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  • 1.
    Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Allard, Karin
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    St John, Oliver
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Nordmark, Marie
    KKOM-DS.
    Understanding communication and identities in culturally diverse school settings in present day Sweden: empirical explorations from 3 different language profile schools in present day Sweden2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Garcia-Yeste, Miguel
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Engelska.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    From “go to the writing centre” to “we can work on these things ourselves”: University lecturers’ changing views on Academic Literacies in the Social Sciences2024Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, Higher Education institutions in Sweden and across the globe have been working on widened participation, sustainable development, and increased accessibility to university studies. The impact of these initiatives can be seen in today’s student populations, which are characterised by diversity and a wider range of academic skills. Other effects, however, include (a) concerns about lowering standards, (b) a discourse of deficit that focuses on the knowledge and skills students lack, and (c) a remedial approach to tackle said deficits. A common (mis)conception is that students lack language skills (e.g., language proficiency, writing skills) and that referring students to writing centres will solve the issue. However, research (e.g., Blåsjö, 2004; Barton, 2007; Shanahan & Shanahan, 2012; Wingate, 2012; Catell, 2013; Solheim et al. 2022) shows that integrating literacy efforts within disciplines is a more effective way to scaffold student learning. 

    This presentation reports on preliminary findings from an ongoing empirical study on teaching practices for the development of university student’s academic literacies in the social sciences. In particular, the focus is on the changing views of teaching staff on scaffolding and the role of academic literacies in the students’ learning journey. 

    The study rests on Academic Literacies (Lea & Street, 1998; Lillis, 2003; Lea, 2004; Eklund Heinonen et al., 2018) as its theoretical framework. The data consists of: (a) video-recorded ethnographic interviews with two lecturers in an undergraduate programme in the Social Sciences; (b) text analyses of, e.g., assignment instructions, feedback provided by lecturers, and samples of student writing; and (c) workshop-style sessions where the informants were given opportunities to explore hands-on strategies to scaffold the development of their students’ academic literacies.

    The results show a change from a discourse of deficit and a remedial approach to integrating academic literacies in the discipline. More specifically, the findings illustrate the lecturers’ changing views in relation to:

    1.    The students’ needs: From basic proficiency to disciplinary practices. 

    2.    The lecturers’ own abilities: From outsourcing to collaboration.

    3.    Teaching practices: Modelling, strategy use, and formative feedback emerge as useful scaffolding tools. 

    4.    The role of writing in the development of content knowledge.

    This study highlights the benefits of a collaboration between researchers at a writing centre and subject lecturers. The results show that applied linguistics can contribute to scaffolding the students’ learning journey by fostering engagement with disciplinary discourse to build disciplinary knowledge.

  • 3.
    Garcia-Yeste, Miguel
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Engelska.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    “The best way to explain it is to do it”: An ongoing empirical study focusing on how university teaching staff use modelling to help students develop their academic literacies2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, Swedish Higher Education institutions have been working on widened participation (Högskolelagen, 1992, p.1434) as part of a wider effort towards sustainable development and increased accessibility to university studies (Agenda 2030). As a consequence, student populations today bring with them a wider range of academic skills. This, in turn, means that teaching staff across disciplines face a myriad of challenges. In our presentation, we discuss an ongoing empirical study on teaching practices for the development of university students’ academic literacies in the social sciences, with a particular focus on the role of modelling as a teaching strategy. Using Academic Literacies (Lea & Street, 1998; Lillis, 2003; Lea, 2004; Eklund Heinonen et al., 2018) as the theoretical framework, the study aims at (a) identifying challenges as experienced by teaching staff in the Social Sciences, and (b) carrying out a pedagogical intervention. The project, which is a collaboration between two lecturers from the Social Sciences and two researchers from the Language Support Unit, comprises four stages, namely: (1) a needs analysis to map the faculty’s existing teaching practices and to identify their challenges in relation to their students’ academic skills; (2) planning of a pedagogical intervention through a series of workshops; (3) implementation of the intervention; and (4) assessment of the project. So far, the findings reveal that modelling is a crucial teaching strategy in making tacit knowledge and task instructions explicit. The project is also expected to contribute to our understanding of (a) the challenges teaching staff experience in Swedish Higher Education today and (b) how to best support university students’ development of academic literacies. Furthermore, the project’s findings will be used to develop a course for professional development targeting teaching staff at our university.

