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  • 1.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Transportekonomi Borlänge, TEK-B.
    Health effects of transport emissions: a review of the state of the art of methods and data used for external costs calculations2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose is to provide a background for a discussion concerning the methods and values used in cost-benefit analysis in Sweden for air pollutions', from traffic, impact on human health and the research needs in this area. We provide an overview of the current state of the art of models used for and input needed for external cost calculations of the health impacts. The calculations are not straightforward and depend on the collaboration between several research disciplines. In the ExternE projects, which have been used as a reference point in this study, there are still uncertainties concerning which pollutants to take into consideration. Regarding the health impacts, we have recapitulated some of the main conclusions in a review by the American Heart Association (2010). They state that e.g. the following issues need further research: the importance of ultrafine particles, what constituent parts make traffic related air pollution more harmful than PM2.5 in general and the importance of coarse particles.

  • 2. Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Larsson, Helena
    Nero, Håkan
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Äng, Björn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Medicinsk vetenskap. Karolinska institutet; Uppsala universitet.
    A longitudinal observational study of back pain incidence, risk factors and occupational physical activity in Swedish marine trainees2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikel-id e025150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) and LBP that limits work ability, to identify their potential early risks and to quantify occupational physical activity in Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) marines during their basic 4 month marine training course.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with weekly follow-ups.

    PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-three SwAF marines entering the training course.

    OUTCOMES: Incident of LBP and its related effect on work-ability and associated early risks. Occupational physical activity, as monitored using accelerometers and self-reports.

    RESULTS: During the training course, 68% of the marines experienced at least one episode of LBP. This yielded a LBP and LBP limiting work ability incidence rate of 13.5 (95% CI 10.4 to 17.8) and 6.3 (95% CI 4.2 to 10.0) episodes per 1000 person-days, respectively. Previous back pain and shorter body height (≤1.80 m) emerged as independent risks for LBP (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3; HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3, respectively), as well as for LBP that limited work ability (HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9; HR 4.5, 95% CI 2.0 to 10.0, respectively). Furthermore, managing fewer than four pull-ups emerged as a risk for LBP (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.0), while physical training of fewer than three sessions per week emerged as a risk for LBP that limited work ability (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.4). More than 80% of the work time measured was spent performing low levels of ambulation, however, combat equipment (≥17.5 kg) was carried for more than half of the work time.

    CONCLUSIONS: Incidents of LBP are common in SwAF marines' early careers. The link between LBP and previous pain as well as low levels of exercise highlights the need for preventive actions early on in a marine's career. The role of body height on LBP needs further investigation, including its relationship with body-worn equipment, before it can effectively contribute to LBP prevention.

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