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  • 1.
    Andersson, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Region Dalarna (Smärtrehablilitering Säter och Smärtmottagning Falun).
    Kvinnor med fibromyalgi föredrar tungt belastande träning2022In: Best Practice NordicArticle in journal (Other academic)
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  • 2.
    Andersson, Mathias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Smärtmottagningen Falun, Region Dalarna, Falun; Smärtehabilitering Säter, Region Dalarna, Säter.
    Åberg, Anna Cristina
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Uppsala University.
    von Koch, Lena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Palstam, Annie
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. University of Gothenburg; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Women with fibromyalgia prefer resistance exercise with heavy loads: A randomized crossover pilot study2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, article id 6276Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 3.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Konstgjorda idrottsanläggningar: Konsekvenser för utövare och miljö2022In: Idrottsanläggningar: idag och i morgon / [ed] Johan R Norberg, Stockholm: Elanders AB , 2022, p. 107-121Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Konstgjorda idrottsanläggningar
  • 4.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Barker, Dean M.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Universitetsgatan, Örebro Universitet - Campus USÖ, Örebro, Sweden.
    Continuing the Conversation with Ward et al. (2022): Some Thoughts on Different Approaches to Epistemologically Grounded Questions2022In: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 335-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a comment to Ward et al. (2020) on the irresponse to a previous paper in which we elaborate on a phronetic perspective on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physical education. In our previous paper, we point to what we see as limitations in PCK-work in physical education. In their response, Ward et al. (2022) argue that we have misrepresented their research as well as the behaviorist epistemology. In this comment, we acknowledge distinctions in PCK-research that were not captured in our original paper. We also argue for why our understanding of the PCK-research was based on interpretations rather than a case of misrepresentation. Further, we argue for the constant acknowledgment of ideology in research. Finally, we discuss the need for clarity regarding the meaning of perfor-mance when viewed as content knowledge.

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  • 5.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro Universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Peer assessment in physical education2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Quennersted, Mikael
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro University.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Activating students as resources in physical education teacher education – a complex process making social and physical capital visible.2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that students in higher education need to develop evaluative skills in order to become effective learners (Guest & Riegler 2022). Assessment for Learning (AfL) is a model for assessment that strengthens learning in schools as well as in higher education (Black et al 2002). This is also the case in physical education teacher education (PETE) (Eather et al 2017, Macken et al 2020) and in school physical education (Leirhaug 2016). One of the key learning strategies in AfL is to activate peers as resources for learning, often operationalised as peer assessment. In PETE, peer assessment (or peer-assisted learning in a broader meaning) has proven to strengthen learning for both the observer and the observed (Lamb et al 2012). 

    One dimension of peer assessment, that has only scarcely been covered in the PETE context (Macken et al 2020) but that is more highlighted in research of peer assessment in general teacher education (see e.g. Kilic 2016, Tait-McCutcheon & Bernadette Knewstubb 2018), is the tensions inherent in giving feedback to peers on their work, peers who might also often be friends. According to Kilic (2016, 137) preservice teachers “do not feel comfortable when critiquing another student” and Tait-McCutcheon and Knewstubb (2018, 773) argues that “peer assessment could reflect friendships more than learning outcomes”. 

    Research demonstrates a complexity with regards to the potential for peer assessment in PETE. On the one hand, preservice teachers have expressed that giving feedback to peers creates a positive, safe, equal and relaxed learning environment (Lamb et al., 2012) and peer assessment has been reported to improve competence, confidence and self-efficacy among preservice teachers (Eather et al., 2017). On the other hand, a study by Macken et al. (2020) reported that preservice teachers believe their students would be mean to each other if implementing peer assessment during their school placement practice in PETE.

    In this paper, we aim to further explore the complexity involved in peer assessment in PETE to get a deepened and more differentiated picture of this phenomenon. Our overall aim is to contribute to more knowledge about how to involve  preservice teachers in PETE and students in school physical education as resources for learning without risking to cause harm. Drawing on the call from Scanlon et al. (2022) for more studies on how assessment is taught in PETE, our specific aim in this paper is to investigate preservice teachers’ views on what as well as how peer assessment is taught in PETE, to be used in school physical education. We will use Pierre Bourdieu’s (1990) concept of capital, as well as the work of Hay and Penney (2013) on how accountability mechanisms functions in assessment, in order to analyse what is assigned value in peer assessment. The two questions that will guide our analysis in this paper reads: What mechanisms are assigned value in peer assessment according to preservice teachers in PETE? And: How do the mechanisms that are assigned value in peer assessment in PETE function according to preservice teachers? More knowledge about the what and the how in teaching of assessment practices in PETE can improve these practices within school physical education.

    Methodology

    The study presented in this paper is conducted as part of a greater project with the aim of exploring how PETE matters for school physical education. In the overall project we have recruited preservice teachers, with physical education as one of their subjects, during their last year in teacher education. During this last year, one campus-placed course in assessment and one school placement course, constituted the contexts from which we collected empirical material to this study (Authors 2021).  

    The participants in this study were 21 preservice teachers from two different PETE institutions in Sweden (10 from uni A and 11 from uni B). The empirical material analysed in this study compriced of: 

    1.      Three audio-recorded seminars (90-120 min each) from the campus-based assessment courses (one seminar from uni A and two from uni B) conducted before the preservice teachers’ school placement studies. 

    2.      Seven individual semi-structured interviews (40-70 min each) (Kvale 1996) conducted during visits at the preservice teachers’ school placement studies (all from uni A). 

    3.      Five individual Stimulated Recall (SR)-interviews conducted during visits at the preservice teachers’ school placement studies (one from A, four from B). 

    4.      Two audio-recorded and semi-structured group interviews (40-60 min each) (Kvale 1996) from the campus-based assessment courses (both from A) conducted after the school placement studies. 

    After having had the empirical material transcribed by an external part, a thematic content analysis was initiated by a process of familiarisation in which all four researchers were engaged (Braun et al 2017). Inspired by an abductive approach (Alvesson & Sköldberg 2017), we allowed ourselves to be open to alternative theories that could help explain the empirical material. The choice of research object was initiated by the impression from the interviews that giving feedback to peers is surrounded by a complexity, both in PETE and in school physical education. The identification of social relationships and certain types of bodies and movements as assigned with value when giving feedback to peers guided our attention towards Bourdieu-inspired interpretations of the social capital (Beames & Atencio 2008) and the physical capital (Redelius & Hay 2010).   

    Educational challenges following when ‘the what’ is reflected in ‘the how’

    The findings indicate that when the what-aspect of ‘social relationships’ is to be implemented into an how-aspect, the preservice teachers calls for continuous interaction ‘over time’ in order to build a safe and an allowing climate for learning. While this interaction can be implemented in PETE and in school physical education, allowing for school children to build social capital (Beames & Atencio 2008), a result from this study that calls for further discussion is how PETE can make continuous interaction between preservice teachers and school students possible during school placement studies. 

    When the what-aspect of ‘articulating what to learn’ is mirrored in relation to the how-aspect of giving ‘correct feedback’ in peer assessment, this displays that physical capital in school physical education is strongly connected to standards of excellence and norms of right and wrong movement technique (Redelius & Hay 2010). These golden norms seem to be upheld by the displayed lack a common language for learning (Larsson & Redelius 2008). A question following from this study is what resources preservice teachers are offered within PETE to embody a language for learning in school physical education? 

