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  • 1.
    Berglund, Torkel
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindström, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Aghelpasand, Hooman
    KTH.
    Stattin, Eva
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Ohlsson, Anna B.
    KTH.
    Protection of spruce seedlings against pine weevil attacks by treatment of seeds or seedlings with nicotinamide, nicotinic acid and jasmonic acid2016Ingår i: Forestry (London), ISSN 0015-752X, E-ISSN 1464-3626, Vol. 89, nr 2, s. 127-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable methods are required to protect newly planted tree seedlings from insect herbivore attack. To this end, here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seeds were treated with 2.5 mM nicotinamide (NIC), 2.5 mM nicotinic acid (NIA), 3 mM jasmonic acid (JA) or 0.2 mM 5-azacytidine (5-Aza), and 6-month-old seedlings grown from these seeds were planted at a reforestation area in central Sweden. Attack by pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) was reduced by 50 per cent by NIC treatment, 62.5 per cent by JA treatment and 25 per cent by 5-Aza treatment, when compared with seedlings grown from untreated seeds. Watering 18-month-old spruce seedlings with 2 mM NIC or 2 mM NIA did reduce attack during the first season in the field by 40 and 53 per cent, respectively, compared with untreated plants. Girdling was also reduced by the different treatments. Analysis of conifer seedlings treated with 5-Aza points at a possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in this defensive capacity. This is supported by a reduced level of DNA methylation in the needles of young spruce seedlings grown in a greenhouse from NIC-treated seeds. Seed treatment for seedling defense potentiation is simple, inexpensive and also a new approach for forestry with many potential applications.

  • 2.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Träteknologi.
    Persson, Bengt
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Träteknologi.
    Plastic deformation in small clear pieces of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) during densification with the Calignum® process2004Ingår i: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 307-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Chiatante, Donato
    et al.
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Sismanis, Nikos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Schirone, Bartolomeo
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Marras, Tatiana
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Mechilli, Manuela
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Ortolani, Maria Raffaella
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Vessella, Federico
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Terzaghi, Mattia
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Montagnoli, Antonio
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Càtia, Freitas
    Azorina S.A.
    Pietrzak, Malgorzata
    Azorina S.A.
    Casimiro, Pedro
    Azorina S.A.
    Ferreira, Raquel
    Azorina S.A.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D3.3: Final report on growth tests and biological validation2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4. Fedderwitz, F.
    et al.
    Björklund, N.
    Anngren, R.
    Lindström, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Nordlander, G.
    Can methyl jasmonate treatment of conifer seedlings be used as a tool to stop height growth in nursery forest trees?2019Ingår i: New forests, ISSN 0169-4286, E-ISSN 1573-5095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Kotilainen, Titta
    Valoya Ltd.
    New technology for pre-cultivation of forest seedlings under LED lamps – modification of light conditions to mitigate light shock stress after transplanting to open land2014Ingår i: 2nd Restoring Forests Conference Abstracts, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest restoration aims to cope with the increasing demand on forest products, as well as an aid in fighting climate change and compensating for accelerated deforestation. Funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program (FP7), the Zephyr project aims to introduce a zero-impact incubator for the pre-cultivation of forest regeneration materials. The consortium, involving 14 organizations of 10 different European countries, is developing innovative and cost-efficient technologies that will allow the production of standardized high quality forest seedlings ready to be transplanted. The technologies will be integrated into a functional and transportable unit not affected by the outdoor conditions and producing minimal emissions. To achieve this, the system will be powered mainly by solar energy and will recycle the water used. Specifically developed devices such as wireless sensors and LED lamps will be used to monitor and enhance the cultivation process, reduce the energy consumption and decrease the overall cost due to their high efficiency, long lifetime and low maintenance.

    The LED grow lights used have a continuous spectrum that has been selected and specifically tailored to the plants’ needs. Nevertheless, seedlings pre-cultivated under LED lights could face UV stress after transplanting to open land as these wavelengths are not included in the light spectrum used in the growth chamber. Moreover, light intensity levels during indoor cultivation are usually much lower compared to the outdoor conditions, which can cause a light shock to the plants. Juvenile plants are less efficient in the utilization of the absorbed light, and therefore, prone to photoinhibition by radiation fluxes that usually do not harm mature plants. Plant protective mechanisms against UV radiation and high PAR (400-700nm) light intensity are partly overlapping. Hence, exposure to UV or high light intensity before transplanting, or introducing a transient phase by using shading cloths during transplantation period could help to reduce this stress.

