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Gao, Man
Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Gao, M. (2024). Cross-Language Perception of Lexical Tones by Nordic Learners of Mandarin Chinese. Languages, 9(2), Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Language Perception of Lexical Tones by Nordic Learners of Mandarin Chinese
2024 (English)In: Languages, ISSN 2226-471X, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While existing cross-language studies on the perception of non-native tones primarily focus on naïve listeners, this study addresses an obvious gap by investigating learners from diverse language backgrounds. Specifically, it investigates Mandarin tone perception in two groups of learners from Nordic languages, Swedish (a pitch-accent language), and Danish (a non-tonal language), as well as in a group of native Chinese speakers. Analysis of their performance in tone identification task revealed a slight advantage for Swedish learners, implying the influence of their pitch accent background in learning Mandarin tones. However, both Swedish and Danish learners who excelled in the tone identification task exhibited similar perception of within-category tonal variations but differed from native Chinese speakers. Additionally, the study found that the presence of length contrast, a prosodic feature in the learners’ native languages, significantly influences their perception of Mandarin tones.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2024
Keywords
tone perception, Mandarin Chinese, Nordic languages, L2 learners, pitch-accent language
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-48102 (URN)10.3390/languages9020065 (DOI)001170140600001 ()2-s2.0-85187298635 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-22 Created: 2024-02-22 Last updated: 2024-03-26
Yang, T. & Gao, M. (2024). Investigating Motivation and Performance in Distance Chinese Language Education. In: : . Paper presented at The 12th International Conference and Workshops on Technology and Chinese Language Teaching, June 22-23, 2024, online, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating Motivation and Performance in Distance Chinese Language Education
2024 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Motivation among students has long been a central focus in educational research and is widely acknowledged as a fundamental element of teaching and learning (Ferlazzo, 2013). Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated a strong positive link between students' motivation and their academic achievements, both in traditional higher education settings and within online learning platforms (Steinmayr et al., 2019; Ferrer et al., 2022). Significantly, motivation has emerged as a critical determinant of success in foreign language acquisition (Gardner, 2010). This paper presents a study that examines the motivation levels of CFL (Chinese as a foreign language) students who engaged in distance education at a Swedish university. 

One of the main objectives of this study is to explore the complexities of student motivation, with a specific emphasis on understanding the unique contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the context of CFL. Intrinsic motivation refers to the internal drive to engage in behaviors for the inherent pleasure, satisfaction, or excitement they provide, while extrinsic motivation involves seeking outcomes that are separate from the inherent satisfaction of the behavior itself (Ryan & Deci, 2017). Another objective is to investigate the correlation between students’ motivation and their academic achievements in the context of distance CFL education. Various types of motivation may have differing impacts: intrinsic motivation is correlated with student success and overall well-being, while extrinsic motivation is strongly linked to persistence and academic performance. However, there is limited research conducted on CFL students in the Nordic region, especially within an online learning context.

The Chinese Department at Dalarna University has accumulated nearly 15 years of experience in offering Chinese courses in the form of web-based online education. The department offers a full range of Chinese courses, ranging from beginner levels to bachelor thesis courses. This study utilizes a quantitative research approach, employing an online survey to gather data from the current cohort of 150 students. We anticipate that approximately 50 students will complete the survey. Statistical analyses will be employed to analyze the collected data. The findings from this study will contribute to a broader understanding of the dynamics of motivation among students learning Chinese as a foreign language. With an optimistic outlook, we also aim to offer practical recommendations for CFL teachers to enhance student motivation and develop interventions and instructional strategies aimed at fostering a more conducive learning environment for distance CFL learners.