    This study also made visible that ‘the emphasis of certain forms of knowledge ’ is highly valued when preservice teachers are to give feedback to their peers, to their students (during school placement) or when they engage students to give feedback to each other.  The preservice teachers claim to handle this ‘what-aspect’ of peer assessment by focus their attention on ‘managing the sensitivity’ arising when themselves or their students are to comment on each others’ bodies in movements. 

    In conclusion, the combination of social and physical capital decides what is possible to say to whom when preservice teachers and students are to give feedback to peers in PETE and in school physical education.

    References

    Alvesson M and Sköldberg K (2017) Tolkning och Reflektion. Vetenskapsfilosofi och Kvalitativ Metod [Interpretation and Reflection. Philosophy of Science and Qualitative Method]. Lund: Studentlitteratur. [In Swedish.]

    Beames, Simon and Atencio, Matthew (2008)'Building social capital through outdoor education', Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning,8:2,99 — 112

    Black, P., C. Harrison, C. Lee, B. Marshall, and D. Wiliam. 2002. Working Inside the Black Box. Assessment for Learning in the Classroom. London: GL Assessment

    Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. (Richard Nice, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.

    Eather, N., Riley, N., Miller, D., Jones, B. (2017) Evaluating the Effectiveness of Using Peer-Dialogue Assessment for Improving Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Confidence and Competence to Teach Physical Education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 

    Guest J & Riegler R (2022) Knowing HE standards: how good are students at evaluating academic work?, Higher Education Research & Development, 41:3, 714-728

    Hay, P. J., and D. Penney. 2013. Assessment in Physical Education. A Sociocultural Perspective. London: Routledge.

    Kilic, D. (2016) An Examination of Using Self-, Peer-, and Teacher-Assessment in Higher Education: A Case Study in Teacher Education, Higher Education Studies, 6(1), 136-144. 

    Kvale, Steinar (1996). Interviews. An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. California: Sage Publications.

    Lamb P Lane K & Aldous D (2012) Enhancing the spaces of reflection: A buddy peer-review process within physical education initial teacher education, European Physical Education Review 19(1) 21–38

    Larsson H & Redelius K (2008) Swedish physical education research questioned—current situation and future directions, Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 13:4, 381-398, DOI: 10.1080/17408980802353354

    Leirhaug 2016 Exploring the relationship between student grades and assessment for learning in Norwegian physical education, European Physical Education Review, 22(3) 298–314

    Macken S, MacPhail, A & Calderon, A (2020) Exploring primary pre-service teachers’ use of ‘assessment for learning’ while teaching primary physical education during school placement, Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 25:5, 539-554

    Redelius, K. & Hay, P. (2010) Defining, acquiring and transacting cultural capital through assessment in physical education, European Physical Education Review, 5(3):275–294:

    Scanlon D, MacPhail, A Walsh C & Tannehill D (2022): Embedding assessment in learning experiences: enacting the principles of instructional alignment in physical education teacher education, Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, epub ahead of print

    Tait-McCutcheon S & Knewstubb, B. (2018) Evaluating the alignment of self, peer and lecture assessment in an Aotearoa New Zealand pre-service teacher education course, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43:5, 772-785

     

  • 7.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm; Department of Public Health and Sport Sciences, Inland Norway; University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Peer assessment in physical education teacher education – a complex process making social and physical capital visible2023In: Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, ISSN 2574-2981, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer assessment has been proven to improve learning for both theobserver and the observed. One dimension of peer assessment thathas been given little attention in the context of physical educationteacher education (PETE) is the tension that exists when peers givefeedback on each other’s work. In this paper, we report on Swedishpreservice teachers’ (PST) views on peer assessment used in PETEschool placements. Our findings reveal four mechanisms of peerassessment assigned value in PETE: (i) building social relations, (ii)making ‘what to learn’ visible, (iii) giving correct feedback, and(iv) handling sensitive and gendered comments. Inspired byBourdieu, we discuss learning potentials and complex challengeswith peer assessment, where the combination of social capitaland physical capital decides what is possible to say and to whomwhen peer assessment is used in the PETE school placement andin school physical education (PE).

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    Backman et al 2023
  • 8.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Svensson, Daniel
    Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Where does environmental sustainability fit in the changing landscapes of outdoor sports? An analysis of logics of practice in artificial sport landscapes2023In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 727-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental sustainability in sport is an increasingly important issue. In this paper, we want to highlight a specific phenomenon, namely artificially constructed landscapes and the outdoor sport activities that take place therein. More specifically, we are interested in the logics that govern peoples’ practice of sport in such artificial landscapes and what challenges with regards to environmental sustainability that follow from these logics. The purpose of this paper is to identify what individual athletes perceive as meaningful logics when practicing sport in artificial landscapes and to analyse and discuss potential environmental consequences of these logics. The sports we focus on are cross-country skiing and canoe slalom, two sports that historically have been dependent on specific geographies and contexts. We build on two research questions: What logics of practice govern individual athletes’ practice of sport in artificial landscapes? And what environmental challenges are potential consequences of the logics that are expressed by the athletes? Our findings indicate that the logic of performance is dominant for the sport practitioners who train in artificial landscapes, at the expense of perspectives such as nature experience and environmental sustainability. If performance is key, then the role of the training landscape is also first and foremost to present the best possible conditions for performance. But if the athlete/exerciser see their training as a means of experiencing nature, then other values than performance and comparability can become more important. When the environmental impact of individual athletes and of the artificial landscapes in which they do their training come under increased scrutiny, the role of logics of practice in the sport and movement culture needs further attention. Being aware of nature and the environment is also a logic that could be found meaningful in the process of making sports more sustainable.

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  • 9.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Svensson, Daniel
    Malmö Universitet.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mitthögskolan.
    The Changing Landscape of Sport Facilities: Consequences for Practitioners and the Environment2023In: Sport, Performance and Sustainability / [ed] Daniel Svensson, Erik Backman, Susanna Hedenborg, Sverker Sörlin, Taylor & Francis Group, 2023, 1, p. 50-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 10.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Tidén, Anna
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Wiorek, Dan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Svanström, Fredrik
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Pihl, Lars
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    “Things that are taken from one culture don’t necessarily work well in another culture.”: Investigating epistemological tensions through preservice teachers’ views on the assessment of a games course in Swedish PETE2021In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1940636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of the discussion about how movement knowledge is valued in physical education teacher education (PETE), issues of assessment have been brought to the fore. Studies have shown that how and when movement knowledge is assessed is strongly culturally dependent and based different epistemological orientations. The aim of this paper is to analyse and discuss how preservice teachers in Sweden perceive assessment in an invasion games course according to the games performance assessment instrument (GPAI). The empirical material presented in this study is based on a web-survey carried out at the end of the invasion games course where the participants were asked to write comments of how the experienced GPAI and its relevance in school physical education. The findings suggest that the preservice teacher experience prediction and measurement of appropriate and non-appropriate behaviours in GPAI as problematic from a didactic perspective. The ideas of “correctness” and “appropriateness”, which are fundamental in GPAI, is discussed in the relation to the socially critical constructivist epistemology that underpins Swedish PETE.