    The aim was to reduce the transplanting stress of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris seedlings grown under LED-lamps for the first 5 weeks of cultivation. We investigated how different methods; UV-A pre-treatment or high irradiance during the indoor cultivation or usage of shading cloths for the first week(s) after transplanting outdoors can be used to mitigate light shock stress. Different methods and exposure times showed varying ability in ensuring good seedling growth and survival.

  • 6.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    A silvicultural practice to facilitate forest restoration: a new seedling cultivation technology for regeneration establishment2014Ingår i: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, The Commonwealth Forestry Association, www.cfa-international.org , 2014, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 129-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest restoration has become a primary task, not only to cope with an increasing demand on forest products, but also to fi ghtclimate change and compensate for an accelerated global deforestation. However, many of the current practices used in forestrynurseries to produce forest planting stock have adverse effects on the environment. The main objective of the ZEPHYR project,funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), is to develop an innovative zero-impacttechnology for the pre-cultivation of forest regeneration materials that is not affected by the outdoor climate. Among the maincomponents to be improved are artifi cial lighting sources used for cultivation. Traditional fl uorescence lamps are to be replacedby LED grow lights with spectra tailored to the seedlings’ needs. The present work investigates biological responses of Piceaabies and Pinus sylvestris to six different light spectra. The pre-cultivation has been done following standard growth protocolsduring 5 weeks with a photoperiod of 16 h at 100 μmol/m2/s. This has been done under controlled closed conditions with a roomtemperature of 20 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. The analyses have shown clear differences among the treatments and theiradapting capacity when transplanted.

  • 7.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Cultivation of forest regeneration materials under artificial radiant sources—effects of light intensity on energy consumptionand seedling development2014Ingår i: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 300-300Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In times of major environmental challenges and increasing demand for forest products, planted forests have acknowledgedadvantages compared to other land uses. Despite not being able to completely take the place of natural forests, planted ones have,if properly managed, great potential to contribute in addressing these problems. Besides the ecological benefi ts such as carbonsequestration, planted forests can help meet the demand for wood products without further depletion of the natural forest. Forestrestoration, rehabilitation, and reforestation are limited by the capacity for producing forest regeneration materials. Often, asproduction is intensifi ed at forest nurseries, the practices begin to have an adverse impact on the environment and stop being trulysustainable. One of the main issues in nurseries is the energy consumption for grow lights during periods of short daylight.By using high-effi ciency LED grow lamps and adjusting the light intensity, this study aimed to reduce the energy consumptionfrom lighting per seedling without compromising seedling development. The precultivation of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestrisseedlings was done during 5 weeks under controlled conditions at 20 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. The photoperiod was16 hours at an intensity ranging from 50 to 350 μmol/m2/s in intervals of 50 μmol/m2/s intervals.

  • 8.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Energy efficiency in intensified production of forest regeneration materials – design of a photovoltaic system for sustainably powering an innovative forestry incubator2014Ingår i: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 393-393Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Planted forests can contribute addressing problems of global concern such as climate change mitigation, biodiversity lost and pressure on ecosystems due to high demand of forestry products. However, in order to be able to profit from these benefits sustainably, production rates of forest regeneration materials should be higher than the harvesting rates. Nevertheless, intensive production methods often bring along adverse consequences for the environment. In the frame of the ZEPHYR project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), innovative and cost-friendly technologies for the pre-cultivation are being developed. They will be integrated into a functional and transportable system for a large scale production of seedlings, with zero-impact on the environment and not affected by outdoor conditions. To achieve this, high efficiency devices with low energy consumption will be used and the incubator will be powered by solar energy. This work aims to present the efforts made to reduce the energy loads and optimize the photovoltaic (PV) system. The power system will also be capable of connecting to the electricity grid, using a diesel generator as a back-up, and a battery bank with at least one day of autonomy (up to 7 kWh/day) in central European latitudes.   