Keywords
Mandarin, Chinese as a Foreign Language, Motivation
National Category
Specific Languages Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-48836 (URN)
Conference
The 12th International Conference and Workshops on Technology and Chinese Language Teaching, June 22-23, 2024, online, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Available from: 2024-06-24 Created: 2024-06-24 Last updated: 2024-06-27Bibliographically approved
Gao, M. & Svensson Lundmark, M. (2023). Consonant-vowel coarticulation patterns in swedish and mandarin. In: Radek Skarnitzl, Jan Volín (Ed.), : . Paper presented at The 20th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences, Prague, 7-11 August 2023 (pp. 2199-2203). Prague
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Consonant-vowel coarticulation patterns in swedish and mandarin
2023 (English)In: / [ed] Radek Skarnitzl, Jan Volín, Prague, 2023, p. 2199-2203Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports a cross linguistic study thatcompares the coarticulation patterns betweenconsonant and vowel (CV) in Mandarin Chinese andSouthern Swedish. Kinematic data were collectedusing the Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) forboth languages and were subjected to three types ofCV time lag measurement, based on more or lessequivalent landmarks on lips and tongue, andpartially adopted in previous studies [1, 2, 3]. Wefound rather consistent CV coordination patterns inthese two typologically different languages with boththe velocity-based and the acceleration-basedmeasurements on the lips and the tongue body. Themost striking result to emerge from the data is thesame effect of gender on the variation of CVcoarticulation in both languages, which has not beenreported previously. In addition, only when genderwas added as a factor, did we find the languagedifferences on the CV time lags.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Prague: , 2023
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-46724 (URN)
Conference
The 20th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences, Prague, 7-11 August 2023
Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
White, J., Yang, T., Gao, M. & Santos Muñoz, A. (2023). Digital Competence and Teaching Practices of Language Teachers in Sweden in a COVID-19 World. In: Karim Sadeghi and Michael Thomas (Ed.), Second Language Teacher Professional Development: Technological Innovations for Post-Emergency Teacher Education (pp. 125-146). Springer Nature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Digital Competence and Teaching Practices of Language Teachers in Sweden in a COVID-19 World
2023 (English)In: Second Language Teacher Professional Development: Technological Innovations for Post-Emergency Teacher Education / [ed] Karim Sadeghi and Michael Thomas, Springer Nature, 2023, p. 125-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-42867 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-12070-1_7 (DOI)9783031120695 (ISBN)978-3-031-12070-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-10-20 Created: 2022-10-20 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Gao, M. & Wang, X. (2023). The practice of translanguaging in a virtual Chinese classroom: A Nordic case study. In: : . Paper presented at Translanguaging in the Age of (Im)mobility (TIM 2023).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The practice of translanguaging in a virtual Chinese classroom: A Nordic case study
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There has been increasing research effort and specialization in the topic of translanguaging (Canagarajah, 2011; Li, 2018). The term translanguaging has been researched over a wide range of disciplines in humanities and social sciences. In the field of bilingual education, this term is considered as an ideology, a theory, and a pedagogical stance (Mazak and Carroll, 2016).  Nevertheless, very little work is done on examining the role of translanguaging and the practices in a digitally mediated learning environment. This study aims to obtain ethnographic data from remote intermediate-level Chinese foreign language lessons in a multilingual classroom in a Swedish university. Initial observations from analysis of classroom data collected from two groups show that translanguaging is a prevalent phenomenon in virtual classroom, and the teacher initiated translanguaging more often than students. The teachers’ translanguaging practices can be categorized into at least five categories, such as providing managerial information, providing explanations, repeating important content, providing assistance to individual student, and facilitating students’ performance, but the students’ practices are limited to fewer. Additionally, the study finds that the teacher’s practices are mainly motivated by two pedagogic considerations to increase classroom efficiency and enhance students’ motivation in the virtual classroom. These findings are particularly relevant for language classroom translanguaging research in an era of increased mobility and would contribute to improve pedagogy in Chinese as a foreign language classroom.