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  • 11.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro Universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro Universitet.
    Activating students as resources in physical education – a complex process making symbolic, social and physical capital visible2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that Assessment for Learning (AfL) is a model for assessment that strengthens young peoples’ learning in schools as well as in higher education. This is also the case in school physical education and in physical education teacher education (PETE). One of the key learning strategies in AfL is to activate peers as resources for learning, often operationalized as peer assessment. In physical education, peer assessment has proven to strengthen learning for both the observer and the observed.

    One dimension of peer assessment, that has only scarcely been covered in the physical education context, but that is more highlighted in research of peer assessment in general teacher education, is the tensions inherent in giving feedback to peers, and perhaps friends, on their work. It has been argued that teacher students do not feel comfortable when critiquing other teacher students, and that peer assessment could reflect friendships more than learning outcomes.

    In the physical education context, studies have shown that peer assessment is one area that physical education teachers are sceptical about. Further, it has been argued that pupils can be mean to each other if implementing peer assessment during physical education teaching. In this paper we aim to dig deeper into this problematic aspect of peer assessment in physical education.

    More specifically, drawing on the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of capital and using qualitative methodology, the question that will guide our analysis reads:

    What capabilities and behaviours among students are by PETE students and physical education teachers acknowledged as legitimate and valuable when peer assessment is implemented in physical education teaching?  

    Preliminary results show that in order for peer assessment to be successful in physical education teaching questions regarding who gives feedback on what needs to be considered.  

  • 12.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    University of Örebro.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    University of Örebro.
    Does physical education matter? A methodological approach to understand transitions of content areas from PETE to PE2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro.
    How does physical education teacher education matter?: A methodological approach to understanding transitions from PETE to school physical education2021In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 235, article id 121332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we will address the question of how physical education teacher education (PETE) matters and suggest one way to explore the potential impact of PETE. A distinguishing feature of the studies of PETE's impact on physical education is that they either include perspectives from preservice teachers involved in PETE courses or perspectives from physical education teachers in schools looking back at their education. Longitudinal attempts to follow preservice teachers’ journey from education to workplace, in order to grasp how they perceive the relation between teacher education and teaching practice in schools, and the transition between these contexts, are few and far between. This gap of knowledge is a missing piece of the puzzle to further develop PETE, and to inform life-long professional development for teachers. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we develop and present a methodological approach for investigating the transition of content areas from courses in PETE into teaching practice in school physical education. Second, we will illustrate the potential utility of this methodological approach in longitudinal studies by showing how one particular content area, Assessment for Learning (AfL), was investigated through the use of methods and theories described in the first part of this paper. The suggested longitudinal approach involves Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews with pre- and postservice teachers, observations and communication with groups of students and teachers through social media. The construction, recontextualisation and realisation of pedagogic discourses regarding content areas are suggested to be analysed through a combination of Bernstein's concept of the pedagogic device and Ball's concept of fabrication. The longitudinal design and the suggested methodology can provide answers to how content areas are transformed in and between PETE and school physical education. A combination of the theoretical perspectives of Bernstein and Ball enables us to say something not only about how pedagogic discourses regarding content areas are constructed, recontextualised and realised in PETE and school physical education, but also about what content areas become in terms of fabrications in the transition between these contexts. To conclude, we argue that the methodological research design can be used to explore different content areas in PETE and that this methodology can contribute to knowledge about how PETE matters for school physical education.

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    Backman et al 2021
  • 14. Bartsch, Adam
    et al.
    Glover, Lori
    Alberts, Jay
    Cruickshank, Jason
    Jansen, Elizabeth
    Benzel, Edward
    Samorezov, Sergey
    Miele, Vincent
    Bailes, Julian
    McGinty, Gerald
    Rowson, Steven
    D'Lauro, Christopher
    Rooks, Tyler
    Cameron, Kenneth
    Houston, Megan
    Kieffer, Emily
    Ng, Laurel
    Mathews, Kiran
    Swarén, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Link, Norman
    Fraser, Missy
    Mihlik, Jason P
    Mihalik-Register, Johna
    Eckner, JT
    Lane, Annalise
    Head impact doses and 'no-go' deficits in Olympic and Non-Olympic sport athletes2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between head impact dose andobservable functional deficits remains unclear. While studieshave almost exclusively examined American football athletes,in Olympic athletes there are almost no data that explore thisrelationship.

    Objective: We aimed to use an impact monitoring mouthguard(IMM) to quantify head impact doses in Olympic and non-Olympic Sports, identifying high-energy impacts on video as‘No-go’ per the NFL protocol.

    Design: Retrospective meta-analysis from American football,basketball, boxing, ice hockey, karate, lacrosse, mixed martialarts, rugby, tae-kwon-do, soccer.

    Setting: Sporting field.

    Patients (or Participants): 4500 impacts over 800 player-games.

    Interventions (or Assessment of Risk Factors): Impact doseswhere the athlete was observed as ‘no-go’.

    Main Outcome Measurements: Kinetic energy transfer (KE),risk-weighted exposure (RWE), peak scalar linear acceleration(PLA), peak scalar linear velocity (PLV), peak scalar angularacceleration (PAA), peak scalar angular velocity (PAV), impactlocation, impact direction, ‘No-go’ status.

    Results: The median KE, RWE, PLA, PAA, PLV and PAV was 5J, 0.0002, 20 g, 1500 rad/s2, 10 rad/s and 1.5 m/s, respectively.American football athletes sustained the highest energyimpact doses, boxers and mixed-martial artists sustained thehighest cumulative dose for a day of competition. Ice hockeyhad the highest rate of ‘no-go’ impacts versus total impactscollected. Karate had the highest rotational kinematics. Of thenine (9) highest energy impacts to the side and rear of thehead, all were ‘no-go’ impacts. Of the top eight (8) highestenergy impacts to the front of the head, none were ‘no-go’impacts.

    Conclusions: ‘No-go’ observations occurred in high energyimpact doses to the rear and the sides of the head, while similarimpact doses to the forehead seemed tolerable. ProspectiveOlympic athlete impact monitoring could help identify riskyexposures.

  • 15.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Swarén, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    How Does the Starting Order in the First and Second Run Affect the Final Rank in the FIS World Cup Giant Slalom?2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 858123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of runs 1 and 2 on overall rank in Giant Slalom. Data from 15 seasons (2005/2006–2019/2020) including and unique starts for women (n = 2,294) and men (n = 2,328) were analyzed. Skiers were grouped based on final ranks 1–3 (G3), 4–10 (G10), and 11–20 (G20) and separately analyzed for women and men. A Wilcoxon-signed rank test was used for comparisons between runs 1 and 2, while a multi-nominal logistic regression was used to identify odds ratios (OR) associated with group rank. Women had similar run times for runs 1 and 2 (p = 0.734), while men had faster times on run 2 (p < 0.001). The strongest association to G3 was during run 1 for run time (men: OR 1.06–1.12; women: OR 1.06–1.11, all p < 0.01) and gate-to-gate times (men: OR 33–475; women: OR 81–2,301, all p < 0.001). Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of a fast first run for improving the final ranking group and the need to increase the tempo going from the first to the second run for men. Copyright © 2022 Björklund and Swarén.