  • 9.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Long night treatment for induction of cold hardiness using artificial lights: effects of photoperiod on seedling storabilityand energy consumption2014Ingår i: The International Forestry Review Vol.16 (5), 2014 / [ed] John A. Parrotta, Cynthia F. Moser, Amy J. Scherzer, Nancy E. Koerth and Daryl R. Lederle, 2014, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 379-379Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-assisted forest regeneration in Nordic climates is considerably limited by the harsh outdoor conditions. There is onlya small open window of time during the summer when the weather is favorable for transplantation and establishment ofpre-cultivated seedlings in open land. Greenhouses and modern growth chambers help to cope with this limitation by allowingyear-round seedling cultivation. Nonetheless, production levels are constrained to the cold storage capacity during the nontransplantingseason. This storage is in turn dependent on the ability of the conifer to adapt to freezing temperatures and withstand theoverall stress associated with cold hardening. Long night treatments can induce dormancy with cessation of growth and terminalbuds initiation, leading to a better cold resistance. When growing forest regeneration materials under artifi cial lights, the lengthsof the long night treatment and the photoperiod will have a signifi cant impact not only on the biological response of the seedlingsbut also on the energy consumption, and thus on the CO2 emissions. The aim of this work was to explore different long nighttreatment regimes for induction of cold hardiness in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris seedlings using artifi cial lights. This wasdone with the purpose of studying the relationship between the energy consumption and the biological responses.

  • 10.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Nuevas tecnologías para el pre-cultivo de plantas forestales - diseño de una incubadora sustentable para minimizar el impacto ambiental2014Ingår i: VI Congreso Forestal Latinoamericano: Latinoamérica unida en armonia por la sustentabilidad de los recursos forestales, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [es]

    Los bosques plantados pueden contribuir a combatir problemas globales como el cambio climático, la erosión del suelo y la presión en los ecosistemas debido a la alta demanda de productos forestales. Para que este beneficio sea sustentable, la producción del material para la regeneración forestal tiene que ser mayor a la velocidad en que se tala. Las técnicas intensivas en los viveros forestales puede traer efectos adversos al ambiente como el uso de fertilizantes, pesticidas y alto consumo energético de los invernaderos. 

    Financiado por Séptimo Programa de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Unión Europea, el proyecto ZEPHYR está enfocado a desarrollar nuevas tecnologías para el pre-cultivo de plantas forestales de una manera sustentable y económicamente viable. Estas innovaciones estarán integradas en una incubadora transportable y totalmente funcional para la producción a gran escala. El cuarto de crecimiento será independiente de las condiciones exteriores y tendrá un mínimo impacto ambiental. Para lograr esto se usaran aparatos de alta eficiencia y bajo consumo energético como lámparas LED y todo funcionará con un sistema solar fotovoltaico.

  • 11.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Outdoor performance of forest seedlings pre-cultivated under artificial lights: effects of the light spectra used for pre-cultivation on the future establishment and development2015Ingår i: Rainforest challenges: Book of abstracts / [ed] Vladan Ivetić and Tatjana Ćirković‐Mitrović , 2015, s. 20-20Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest nurseries are essential for producing good quality seedlings, thus being a key element in the reforestation process. With increasing climate change awareness, nursery managers are looking for new tools that can help reduce the effects of their operations on the environment. The ZEPHYR project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has the objective of finding new alternatives for nurseries by developing innovative zero-impact technologies for forest plant production. Due to their direct relationship to the energy consumption of the nurseries, one of the main elements addressed are the grow lights used for the pre-cultivation. New LED luminaires with a light spectrum tailored to the seedlings’ needs are being studied and compared against the traditional fluorescent lamps. Seedlings of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris were grown under five different light spectra (one fluorescent and 4 LED) during 5 weeks with a photoperiod of 16 hours at 100 μmol∙m-2∙s-1 and 60% humidity. In order to evaluate if these seedlings were able cope with real field stress conditions, a forest field trial was also designed. The terrain chosen was a typical planting site in mid-Sweden after clear-cutting. Two vegetation periods after the outplanting, the seedlings that were pre-cultivated under the LED lamps have performed at least as well as those that were grown under fluorescent lights. These results show that there is a good  potential for lightning substitution in forestry nurseries.