National Category
Didactics General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-46723 (URN)
Conference
Translanguaging in the Age of (Im)mobility (TIM 2023)
Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
Gao, M., Yang, T. & Wang, X. (2023). Translanguaging in the virtual Chinese classroom: students’ practices and attitudes. In: : . Paper presented at The 20th International Conference on Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education, 29 June–1 July 2023, University of Edinburgh.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translanguaging in the virtual Chinese classroom: students’ practices and attitudes
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogical Work Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-46744 (URN)
Conference
The 20th International Conference on Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education, 29 June–1 July 2023, University of Edinburgh
Available from: 2023-08-18 Created: 2023-08-18 Last updated: 2023-08-21Bibliographically approved
Gao, M. (2022). Analysis of Tone Errors Produced by Swedish Learners and Pedagogical Implications. In: Shejiao Xu (Ed.), Teaching Chinese as an International Language in the Time of COVID: Opportunities, Innovations and Development: Applied Chinese Language Studies XI (pp. 35-50). London: Sinolingua
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Tone Errors Produced by Swedish Learners and Pedagogical Implications
2022 (English)In: Teaching Chinese as an International Language in the Time of COVID: Opportunities, Innovations and Development: Applied Chinese Language Studies XI / [ed] Shejiao Xu, London: Sinolingua , 2022, p. 35-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses issues that concern both learning Chinese as a foreign languageand the didactics of teaching Chinese as a foreign language. It reports an experimental study thataims to establish the basic facts regarding the production of Mandarin tones by Swedish learners.10 Swedish learners who have studied Chinese for 3 to 4 terms were recruited to read monosyllabicChinese words and their pronunciation was subjected to both statistical and acoustic analyses, in orderto examine the students’ pronunciation (especially tones) and assess the levels of difficulty posed bythe four lexical tones respectively. It was found that Tone 3 is most challenging to Swedish learners,and Tone 1 is easiest for them to pronounce correctly. Moreover, Swedish speakers were most likelyto mispronounce Tone 1, Tone 3, and Tone 4 as Tone 2, and mispronounce Tone 2 as Tone 1. Threetone-error types were identified through acoustic analysis, and their distribution pattern lends furthersupport to the claim that level tone is easier to learn than contour tones. Based on these findings,pedagogical implications are addressed and recommendations for Chinese language teachers areformulated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sinolingua, 2022
Keywords
Mandarin Chinese tones, learners’ pronunciation, tone errors, Swedish learners
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-42264 (URN)978-1-907838-67-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-08-26 Created: 2022-08-26 Last updated: 2023-03-17Bibliographically approved
Gao, M. (2022). Speaking fundamental frequency of Swedish and Mandarin Chinese. In: : . Paper presented at 13th Nordic Prosody Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speaking fundamental frequency of Swedish and Mandarin Chinese
2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-42265 (URN)
Conference
13th Nordic Prosody Conference
Available from: 2022-08-26 Created: 2022-08-26 Last updated: 2023-03-17Bibliographically approved
Gao, M. (2021). Comparison of Pitch Variation and Pitch Range in L1 and L2 Mandarin Chinese. In: Proc. 1st International Conference on Tone and Intonation (TAI): . Paper presented at 1st International Conference on Tone and Intonation (TAI) 6-9 December 2021, Sonderborg, Denmark (pp. 56-60). Denmark
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Pitch Variation and Pitch Range in L1 and L2 Mandarin Chinese
2021 (English)In: Proc. 1st International Conference on Tone and Intonation (TAI), Denmark, 2021, p. 56-60Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Denmark: , 2021
Keywords
Mandarin Chinese, pitch range, L2 Chinese
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-39054 (URN)10.21437/TAI.2021-12 (DOI)
Conference
1st International Conference on Tone and Intonation (TAI) 6-9 December 2021, Sonderborg, Denmark
Available from: 2021-12-15 Created: 2021-12-15 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
Gao, M. & Zhang, C. (2021). Phonological Influence of L1 on the Perception of Mandarin Tones. In: : . Paper presented at 4TH PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN EUROPE Phonetics and Phonology: Real-world applications.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phonological Influence of L1 on the Perception of Mandarin Tones
2021 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:du-37534 (URN)
Conference
4TH PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN EUROPE Phonetics and Phonology: Real-world applications
Available from: 2021-06-23 Created: 2021-06-23 Last updated: 2023-04-14Bibliographically approved
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