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  • 16.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Fjordell, Wilma
    Wedholm, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Swarén, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    The Modern Double-Poling Technique Is Not More Energy Efficient Than the Old-Fashioned Double-Poling Technique at a Submaximal Work Intensity2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 850541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there are energy-efficiency differences between the execution of the old-fashioned double-poling technique (DPOLD) and the modern double-poling technique (DPMOD) at a submaximal work intensity among elite male cross-country skiers. Fifteen elite male cross-country skiers completed two 4-min tests at a constant mechanical work rate (MWR) using the DPMOD and DPOLD. During the last minute of each test, the mean oxygen uptake (VO2) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were analyzed, from which the metabolic rate (MR) and gross efficiency (GE) were calculated. In addition, the difference between pretest and posttest blood-lactate concentrations (BLadiff) was determined. For each technique, skiers’ joint angles (i.e., heel, ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow) were analyzed at the highest and lowest positions during the double-poling cycle. Paired-samples t-tests were used to investigate differences between DPMOD and DPOLD outcomes. There were no significant differences in either VO2mean, MR, GE, or BLadiff (all P > 0.05) between the DPMOD and DPOLD tests. DPMOD execution was associated with a higher RER (P < 0.05). Significant technique-specific differences were found in either the highest and/or the lowest position for all six analyzed joint angles (all P < 0.001). Hence, despite decades of double-poling technique development, which is reflected in the significant biomechanical differences between DPOLD and DPMOD execution, at submaximal work intensity, the modern technique is not more energy efficient than the old-fashioned technique. 

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  • 17.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Fjordell, Wilma
    Swarén, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Effect of sub‑technique transitions on energy expenditure and physiological load in the classical‑style technique among elite male cross‑country skiers2021In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 121, no 11, p. 3201-3209Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 18.
    Grundén, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Mathematics Education.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Representations of mathematics education in Swedish newspapers — Part of the structural influence on mathematics teaching2023In: Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, ISSN 1492-6156, E-ISSN 1942-4051, Vol. 23, p. 228-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing public debate about mathematics education. This dialogue influences policymakers as well as mathematics teachers who are affected by these public ideas. Consequently, exploring the public debate, for example, by studying news media, is relevant for understanding teaching and learning in mathematics and also pertinent for researchers to actively participate in the debate about mathematics education. Representations of mathematics education, which emerged in a study of three national newspapers in Sweden, were explored. Articles relevant to the study were found in systematic searches in a media archive every fifth year between 1992 and 2017. Findings show that the construction of mathematics education in Swedish newspapers is multifaceted and complex, foregrounded by achievements, measurements, and various forms of teaching. Other parts of the construction involve teachers wanting to arouse positive feelings, but their attempts are often unsuccessful. While the construction of mathematics education is increasingly varied, the resulting positive and negative feelings and the tensions between representations contribute new insights, which are important to the field. 

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  • 19. Högman, Marieann
    et al.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Falun Hospital, Falun, Region Dalarna.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Differences in nitric oxide airway diffusion after maximum oxygen uptake test in asthmatic and nonasthmatic elite junior cross-country skiers2021In: ERJ Open Research, E-ISSN 2312-0541, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 00378-2020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is common in cross-country skiers and is often treated with ß2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Exhaled nitric oxide is often used to guide ICS treatment in asthma. This study investigated the change in the pulmonary NO dynamics before and after a maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2-max) test.An extended NO analysis was performed among Swedish elite junior cross-country skiers (n=25), with and without declared asthma, before and after a V̇O2-max test using roller skis. Asthma was declared by six boys and two girls among whom five occasionally used ICS.There were no differences in the baseline NO parameters between those with and without declared asthma. The diffusion capacity over airway wall (DawNO) was 21 (17,25) mL·s−1 (median, quartiles), which is much increased for this age group. After the V̇O2-max test, there were statistically significant differences from the baseline fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO50), NO-flux from airways, DawNO and alveolar NO values; but not in the NO content in airway wall (CawNO) for all subjects together as one group. However, in the asthma group, differences were only seen in the FENO50 and in CawNO.Interestingly, a majority of the subjects had an increase in the DawNO. An increase in DawNO has been found with allergic asthma together with elevated CawNO. The skiers did not have elevated CawNO, which indicates an absence of inflammation in the airway wall. Modelling of lung NO production clearly shows that the asthma among our skiers is distinct from the allergic asthma in non-athletes.

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  • 20. Högman, Marieann
    et al.
    Wedholm, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Längdskidåkare med eller utan astmadiagnos har ökad diffusion för NO från luftrören2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Isgren Karlsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Exploring physical education teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards digital technology in outdoor education2023In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 510-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish educational system, there has been a recent push for digital technology in different school subjects. This paper investigates what regulates Swedish physical education teachers’ perceptions of digital technology in outdoor education. The results is reflected in a number of rules that govern Swedish physical education teachers’ perceptions and use of digital technology in outdoor education. Findings suggest that teachers’ views on the relevance of digital technology in outdoor education depends partly on curriculum formulations, but of significant importance are also other factors such as: the addressed knowledge area, grade level, choice of digital device, needs of students, and teachers’ ideological beliefs. These rules are discussed in relation to the construction of outdoor education as knowledge area within physical education and in relation to the ways in which Swedish physical education teachers relate to curriculum changes. 

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  • 22.
    Jacobsson, Magdalena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Svensson, Patric
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Investigating current research comparing physiotherapy and pharmaceuticals with a sustainability perspective: a scoping review2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physiotherapy (PT) as a treatment has been shown to have an effect in several areas where drugs are also usually used in the treatment. PT can have a significant role in the work with sustainable development healthcare and there is a need for more research into this. The aim was to examine what research exists that compares PT and drugs as treatment options. The aim was also to investigate whether this research links the results to aspects of sustainable development. Method: A scoping review was performed, based on a systematical search in PubMed, Cinahl and Pedro. The keywords used were “physical therapy modalities”, “physical therapy specialty” and “physiotherapy” in combination with “pharmaceutical preparations”, “pharmaceutical intervention”, “drugs” and “comparative study”. Results: A total of 27 studies was found that in some way compared PT and drugs with drug consumption as an outcome measure. The included studies hold a variation of characteristics with different study designs, populations and areas of care, and the results showed that both PT and pharmaceuticals often give good results. The most common patient groups were osteoarthritis and other musculoskeletal pain. The most common medication type was analgesics and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Several of the included studies discussed the economic and social aspects of sustainable development but none of them mentioned an environmental aspect. Conclusion: This study states that there is a gap in science comparing PT and drugs in many patient groups. The results also show that parts of sustainable development are discussed, but that the connection between sustainable development and sustainable healthcare is missing. There is also a lack of discussion around the environmental aspect of sustainable development.

  • 23. Jacobsson, Martin
    et al.
    Willén, Jonas
    Swarén, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    A Drone-mounted Depth Camera-based Motion Capture System for Sports Performance Analysis2023In: Artificial Intelligence in HCI: Proceedings 4th International Conference, AI-HCI 2023, Held as Part of the 25th HCI International Conference, HCII 2023 / [ed] Helmut Degen, Stavroula Ntoa, Springer Nature, 2023, p. 489-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Video is the most used tool for sport performance analysis as it provides a common reference point for the coach and the athlete. The problem with video is that it is a subjective tool. To overcome this, motion capture systems can used to get an objective 3D model of a person’s posture and motion, but only in laboratory settings. Unfortunately, many activities, such as most outdoor sports, cannot be captured in a lab without compromising the activity. In this paper, we propose to use an aerial drone system equipped with depth cameras, AI-based marker-less motion capture software to perform automatic skeleton tracking and real-time sports performance analysis of athletes. We experiment with off-the-shelf drone systems, miniaturized depth cameras, and commercially available skeleton tracking software to build a system for analyzing sports-related performance of athletes in their real settings. To make this a fully working system, we have conducted a few initial experiments and identified many issues that still needs to be addressed.