  • 12.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Swedish experiences and visions on the production of containerized seedlings2016Ingår i: / [ed] Palle Madsen, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Pérez-Mora, Nicolás
    University of Balearic Islands and Sampol Ingenieria y Obras.
    Marras, Tatiana
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Using Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic + Combined Heat and Power Systems (PV+CHP) to Enable Industrial Scale Indoor Plant Cultivation: a Feasibility Study2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A rapid population growth linked to intensive agriculture has originated several problems such as soil degradation, groundwater depletion, forestland transformation, and eutrophication of aquatic systems. Vertical farming offers an alternative for producing plants indoors in a resources and space efficient manner, reducing leakage of chemicals, optimizing water and land use, and allowing year-round cultivation. Controlled environment agriculture (CEA) also enables urban residents to access locally grown plants that would have otherwise been imported from far away, reducing transport and storage emissions. This comes with a caveat: the energy loads increase to provide artificial illumination and keep an optimal climate. To address this issue, the present work studies the feasibility of using a hybrid photovoltaics and combined heat and power system (PV+CHP) to satisfy the energy demands of an industrial-sized growth room. For this, different European locations and climates have been considered as well as various growth protocols.

  • 14.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    R Pamidi, Sreenivaasa
    Exergy Ltd..
    The Zephyr concept and the energetic autonomy2014Ingår i: CAFFEINA 2014: Il Futuro e le Radici - The Future and the Roots, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, forest ecosystems are facing many sustainability problems due to drastic climate changes and extreme exploitation of their resources. Planted forests can contribute to more sustainable practices and help addressing some of these issues. In order to be able to profit from these benefits sustainably, production rates of forest regeneration materials should be higher than the harvesting rates. Nevertheless, intensive production methods often bring along adverse consequences for the environment.

    At the moment, there exist several options such as greenhouses or plant growth chambers that allow producing forest materials more rapidly. Unfortunately these systems consume considerable high amounts of energy for lighting, acclimatization and irrigation having a negative impact on the environment.

    The Zephyr project aims to introduce an innovative technology built on pre-cultivation of forest regeneration materials in a zero-impact and cost-friendly production unit. The project will integrate several technologies into a functional and transportable system for large scale production of pre-cultivated forest regeneration materials adapted to transplanting and further growth at forest nurseries.

    A transportable and closed incubator independent from the outdoor climate provides a better control on the seedlings production. The plants can be produced directly at the place where they are needed avoiding further transportation to the reforestation/afforestation zone. The closed-climate allows seedlings pre-cultivation in places where it would not be possible otherwise (e.g. near deserts). Additionally, it extends the production time throughout the whole year even during the winter. Moreover, it will allow a certified and standardized production of reforestation materials, with a noticeable increasing of the efficiency of the reforestation operations.

    Specially developed LED growth lamps and wireless sensors will be used to reduce energy consumption and monitor the cultivation process. The main part of the energy will be provided by solar PV-panels, depending from the geographic and climatic area the power system should be able to provide at least one day of autonomy (in central Europe). The energy savings will result in a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; moreover, since the LED lamps do not produce additional warming, there will be further energy saving through the reduction of air conditioning costs.

    The PV system is designed based on the load specifications of the different subsystems involved for advanced state-of-art pre-cultivation of forest seedlings. It will be further evaluated based on the changes in the load profiles as the growth protocols for different species are defined.  The main objectives are to maximize the power/energy flow delivered to the load and to investigate feasible options for an external backup power source whilst considering options to reduce the overall load of the system.

