from risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress, via sub-clinical cardiovascular damage such as endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular dysfunction, to overt cardiovascular death.

    This thesis is based on two community-based cohorts of elderly, Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) and Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

    The first study, show that higher insulin sensitivity, measured with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was associated to improve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in participants with normal fasting plasma glucose, normal glucose tolerance and normal eGFR. In longitudinal analyses, higher insulin sensitivity at baseline was associated with lower risk of impaired renal function during follow-up. In the second study, eGFR was inversely associated with different inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A) and positively associated with a marker of oxidative stress (urinary F2-isoprostanes). In line with this, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was positively associated with these inflammatory markers, and negatively associated with oxidative stress.

    In study three, higher eGFR was associated with better endothelial function as assessed by the invasive forearm model. Further, in study four, higher eGFR was significantly associated with higher left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction). The 5th study of the thesis shows that higher urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and lower eGFR was independently associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Analyses of global model fit, discrimination, calibration, and reclassification suggest that UAER and eGFR add relevant prognostic information beyond established cardiovascular risk factors in participants without prevalent cardiovascular disease.

    Conclusion: this thesis show that the interaction between the kidney and the cardiovascular system plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and that this interplay begins at an early asymptomatic stage of the disease process.

  • 5.
    Nerpin, Elisabet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna
    Riserus, Ulf
    Sundström, Johan
    Larsson, Anders
    Jobs, Elisabeth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Basu, Samar
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Inflammation, oxidative stress, glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuria in elderly men: a cross-sectional study2012Ingår i: BMC research notes, ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 537-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The role of inflammation and oxidative stress in mild renal impairment in the elderly is not well studied. Accordingly, we aimed at investigating the associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and markers of different inflammatory pathways and oxidative stress in a community based cohort of elderly men. FINDINGS: Cystatin C-based GFR, ACR, and biomarkers of cytokine-mediated inflammation (interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein[CRP], serum amyloid A[SAA]), cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation (urinary prostaglandin F2alpha [PGF2alpha]), and oxidative stress (urinary F2 isoprostanes) were assessed in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men(n = 647, mean age 77 years). RESULTS: In linear regression models adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and treatment with statins, ACE-inhibitors, ASA, and anti-inflammatory agents, eGFR was inversely associated with CRP, interleukin-6, and SAA (beta-coefficient -0.13 to -0.19, p < 0.001 for all), and positively associated with urinary F2-isoprostanes (beta-coefficient 0.09, p = 0.02). In line with this, ACR was positively associated with CRP, interleukin-6, and SAA (beta- coefficient 0.09-0.12, p < 0.02 for all), and negatively associated with urinary F2-isoprostanes (beta-coefficient -0.12, p = 0.002). The associations were similar but with lower regression coefficients in a sub-sample with normal eGFR (>60 ml/min/1.73 m2, n = 514), with the exception that F2-isoprostane and SAA were no longer associated with eGFR. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that cytokine-mediated inflammation is involved in the early stages of impaired kidney function in the elderly, but that cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation does not play a role at this stage. The unexpected association between higher eGFR/lower albuminuria and increased F2-isoprostanes in urine merits further studies.

  • 6.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Carlsson, Axel C
    Sundström, Johan
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Larsson, Anders
    Lind, Lars
    Larsson, Tobias E
    Higher fibroblast growth factor-23 increases the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the community2013Ingår i: Kidney International, ISSN 0085-2538, E-ISSN 1523-1755, Vol. 83, s. 160-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a regulator of mineral metabolism, has been linked to cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. As community-based data of the longitudinal association between FGF23 and cardiovascular events are lacking, we investigated a possible relationship in 727 men of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men population-based cohort (mean age 77 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, 110 participants died of cardiovascular causes. In Cox regression models adjusted for age and established cardiovascular risk factors, higher serum FGF23 was associated with a significantly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio (HR) per increased s.d. of 1.36). This relationship remained significant, albeit attenuated, after adjustment for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (HR 1.21). FGF23 was also associated with all-cause mortality, although the association was weaker than that with cardiovascular mortality, and it was nonsignificant in fully adjusted multivariate models. Spline analysis suggested a log-linear relationship between FGF23 and outcome. Participants with a combination of high FGF23 (>60 pg/ml), low GFR (<60 ml/min), and micro-/macro-albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio above 3 mg/ml) had an almost eightfold increased risk compared with participants without these abnormalities. Thus, a higher FGF23 level is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality risk in the community. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether FGF23 is a modifiable risk factor.Kidney International advance online publication, 5 September 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.327.

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