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  • 24.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    A theoretical framework about reflection - one way to understand the concept of reflection2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reflection for the development of teacher students into professional practitioners has become a generally accepted and central part of teacher education. What a reflection is, how a teacher reflects and how teacher students can learn to reflect has been perennial question in teacher education since Dewey and Schön wrote their central works. This is still mirrored in teacher education today because the ambition to develop teacher students´ reflection persists. However, the concept of reflection in teacher education research is surrounded by a problem, it prevails: “… mixed messages and confusing agendas (Fendler 2003 p. 20)”. Research has been carried out without clearly explaining the meaning(s) of the concept of reflection, in both teacher education (Ottesen 2007), and physical education teacher education (PETE) (Standal & Moe 2013). What needs to be supplemented in research on the concept of reflection, in the field of PETE, based on the prevailing knowledge base, is a more profound and nuanced understanding of what a reflection is and how different contexts affect PETE students' reflections. 

    Therefore, I created a proposal for a theoretical framework, based on a synthesis of mainly Wackerhausens and Schön's theories about what a reflection is. The framework also gives a proposal to understand different dimensions and sorts of reflections. And finally, this proposal for a theoretical framework gives a conceptual toolbox, based on Bernstein's theory, to understand how different contexts and factors in these contexts affect how PETE students reflect. 

  • 25.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    A theoretical framework for research on reflections2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BAKGRUNN

    The ability to reflect has attracted the interest of scholars. They have mainly used Dewey's, Van Manen's, and Schön's theoretical frameworks in research. Standal and Moe (2013) write that future research needs to clarify what is meant by the specific use of the concept, in the specific study. In addition to this, researchers have also mainly researched on the basis of the question of how teachers or students reflect. Therefore, is this theoretical framework constructed to answer the question: how does the context surrounding the teachers or students affect the composition of their reflections?

     

    RESULTAT

    To be able to answer the new question concerning contexts' influence on teachers' and students' composition of their reflections, Wackerhausen (2008; 2009) offers an interesting theory. He introduces the reflection anatomy, which I use as an analytical tool to dissect the reflection into smaller parts. One reflects... something: 

    -          In a context of,

    -          On ,

    -          With and,

    -          From.

    KONKLUSJON

    This new approach offers scholars new perspectives and contributes to the ongoing and constantly recurring research on reflections.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    An Analytical Toolbox for Research on Reflection2023In: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 237-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a theoretical approach and an analytical toolbox for researchers on reflections in PE and PETE. Its purpose is to provide an approach to analyzing how reflections are composed. Previous research mainly asks how teachers and student teachers (STs) reflect and use different theoretical concepts to describe the way in which they reflect. The use of the analytical toolbox, as described in this paper, examines how the reflections of teachers and STs have different parts that are influenced by the direction – within a given context – of their gaze and focus on teaching. Their experiences and reflections are affected by the contexts, which influence the forward-moving spiral of the development of their professional judgment. Using a recontextualized version of Wackerhausen’s (2009) theory as an analytical toolbox in research, as proposed in this article, can contribute to more nuanced descriptions of teachers’ and STs’ reflections on teaching in PE.

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  • 27.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Does Physical education teacher education matter?!: A study about how PETE students reflect on teaching at practium2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem-area

    Physical education teacher education students (PETE-students) find that practicum is the most important course in PETE (Capel & Blair 2007). At practicum, PETE-students are enabled to develop their capability to reflect on experienced teaching-situations, which can develop their judgment (Russel 2005; Russel 2013; Biesta 2012; Winch et al. 2015). There are arguments for making: "practice the core of teachers' professional preparation (Loewenberg Ball and Forzani 2009 p. 497)", but for practicum to be important, the educational context must stimulate PETE-students capability to reflect. Supervisors at practicum can have an important role as they contribute to the reflective environment (Capel et al. 2019). Previous research indicates that supervisors rarely stimulate to good reflective environments that can develop PETE-students judgment in an educative direction (Rossi & lisahunter 2013; Hegender 2010). Furthermore, the concept of reflection in teacher education research is surrounded by: "mixed messages and confusing agendas (Fendler 2003 p. 20)". Later research argues for the necessity of clarifying a theoretical framework that explains what a reflection is and how the reflection should be examined and, thereby avoid making the concept of reflection a truism (Standal et al. 2013).

    Purpose

    The aim of this study is to identify how PETE-students reflect on teaching during practicums and contribute knowledge of how contextual factors in PETE influence their reflections. 

  • 28.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Idrottslärarstudenters reflektioner om deras egen undervisning på praktiken2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Reflective conversations at practicum: A matter of control2024In: Book of Abstracts: The 2024 AIESEP International Conference "Past meets the Future", 2024, p. 462-463Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the case study is to contribute knowledge about how supervisors guide student teachers (ST) in reflective conversations before and after their teaching at practicum, and how supervisors seem to influence STs to experience their practicums in constructive ways. The methodology consisted of me observing two STs teaching on three occasions, recording the reflecting conversation they had with their supervisor after the lesson, and conducting an in-depth interview with the STs after their practicum period. The focus when collecting the empirical material was to shed light on how the supervisors seemed to influence STs’ reflections on their teaching during practicum, and how these reflections affect what experiences STs gain from their teaching practice and stimulate their further growth as professional teachers. When analyzing the material, I focused on how controlling the supervisor’s guidance was in the reflecting conversations, whether they asked questions, explained, or instructed, and how the PETE students responded to their guidance. To do that, I used Biesta’s (2022) concept “act of pointing”, which describes what and how educators direct students to focus on. Then in the next step, I focused on how the STs experienced their practicum based on these reflective conversations and the in-depth interview. For this, I used Dewey’s (2015) understanding of what separates the meaning of experiencing and having an experience, and how different experiences can be described as educative, non-educative, or mis-educative. The results indicate that the supervisors’ guidance varied regarding how controlling they were, and I identified four different acts of pointing in the reflective conversations: - The restrained and constructive ‘act of pointing’, - The rule-focused ‘act of pointing’, - The direct and technical ‘act of pointing’ - The restricted and condemning ‘act of pointing’ Based on these various acts of pointing, I describe the STs' gained experiences as two different kinds of journeys during their practicum. ST A gained educative experiences - he experienced an adventurous journey because he got the opportunity to experience unexpected situations during practicum and thoroughly reflect on them. ST B gained non-edu-cative, or maybe even mis-educative experiences - he was restricted and often told what to do, making his reflections technical and superficial. Enabling STs to find their own path as teacher can stimulate their professional growth as teachers and make them gain educative experiences, that stimulate their growth in a constructive direction. However, supervisors’ control over STs cannot be too free, they need to control them somehow – it is a matter of loosening the control, but never losing it.

    Biesta, G. (2022). World-centered education: a view for the present. Routledge.