  • 15. Hogberg, Karl-Anders
    et al.
    Persson, Bengt
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Hallingback, Henrik R.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Relationships between early assessments of stem and branch properties and sawn timber traits in a Pinus sylvestris progeny trial2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 421-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 162 trees was harvested from a 36-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny trial to evaluate correlations between early measurements of branch diameter, and other stem and branch traits, with sawn timber traits, and hence their potential utility for predicting wood quality. The sample trees were assigned to three genetic groups of small, medium and large branch diameter, based on parental breeding values. Bottom logs were cut and sawn, and several important traits for the visual quality of the boards were assessed. Phenotypic correlations were then estimated between these traits and measurements of the height, diameter, branch diameter, branch angle, stem crookedness, number of branches and grain angle under bark of the corresponding trees when they were 16 and 36 years old. The diameter of the coarsest knot in the board was correlated with the branch diameter at the age of 16 years (0.50), and there were significant differences in this trait among the genetic branch diameter groups. In addition, the board twist was correlated with the grain angle under bark at the age of 36 years (0.54). Thus, the field assessments of branch diameter and grain angle under bark show relevance for the visual quality of centrally sawn small timber.

  • 16.
    Jonsdottir, Rakel J.
    et al.
    Norðurlandsskógar, Krókeyri, IS-600, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.
    Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, IS-311, Borgarnes, Iceland.
    Lindström, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 43, 739 21 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Effects of nutrient loading and fertilization at planting on growth and nutrient status of Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii) seedlings during the first growing season in Iceland2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 631-641Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The low availability of nitrogen (N) is believed to be one of the major limiting factors of forest regeneration inIceland and frequently under Boreal conditions. Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii Littl.) seedlings were nutrient loadedusing four fertilization regimes in the end of nursery rotation in autumn 2008 and planted in the following spring,with or without a single dose of fertilizer, on two treeless sites in N-Iceland with contrasting soil fertility.Measurements were made after one growing season. The highest loading level without additional field fertilizationincreased new needle mass by 122% and 152%, for the poor and more fertile site, respectively. The highest loadinglevel with field fertilization increased new needle mass equally, by 188% and 189%, for the poor and more fertilesite, respectively. Retranslocation of N, from old needles to current needles, increased with more loading.However, it was clear that nutrient loading could not replace field fertilization, as the seedlings generally showedan additive response to field fertilization and nutrient loading; doing both always gave the best results in seedlingperformance. As the study only covers field establishment during the first year, the long-term effect of nutrientloading of Lutz spruce cannot be predicted. However, it was concluded that loading might provide an additionalinput for faster plantation establishment during the first growing season after planting.

  • 17. Kännaste, Astrid
    et al.
    Zhao, Tao
    Lindström, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Stattin, Eva
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Långström, Bo
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    Odors of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) seedlings: differences due to age and chemotype2013Ingår i: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 149-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small conifer seedlings (mini-seedlings) are less damaged by the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) compared to conventional seedlings. Chemical difference between the seedling types is one possible explanation for this phenomenon. In the present paper, the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) of 7- to 43-week-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] seedlings were analyzed. Collection and identification of the volatiles was made by solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME–GC–MS). The enantiomers of α-pinene and limonene were separated in a two-dimensional GC (2D-GC). Most of the seedlings represented either a limonene- or a bornyl acetate-chemotype. Only minor changes in the volatile composition of the two types of seedlings were found during the first year. Age-related changes, however, were found in the volatiles released by wounded phloem where green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and borneol were the dominated VOC for young seedling. The attractive compound for the pine weevil, α-pinene, was first detected in the phloem emissions of 18- to 22-week-old seedlings. Different storage conditions of the seedlings during the winter/early spring-phase influenced the volatile composition in the phloem. High amount of GLVs was characteristic for the 43-week-old seedlings stored in naturally changing outdoor temperature, but not present in the seedlings winter-stored at a constant temperature of −4 °C. The possible role of these observed differences in odor emissions between seedlings of different age and physiological status for the feeding preferences of the large pine weevil is discussed.

  • 18.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik. Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Etablering, tillväxt och skador för plantor odlade i såddrör (Tubesprout™) - resultat efter två säsonger i fält2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Försöket visade på mycket god överlevnad för plantor odlade i såddrören, Tubesprout™. Efter två år var överlevnaden för dessa 91 % för tall och 79 % för gran. För miniplantorna odlade i Jiffy varierade överlevnaden efter två år mellan 84 (tall) och 64 % (gran). Lägst överlevnad efter både det första och andra året hade de större referensplantorna. Av dessa levde 67 % av tallplantorna och endast 45 % av granplantorna. Bidragande till den goda överlevelsen hos Tubesprout™-odlade plantor var få snytbaggeskador och nästan inga skador av torka. Det andra miniplantsystemet, Jiffy 18, klarade snytbaggen nästan lika bra som Tubesprout™, men drabbades istället av stora avgångar beroende på torka. Hylsan tycks förhindra uttorkning av plantan som annars är ett stort problem vid plantering på torra marker av små plantor. För de äldre täckrotsodlade referensplantorna var den mesta plantdöden orsakad av kraftiga snytbaggeskador. Granen var värst drabbad med drygt 50 % snytbaggedödade plantor efter två år, medan den plantavgång hos tall som var orsakad av snytbagge var 26 %. Några plantor som stod i Tubesprout™ på försöksytan blev dock uppryckta, sannolikt av kråkfåglar.

  • 19.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Stattin, Eva
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Gräns, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energi och miljöteknik. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Storability measures of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings and assessment of post storage vitality by measuring shoot electrolyte leakage2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 717-724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As indoor frozen storage is increasing in forest tree nurseries it is important to have accurate methods for assessing seedling storability in autumn and methods to determine post-storage vitality. Storability of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings can be based on determination of dry matter content (DMC) of seedling shoots or by freezing shoots at -25 degrees C and thereafter measure electrolyte leakage (SELdiff-25). To compare these two methods we stored 1-year-old spruce and pine seedlings at different occasions during the autumn. To test if leakage of electrolytes from shoots (SEL) could indicate deteriorated vitality, we measured SEL at the end of storage. After storage seedling viability was determined in a three-week growth test, measuring shoot and root growth capacity (RGC). Determination of freezing tolerance (SELdiff-25) before storage had a better ability to predict the outcome of storage compared to the DMC test. Measuring SEL at the end of the frozen storage period accurately indicated seedling vitality. Seedlings with SEL of 0-5% had a high survival rate whereas SEL over 10% indicated low survival and growth capacity after storage. The SEL method has a potential to become a screening test for identifying batches of seedlings that have been damaged during storage in the nursery.

  • 20. Malmqvist, C.
    et al.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Lindström, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Säll, H.
    Differences in bud burst timing and bud freezing tolerance among interior and coastal seed sources of Douglas fir2017Ingår i: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 1987-1998Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for species that will grow well through ongoing climate change has increased the interest in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in Sweden. One of the most common problems seen in plantations of Douglas fir seedlings is damage caused by late spring frost, known to be highly correlated with the timing of bud burst. The objective of this study was to investigate spring-related bud development under Nordic conditions of seven Douglas fir provenances and to compare data with a local provenance of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Results from a field trial and a greenhouse-based study were compared. The interior Douglas fir provenances exhibited an earlier bud burst than coastal provenances, both in the greenhouse and in the field trial. When comparing differences within the groups of interior and coastal Douglas fir provenances, no differences could be found. The local Norway spruce, only grown in the greenhouse, showed an intermediate bud development profile similar to the interior Douglas fir provenance Three Valley. We therefore suggest that Three Valley could be planted at the same locations as the investigated local provenance of Norway spruce in mid-Sweden. To avoid spring frost damage the Douglas fir seedlings need to be frozen stored and planted late in spring. Planting under shelterwood can also help protect the seedlings from spring frost damages. As similar results for bud development patterns of Douglas fir and Norway spruce provenances were obtained from the greenhouse and field trials, greenhouse tests could facilitate selection of provenances.

  • 21.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dept of Forestry and Wood technology, Linneus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Asa Forest Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lammhult Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Storability and freezing tolerance of Douglas fir and Norway spruce seedlings grown in mid-Sweden2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 30-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change provides new challenges to Nordic forestry. Use of non-native species, such as Douglas fir, can be a means of mitigating the effects of climate change and meeting the growing demand for biomass. When Douglas fir is grown in Sweden, it is several degrees of latitude north of its normal range, which can affect timing of growth cessation, hardening of seedlings, and seedling storability. The objective of this study was to investigate tolerance to freezing and sub-zero storability of seven Douglas fir provenances and make comparisons with the native Norway spruce. Freezing tolerance and storability were evaluated by measuring the electrolytic leakage of shoots and roots after freezing, complemented with a three-week cultivation test after storage. All provenances of Douglas fir used in this study were able to tolerate frozen storage at −4°C for about four months. Norway spruce and the interior Douglas fir provenance, Three Valley, could be stored earlier in the autumn than the southern coastal Douglas fir provenances. Consequently, it should be possible to store Douglas fir seedlings with the same routines as for Norway spruce.