    Dewey, J. (2015). Experience And Education (Reprint ed.). Free Press.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Student Teachers’ Reflections on their Teaching in Practicum: two Reflection Bodies2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflections in teacher education (TE) is a disputed issue surrounded by “mixed messages and confusing agendas” (Fendler, 2003 p.20). According to Russell (2013), reflections have done more harm than good, especially when TE have forced their STs to reflect on theoretical matters and not on teaching practices. The “place to develop skills of reflective practice is in the practicum classroom as a novice teacher, not in the halls of the university as a student” (Russell, 2013 p.88). For that reason, my study focused on STs’ reflections on how they incorporated specified content into their teaching at practicum. The STs read about Assessment for Learning (AfL) at the university before entering their school placements. Research focusing on the link between universities and practicum is required since few studies on TE have “investigated how preparation [at the university] influenced candidates’ practice, […]to do the actual tasks of teaching” (Cochran-Smith et al., 2015 p.117).

    I focused on whether STs' reflections were educative or non-educative (Dewey, 2015), and how contexts within school placements influenced STs' reflections on practicing AfL. An educative experience stimulates to further growth of STs' experiences of teaching situations (Dewey, 2015), which in this study is how STs' experiences of AfL gained at the university stimulate their further growth of experiences when incorporating AfL into their teaching practice. On the other hand, non-educative experiences stagnate STs' further growth (Dewey, 2015).  

    Examining ST's reflections on their incorporations of AfL can give insights into how they experience their teaching, since “reflections are blind without experiences, and experiences are empty without reflections” (Wackerhausen, 2008 p. 19). These concepts are intertwined because present experiences influence how the STs frame teaching situations in their mindscapes, (Dewey, 2018) when reflecting on them so that they are enabled to teach more intelligently (Dewey, 2015). Intelligent teaching, interpreted in this article, is a matter of STs' judgment, and how they decided to incorporate AfL. AfL is based on research findings from Black and Wiliam’s (1998) meta-study, and Biesta (2020) is concerned with how teaching has come to be seen as an evidence-based practice. Biesta (2020) finds it problematic when teachers take research findings for granted when incorporating them into their teaching thinking that they can solve problems by applying them. Instead, teachers should incorporate findings by judging the situation and adapting them based on what they think is useful for their pupils in the situation.

    Aim and research questions

    The aim is to shed light on STs' reflection to get insight into how they experience the incorporation of AfL in their teaching and whether their experiences were educative or non-educative. This can be done by analyzing their reflections, and by looking at how they compose them with either educative or non-educative elements. For that reason, the following research questions guided my investigation:

    -        Does context influence STs’ educative or non-educative reflections on using AfL and if it does, how?

    -       How can STs’ reflections be described in terms of a composition of parts, shaping either educative or non-educative reflections?  

  • 31.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Supervisors’ guidance of PETE students’ reflections at practicum: creating conditions for different learning journeys2024In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) students’ reflections on their practicums are influenced by how their supervisors guide them. Supervisors often evaluate and discuss PETE students’ teaching by guiding their focus on essential aspects to consider. This exploratory case study focuses on how supervisors’ guiding styles in reflective conversations affect how PETE students make meaning of their teaching. Reflective practitioners, in this case PETE students, make sense of practical situations from their own perspectives as part of their teaching practice. Supervisors’ guidance is essential here, because it can change PETE students’ understanding by (re)directing their attention to meaningful aspects when framing their teaching and help them to examine it from new perspectives. However, the findings indicate that supervisors’ various guidance affect how PETE students experience their learning journeys during practicum. In this study, the participating PETE students’ experiences of practicum differed: either they experienced a controlled journey that restricted their teaching due to predefined rules and condemning attitude toward pupils, or they experienced an adventurous journey that enabled them to find their own paths as a teachers.

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    Supervisors’ guidance of PETE students’ reflections at practicum: creating conditions for different learning journeys
  • 32.
    Johansson, Emil
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Supervisors’ guidance of PETE-students at practicum: a matter of controlling- or adventurous journeys2023In: Proceedings for the European Conference on Reflective Practice-based Learning 2023: November 20th-22nd 2023 / [ed] Georgsen, Marianne; Dau, Susanne; Helverskov Horn, Line, Ålborg: Aalborg University Press , 2023, p. 213-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supervisors are key actors for physical education teacher education (PETE) students at practicum. Their guidance influence what PETE-students focus on when teaching and reflecting on their teaching. In addition to that, Russell (2013) states that reflective practice should be experienced in classrooms at schools, and not in the halls of the university. Therefore, my study focus on how supervisors’ guidance affects PETE-students experiences of teaching at schools by investigating their reflective conversations when planning and evaluating PETE-students teaching. Schön (1983) states that practitioners, e.g., teachers, conversate with teaching situations when they reflect. For that reason, supervisors are central figures, as they can (re)direct PETE-students’ attention by their guidance on meaningful aspects that PETE-students should consider in teaching situations. Supervisors’ guidance reduces the influences PETE-students should pay attention to. However, supervisors cannot foresee what PETE-students’ pay attention to, but supervisors can be committed to stimulate PETE-students development as professionals by (re)directing their focus. My results indicate that supervisors’ guidance can be more or less controlling, which affects how PETE-students experience their learning journeys at practicum. The PETE-students either, experienced controlled journeys where they had specified rules to follow, or they experienced more adventurous journeys where they had the opportunity to find their own path as teachers. Supervisors can stimulate PETE-students’ professional growth as autonomous and responsible teachers by being committed to encouraging them to consider their teaching thoroughly and allowing them to decide how to teach at practicum.

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    Supervisors’ guidance of PETE-students at practicum: a matter of controlling- or adventurous journeys
  • 33.
    Karlsson Isgren, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Environmental Sustainability in Physical Education: A Study of Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Environmental Sustainability in Physical Education2023In: Sport, Performance and Sustainability / [ed] Daniel Svensson, Erik Backman, Susanna Hedenborg, Sverker Sörlin, Taylor & Francis Group, 2023, 1, p. 109-129Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 34.
    Karlsson Isgren, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Alatalo, Tarja
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Exploring physical education teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards digital technology in outdoor education2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Liljas, Juvas Marianne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Anåker, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Borg, Farhana
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Randell, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Social Work.
    From, Ingrid
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Rapport från det tvärdisciplinära forskningsnätverket Internationalization and sustainability in the learning goals in higher education from an interdisciplinary research perspective2021Report (Other academic)
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  • 36.
    Liljas, Juvas Marianne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    ‘I can teach you that’: A study of musical interaction as a learning-generating practice in Swedish preschool everyday environments2022In: Early years, ISSN 0957-5146, E-ISSN 1472-4421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the first part of the research project ‘Musical interaction in preschool’ will be presented and analysed. The purpose of the study was to examine which musical interactive activities are expressed in everyday pre-school environments, and how these types of interaction can be related to children’s development and learning. Through observations of planned lessons and children’s free play in different milieus, the interactions have been mapped. Using Merleau-Ponty’s lifeworld phenomenology, varied interactions reflect embodied education patterns as a part of pre-school cultural canonization. The result shows that the children in the study have a good ability to interact musically but that this resource is less utilized in the planned music teaching. The analyses were based on learning strategies in music with a child-first perspective which links back to lifeworld phenomenological perspectives of meaning.