  • 22.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Reforestation challenges in Scandinavia2016Ingår i: Reforesta, ISSN 2466-4367, nr 1, s. 67-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the keynote, major reforestation challenges in Scandinavia will be highlighted. The following countries make up Scandinavia: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. For Iceland, with only a forest cover of 2%, a major reforestation challenge is the deforestation and overgrazing in combination with land degradation and extensive soil erosion. The challenges include the conflicts with livestock farmers. For centuries the commons were used for sheep and horse grazing. However, more and more of farmer grazing land have been fenced up, allowing the regeneration of birch and plantations of other species to increase. With a forest cover of 37% and 69% respectively, for decades a major reforestation challenge in Norway and Sweden has been the risk of seedling damages from the pine weevil. Unprotected seedlings can have a survival rate of less than 25% after being planted. Pine weevils feed on the bark of planted young seedlings at regeneration sites. If the seedling is girdled, it will not survive. In Sweden, and soon in Norway, pesticides have been forbidden. In the keynote, new methods and technology will be presented based on non-chemical protection. In Finland, with a forest cover of 75%, a major reforestation challenge is linked to the forest structure. The structure of Finnish forestry includes many private forests in combination with small regeneration sites. This implies a situation where logistics and methods for lifting and field storage provide a major challenge in order to preserve seedling quality until the planting date. Due to this situation, new logistic systems and technologies are being developed in Finland, including new seedling cultivation programs (including cultivation under Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)) to match the access of fresh planting stock to different planting dates. In Denmark, with a forest cover of 13%, a major reforestation challenge is the possibility of future plantations based on a wide range of relevant species. For this to become a realistic option, new methods and technology have to be developed in reforestation activities that support this possibility. These methods and technology should make it possible to not be limited to certain species due to problems and restrictions during field establishment. This due to the prospect of establishing stable, healthy, and productive stands of various forest species that can be adapted to future climate change.

  • 23.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Rusu, Cristina
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Pietrzak, Malgorzata
    Azorina S.A.
    Ferreira, Raquel
    Azorina S.A.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Bantis, Filippos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Kotilainen, Titta
    Valoya OY.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D7.6: Articles and peer-reviewed papers2015Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 24.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Radoglou, K
    Kostopoulou, P
    Bellarosa, R
    Simeone, M.C.
    Shirone, B
    Use of innovative technology for the production of high-quality forest regeneration materials2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, nr Suppl 8, s. 3-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the innovative technology created within the framework of PRE-FOREST project, funded by the European Commission under the CRAFT 6th Framework Research Programme. PRE-FOREST was an innovative research project in the field of forest planting stock material, enhancing co-operation between research foundations and small and medium-sized enterprises. Among the project's objectives were the introduction of a new technology based on precultivation (in mini-plugs) of forest regeneration material in a cost-efficient and environmental friendly production unit, not affected by outdoor climate; the development of a new, adapted to mini-plugs, grading technology and replug robot; the integration of these technologies into a functional prototype unit capable of large-scale forest regeneration material production; and the introduction of this production system at strategic locations in Europe. The system has been developed for year-round production and function in the same way, independently of climatic variations in different parts of Europe. To obtain these objectives the study focused on the interaction among production technology, mini-plug container design and rooting media, to develop cultivation protocols for forest reproductive materials of special economic and ecological importance for each participating country. One of the main benefits of the new technology was the environmentally friendly production of a large number of seedlings per square metre, leading to a cost-efficient result.