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  • 37.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Football players’ physiological responses and rated perceived exertion during running at constant versus varying speeds2024In: LASE Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1691-7669, E-ISSN 1691-9912Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Tinning, Richard
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. University of Queensland, Australia.
    Moving online in physical education teacher education2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Tinning, Richard
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. School of Human Movement & Nutrition Science, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia.
    Moving online in physical education teacher education2022In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 40.
    Palstam, Annie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Andersson, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Smärtrehabilitering Säter/Smärtmottagning Falun, Region Dalarna.
    Lange, Elvira
    Grenholm, Anton
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    A Call to Include a Perspective of Sustainable Development in Physical Therapy Research2021In: Physical Therapy, ISSN 0031-9023, E-ISSN 1538-6724, Vol. 101, no 3, article id pzaa228Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 41.
    Palstam, Annie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet/Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Grenholm, Anton
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Andersson, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Smärtrehabilitering Säter/Smärtmottagning Falun, Region Dalarna.
    Lange, Elvira
    Sektionen för fysioterapi, avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Institutionen för neurovetenskap och fysiologi, Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Fysioterapi och hållbar utveckling: Hänger det ihop – och varför behöver vi engagera oss?2021In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 4, p. 38-44Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna utgör det största hotet mot folkhälsan under detta århundrade, något som förväntasbåde öka och förändra den framtida belastningen på hälso- och sjukvården. Samtidigt bidrar hälso- ochsjukvården genom sin egen verksamhet till en betydande del av samhällets miljöbelastning. Ytterligare enkoppling mellan miljö och hälsa är att många förändringar som syftar till att minska miljöbelastningen samtidigtmedför vinster för folkhälsan. Sammantaget medför dessa samband att hälso- och sjukvården har en mycketcentral roll i omställningen mot hållbar utveckling. I detta sammanhang har fysioterapin unika och specifikamöjligheter att bidra, något som bör medvetandegöras, utvärderas och kommuniceras. Denna artikel tar uppbegreppet hållbar utveckling i relation till fysioterapi och föreslår samtidigt en riktning för fortsatt reflektion därfysioterapin har möjligheten att stärkas som en ledande aktör i omställningen mot framtidens hälso- ochsjukvård.

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  • 42.
    Palstam, Annie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Sehdev, Simran
    Barna, Stefi
    Andersson, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Liebenberg, Nina
    Sustainability in physiotherapy and rehabilitation2022In: Orthopaedics and Trauma, ISSN 1877-1327, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 279-283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Philpot, Rod
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, Fac Educ & Social Work, Sch Curriculum & Pedag, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Smith, Wayne
    Univ Auckland, Fac Educ & Social Work, Sch Curriculum & Pedag, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Tinning, Richard
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Studies, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Dalarna Univ, Sch Educ Hlth & Social Sci, Falun, Sweden..
    Kicking at the habitus: students' reading of critical pedagogy in PETE2021In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 445-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings of a research project that sought to understand how a group of 19 graduating physical education teacher education (PETE) students' biographies served to mediate their understanding of the messages of their PETE programme, which was underpinned by a critical pedagogy philosophy. We use the Bourdieuian concepts of habitus, field, pedagogical action and pedagogical work to represent the similarities and variation in the student's reading of the PETE programme and its intension to foreground critical pedagogy. The five themes produced through an analysis of individual and focus group interview data informed by Bourdieu's theory of practice are; 'Individual programme readings', 'Pedagogical work (that matters)', 'Pedagogical work beyond the pedagogic actions of the teacher educators'; 'No certainty of a critical perspective' 'Kicking at one's habitus: Kicked, shaken and unstirred'. The findings demonstrate that students biographies have influenced and been reaffirmed or disrupted by both the formal PETE programme coursework and practicum experiences and as a result, the PETE programme impacts differently on different students. The authors are guardedly buoyed by the possibility that the structuring structure of habitus will have been sufficiently shaken by the PETE programme to allow for new possibilities yet we recognise that there will be no encounter that can claim pedagogical work on the habitus of all students. Our hope is that this critical pedagogy in PETE has given these participants the 'tools', that is, the insight, and perspective, needed to kick at their own habitus as they graduate and move beyond the intervention of PETE.

  • 44.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci GIH, Sweden; Inland Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Oslo Metropolitan Univ, Norway.
    Mikaels, Jonas
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci GIH, Sweden.
    Returning to the river: the salutogenic model as a theory to explore the relation between outdoor activities and health2024In: Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, ISSN 1472-9679, E-ISSN 1754-0402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing discussion is a debate about the benefits of outdoor activities for health, where a narrowness regarding the benefits as a matter of curing or preventing disease has been questioned. Hence, there is an urgent need to theorize further the relationship between outdoor activities and health with robust theoretical frameworks that can guide research and practice, taking different aspects of human-nature relations into account. In the paper, a critique of pathogenic perspectives of health is forwarded, as well as a critique of an anthropocentric human centeredness of health. Instead, a salutogenic model and the metaphor of the swimmer in the river is used to discuss the relation without being restricted to health as the absence of disease or to human health and wellbeing. In the paper, seven different relations, or salutogenic questions, are provided, moving from the swimmer in the foreground, to swimmers in the river to finally foregrounding the river.

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  • 45.
    Rosen, Johanna S
    et al.
    Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics, the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arndt, Anton
    Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics, the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics, the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics, the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L
    Peter Harrison Centre for Disability Sport, School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Bjerkefors, Anna
    Department of Physiology, Nutrition and Biomechanics, the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kinematic and kinetic performance variables during paddling among para-kayak athletes with unilateral above or below knee amputation2022In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In para-kayak, athletes with unilateral above knee amputation (AK) and athletes with below knee amputation (BK) compete in the same class. This has been questioned since previous research have shown that the legs are important for paddling performance. The purpose was therefore to examine differences in kinematic and kinetic performance variables between AK and BK para-kayak athletes and the amputated (A) and non-amputated (NA) sides. Eleven AK and six BK athletes on international level participated. 3D kinematic and kinetic data were collected for the body, seat, footrest and paddle during kayak ergometer paddling. There were no significant differences between the groups in main performance variables such as power output or paddle force. Differences between the groups were only seen in the hip joint in flexion range of motion, flexion and extension angular velocity and flexion moment where BK demonstrated larger values. The NA side demonstrated greater values compared to the A side in posterior force at the seat and in hip flexion moment. As there were no significant differences between the groups in the majority of the examined key performance variables, the results suggest that athletes with unilateral AK and BK amputation may be able to compete in the same class.

  • 46.
    Rutberg, Stina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Henriksson, Malin
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping.
    Andersson, Mathias
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Palstam, Annie
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    My Way to School Through a Camera Lens: Involving Children to Inform a Policy Recommendation on Active School Travel2024In: Health Promotion Practice, ISSN 1524-8399, E-ISSN 1552-6372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active school travel (AST) is an effective approach for increasing children's physical activity and independent mobility, but policy supporting AST is lacking. This study aims to explore children's experiences of AST to inform a policy recommendation. Photovoice methodology with a qualitative approach was applied, with children taking pictures on their way to school. This was followed by focus groups where the children explored their experiences of AST based on their photos. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the children valued independent mobility and wanted to be involved in decisions about their travels; they also expressed feelings of increased responsibility and personal growth as a consequence. Although the children recognized areas of improvement regarding infrastructure, especially regarding heavy traffic that jeopardized travel safety, they continued using AST. Finally, the children talked about the value of the health and environmental benefits of AST. Opportunities for friendship, play, and making decisions about their own time were highlighted as important incentives. The benefits from AST are many for children, as well as for society. The result has informed policy recommendations for AST, and the children's input will be used to communicate the recommendations. Listening to the voices of children could be a steppingstone toward forming future healthy mobility initiatives. In that process, it is key to include children's perspectives when formulating the AST policy for successful adoption and implementation.