  • 25.
    Pamidi, Sreenivaasa R
    et al.
    Exergy Ltd..
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Reducing the impact of forest plant production - Design of a stand-alone PV-hybrid system for powering an innovative forestry incubator2014Ingår i: 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, 2014, s. 3811-3814Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the high demand of forestry products imposes a high pressure on the ecosystems and can derive in biodiversity lost and other ecological problems. Planted forests can contribute to more sustainable practices and help addressing other problems of global concern such as climate change, erosion and desertification. Large scale production of seedling is required to offset the high harvesting rates; however these intensive methods often have a negative impact on the environment. Funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), the ZEPHYR project consortium is developing innovative and cost-friendly technologies for the pre-cultivation of forestry species. These will be integrated into a functional and transportable system for pre-cultivation of seedlings, with zeroimpact on the environment and not affected by outdoor conditions. To achieve this, the incubator will be powered mainly by solar energy. This work aims to present the efforts made to design and optimize the solar photovoltaic (PV) system which will be mounted on the roof of the unit. Especially developed devices such as LED growth lamps and wireless sensors will be used to reduce energy consumption and monitor the cultivation process. A load profile study was conducted and the growth protocols were adapted to perform most of the tasks during daytime to use the energy from the PV panels directly. A battery bank will be designed to provide at least one day of autonomy in central European latitudes. Moreover, the power system will also be capable of connecting to the electricity grid or use a diesel generator as a backup.

  • 26.
    Radoglou, Kalliopi
    et al.
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Sismanis, Nikos
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Smirnakou, Sonia
    Democritus University of Thrace.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Schirone, Bartolomeo
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Marras, Tatiana
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Vessella, Federico
    Universita degli Studi della Tuscia.
    Chiatante, Donato
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Terzaghi, Mattia
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Fulgaro, Nicoletta
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    Montagnoli, Antonio
    Università degli Studi dell'Insubria.
    ZEPHYR Project – Deliverable D3.2: Intermediate report on growth tests2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Stattin, Eva
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Lindström, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Nathalie, Verhoef
    Balk, Peter
    Quality management for vital forest tree seedlings: Final report, Project no: P33854-12011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The work concerns development of a prototype molecular tests to identify vitality status of conifer seedlings. The work is done by NSure, Holland, Dalarna University and SUAS. In case for spruce, a successful validation experiment has been performed to validate the identified frost tolerance and vitality genes. Multiple indicators were identified that can be used to either reinforce the existing ColdnSure test, but also for development of a vitality test. The identified frost tolerance and vitality genes for pine still need to be validated. NSure together with Dalarna University aim to perform a validation next season. Multiple LN indicators were identified in spruce that can be used to determine the effectiveness of a LN treatment, but they are not yet validated. In spruce and pine hardly any scientific research is performed to study the effect of a LN treatment, particularly not at molecular level. Therefore NSure together with Dalarna Research Station want to apply for a project. Within this project, we would be able to develop the tests further.

  • 28.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. SLU.
    Gräns, Daniel
    Stattin, Eva
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Verhoef, Nathalie
    Mikusiński, Grzegorz
    Lindström, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Skog- och träteknik.
    Evaluating methods for storability assessment and determination of vitality status of container grown Norway spruce transplants after frozen storage2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 417-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autumn sown small seedlings for later transplanting into large containers have been introduced in Swedish forest tree nurseries. Containerized transplants of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) from three Swedish nurseries were frozen stored during the autumn of 2014 to find out storability and post-storage vitality. Seedling storability was determined by measuring electrolyte leakage after freezing shoots to −25°C (SELdiff−25), by measurements of dry matter content (DMC) of seedling shoots and by the commercial molecular test ColdNSure™. Vitality of seedlings after storage was determined by measuring the leakage of electrolytes from shoots (SEL), and seedlings were also tested in regrowth tests. All three methods for storability assessment gave similar predictions, except in one case where DMC showed “not storable” for successfully stored seedlings. Our results indicated that young transplants can be successfully short term stored before reaching the target levels for safe long-term storage of conventional seedlings. Early storage of young transplants resulted in low post-storage survival and vitality expressed as root growth capacity and shoot electrolyte leakage (SEL). A prolonged duration in storage generally resulted in lower survival as well as lower root growth capacity and higher levels of SEL, especially for seedlings stored at earlier dates. 

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