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  • 47.
    Sjöberg, Veronica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Tseli, Elena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Monnier, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Military Academy Karlberg, Swedish Armed Forces.
    Westergren, Jens
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    LoMartire, Riccardo
    Department of Research and Higher Education, Region Dalarna.
    Äng, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Department of Research and Higher Education, Region Dalarna.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Academic Primary Health Care Centre, Region Stockholm.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Department for Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine, Linköping University.
    Vixner, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Effectiveness of the eVISualisation of physical activity and pain (eVIS) intervention in Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Programs: Study Protocol for a Registry-based Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: * Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Programs (IPRPs) are considered to be superior to single-treatment measures in chronic pain treatment. However, the effects of IPRPs are moderate and as many as 30% of patients deteriorate in some outcomes. Although physical activity and exercise are central components in IPRPs, many patients struggle to achieve and maintain the recommended levels. An intervention, entitled eVISualisation of physical activity and pain (eVIS), has now been systematically developed and designed to facilitate patients with chronic pain in achieving and maintaining recommended physical activity levels. The aim of the present study protocol is to transparently report on the methodology, outcomes, and processes for an initiated registry-based randomized controlled trial (R-RCT), which will evaluate the effectiveness of eVIS on the primary outcome physical health and defined secondary outcomes. Methods: * Participants (approximately 400) will be recruited from IPRP units and randomly allocated to either IPRP with an addition of eVIS or to treatment as usual by IPRP. eVIS entails objectively measured physical activity and patient-reported outcomes of pain intensity, effect on daily activities and pharmaceutical consumption. Data is collected and visualized in a web application, PATRON. Pilot analyses evaluating the feasibility of the R-RCT will be performed on data from initial 30 participants. Outcomes will be extracted from PATRON and from six national registries. Multivariate statistics and repeated measures analyses will be performed. Results: * Recruitment will be initiated in late 2021. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05009459. Conclusions: * This study protocol describes a R-RCT that is designed to provide robust data on the feasibility and effectiveness of eVIS as an addition to IPRPs.

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  • 48.
    Sjöberg, Veronica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Tseli, Elena
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Monnier, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Military Academy Karlberg, Swedish Armed Forces, Solna, Sweden.
    Westergren, Jens
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    LoMartire, Riccardo
    Department of Research and Higher Education, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Region Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Äng, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Research and Higher Education, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Region Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Academic Primary Health Care Centre, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Department for Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Community Medicine, Division of Occupational Therapy, Institution of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Vixner, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Effectiveness of the eVISualisation of physical activity and pain intervention (eVIS) in Swedish Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Programmes: study protocol for a registry-based randomised controlled clinical trial2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e055071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Living with chronic pain often involves negative consequences. Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Programmes (IPRP) is considered superior to single-treatment measures in patients with chronic pain. Despite this, effects emerge suboptimal and more than 20% of patients deteriorate in patientreported physical health outcomes after IPRP. A novel e-Health intervention, eVISualisation (eVIS) of physical activity and pain, was systematically developed to facilitate individualisation of physical activity levels. By adding elements of data collection, visualisation and communication of objectively measured physical activity and patient-reported outcomes (pain intensity, interference of pain, pharmaceutical consumption) to existing treatment modalities in IPRP, the IPRP team acquires prerequisites to adapt advice and physical activity prescriptions and to evaluate set activity goals. The overall aim is two fold. First, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of the subsequent registry-based randomised controlled clinical trial (R-RCT). Second, the aim is to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the eVISintervention as a supplement to IPRP on our defined primary (physical health) and secondary outcomes.

    Methods and analysis In the R-RCT, recruitment of 400 patients with chronic pain will be performed at 15 IPRP units. A random allocation to either IPRP + eVIS or to control group that will receive IPRP only will be performed. Data from the initial 30 participants completing the study period (6 months) will be included in a pilot study, where key feasibility outcomes (recruitment, randomisation, implementation, treatment integrity, data collection procedure, preliminary outcome measures) will be evaluated. Outcome variables will be extracted from the web application Pain And TRaining ON-line (PATRON) and from six national registries. Multivariate statistics and repeated measure analyses will be performed. Quality-adjusted life years and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated for cost-effectiveness evaluation.

    Ethics/dissemination The Swedish Ethics Review Board granted approval (Dnr 2021/02109). Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals.

    Trial registration number NCT05009459. Protocol V.1

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  • 49.
    Sjöberg, Veronica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences.
    Westergren, Jens
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science.
    Monnier, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Military Academy Karlberg, Swedish Armed Forces; Karolinska Institutet.
    Lo Martire, Riccardo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet; Academic Primary Health Care Centre, Region Stockholm.
    Äng, Björn
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science. Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet; Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala University, Region Dalarna, Falun.
    Vixner, Linda
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Medical Science.
    Wrist-Worn Activity Trackers in Laboratory and Free-Living Settings for Patients With Chronic Pain: Criterion Validity Study2021In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 9, no 1, article id e24806Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 50. Staunton, Craig A.
    et al.
    Colyer, Steffi L.
    Karlsson, Øyvind
    Swarén, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sport and Health Science. Mittuniversitetet.
    Ihalainen, Simo
    McGawley, Kerry
    Performance and Micro-Pacing Strategies in a Freestyle Cross-Country Skiing Distance Race2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 834474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the micro-pacing strategies during a distance freestyle cross-country (XC) skiing competition. Nine female and 10 male highly trained XC skiers wore a GNSS device during a FIS-sanctioned race. The course was ~4900 m; women completed two-laps; men completed three-laps. The course was divided into uphill (S1, S3, S5, S7), downhill (S2, S4, S6, S8), and flat (S9) sections for analyses. Statistical parametric mapping was used to determine the course positions (clusters) where total race time or section time was significantly associated with instantaneous skiing speed. Total race time was associated with instantaneous skiing speed during a cluster in S1 on lap 2 for both sexes (t ≥ 5.899, p ≤ 0.008). The two longest uphill sections (S1; S5) and the flat section (S9) contained clusters where section times were related to instantaneous skiing speed for both sexes (p < 0.05). The fastest woman gained 6.9 s on the slowest woman during a cluster in S1 on lap 1 and 7.3 s during a cluster in S9 on lap 1. The fastest man gained 51.7 s on the slowest man over all clusters in S5 over the 3 laps combined. Compared to skiers with longer total race times, skiers with shorter race times skied with faster instantaneous speeds in some clusters of the uphill sections, as well as on the flat section of the course. This study also identified different relative micro-pacing strategies for women and men during freestyle distance XC skiing races. Finally, statistical parametric mapping analyses can help to identify individual strengths and weaknesses for guiding training programs and optimise competition pacing strategies.

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