  • 4.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    "Anna you really have to help me, tell me what to write. Please, just the first line."2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    Att handleda elever i skrivutveckling2023Inngår i: Skrivundervisningens praktiker / [ed] Eva Hultin & Karin Jönsson, Lund: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2023, 1.1, s. 176-Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska.
    Att skriva med och utan digitala verktyg2018Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever i ett digitaliserat samhälle där användning av digitala verktyg, internet och sociala medier tas för givet, så även i skolan. Vad innebär då de reviderade skrivningarna i Lgr11 om digital kompetens för skolans tidiga skrivundervisning? Avsikten med artikeln är att skapa förståelse för skrivande med och utan digitala verktyg i skrivundervisningen. I artikeln diskuteras vad som kan utveckla elevernas skapande av texter med och utan digitala verktyg samt lärarens viktiga roll i det didaktiska arbetet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska.
    Att skriva med och utan digitala verktyg2020Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever i ett digitaliserat samhälle där användning av digitala verktyg, internet och sociala medier tas för givet, så även i skolan. Vad innebär då skrivningarna i läroplanen om digital kompetens för skolans tidiga skrivundervisning? Avsikten med artikeln är att skapa förståelse för skrivande med och utan digitala verktyg i skrivundervisningen. I artikeln diskuteras vad som kan utveckla elevernas skapande av texter med och utan digitala verktyg samt lärarens viktiga roll i det didaktiska arbetet. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    Breakout-rum – en plats för möten och mångfald i ett språk- och kunskapsutvecklande arbetssätt2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en följd av Covid-19-pandemin har behov av mer kunskaper om undervisning och digitalisering i den svenska skolan uppmärksammats. Syftet med presentationen är att med fokus på ämneslitteracitet (Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008, 2012) synliggöra hur gymnasielärare i samhällskunskap genom digitala breakout-rum, som mötesplatser, skapar möjligheter till handledning av elever i språk- och kunskapsutveckling (Gibbon, 2006). Studien är en del av det pågående och praktiknära projektet Digitala resurser i undervisningen där 13 lärare och en forskare samarbetar kring utvecklande av nya kunskaper om multimodalitet, literacy och lärande i klassrummet (Jewitt, 2002; Bezemer, Kress & O´Halloran, 2016; Jewitt & Kress, 2003; Nordmark, 2023). I denna delpresentation består materialet av sju klassrumsobservationer vid grupparbete i digital undervisning, en klass under pandemin och en klass efter pandemin, samt 10 videoinspelade intervjuer med elever. För denna delstudie har videoinspelade undervisningssekvenser valts ut för fördjupad analys med fokus på ämnesord och samhällsvetenskapliga tankeredskap (Sandahl, 2015). Särskilt intresse läggs på hur lärarens språkutvecklande handledning kan bidra till elevernas kunskapsutveckling i ämnet. De preliminära resultaten visar att när läraren börjar använda breakout-rum i undervisningen uppmärksammas didaktiska värden i elevers gemensamma skrivande samt integreras läsande, samtalande, lyssnande och skrivande med olika modaliteter. Breakout-rummen främjar mångfald genom att läraren ges möjlighet att uppmärksamma och ge feed forward till både enskilda elever och samtliga grupper under en och samma lektion. Användningen av breakout-rum uppfattas av lärare och elever som främjande för literacy engagement och literacy achievement (Cummins, 2015).

    Nyckelord: breakout-rum, ämneslitteracitet, språk- och kunskapsutvecklande arbetssätt, multimodalitet, lärande

    Referenser

    Cummins, J. (2015). Language Differences that Influence Reading Development. I P. Afflerbach Handbook of Individual Differences in Reading, Reader, Text, and Context, (s. 223–244). Routledge.

    Gibbons, P. (2006). Stärk språket, stärk lärandet. Språk- och kunskapsutvecklande arbetssätt för och med andraspråkselever i klassrummet. Hallgren & Fallgren. 

    Jewitt, C. (2006). Technology, Literacy, Learning. A Multimodal Approach. Routledge.

    Jewitt, C. & Kress, G. (2003). Multimodal literacy. Peter Lang. 

    Jewitt, C., Bezemer, J. & O´Halloran, K. (2016). Introducing Multimodality. Routledge. 

    Nordmark, M. (2023). Legitimation of digitalisation in education. A case study of vocational student teachers´lesson plans. Utbildning & Lärande, 17(1), 65–83. https://doi.org/10.58714/ul.v17i1.12757

    Sandahl, J. (2015). Medborgarbildning i gymnasiet. Ämneskunnande och medborgarbildning i gymnasieskolans samhälls- och historieundervisning. [Doktorsavhandling, Stockholms universitet]

    Shanahan, C. & Shanahan, T. (2008). Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents: Rethinking Content Area Literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 40­–59. 

    Shanahan, T. & Shanahan, C. (2012). What is Disciplinary Literacy and Why Does it Matter? Topics in Language Disorders, 32(1), 7-18.

  • 9.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    Den virtuella bokcirkeln: samtalande, läsande och skrivande i en språkutvecklande förening2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med Covid-19-pandemin behövde gymnasieskolan våren 2020 göra en hastig omställning från klassrumsundervisning till virtuell undervisning. Likt Hodges et al (2020) ser jag omställningen som ”emergency remote teaching”. Omställningen satte akut fokus på användning av digitala resurser i undervisningen och hur dessa formar multimodalitet, literacy och lärande i klassrummet (Jewitt, 2002;Bezemer & Kress, 2016; Jewitt & Kress, 2003). Denna presentation diskuterar preliminära resultat från det pågående praktiknära och praktikutvecklande forskningsprojektet Digitala resurser i undervisningen. 13 gymnasielärare och en forskare samarbetar kring utveckling av nya kunskaper om digitala resurser som förvärvats i samband med pandemin. Kunskaper som omfattar villkor för språkutveckling, läsande och skrivande i ett vidare perspektiv. Syftet med presentationen är att diskutera utifrån ett bokcirkelprojekt där språk och litteratur med hjälp av digitala resurser korsbefruktar varandra. Materialet består av 16 virtuella klassrumsobservationer under engelsklektioner i tre klassrum samt nio videoinspelade intervjuer med två lärare. Jewitt och Kress (2003) används för analys av multimodalliteracy och hur digitala resurser bidrar till att forma kunskap. Fyra aspekter för att representera mening beaktas: materialitet, inramning, design och produktion. Följande forskningsfrågor ställs: Hur är digitala resurser länkade i undervisningen för att ge eleverna möjligheter till aktivt språkligt deltagande? Vilka lärdomar lyfter lärarna fram för att utveckla elevernas samtalande, läsande och skrivande? Preliminära resultat visar att trots tidigare vana hos elever och lärare att arbeta på skärmar blev omställningen stor när undervisningen gick över till att bli helt virtuell. För lärarna innebar det ett didaktiskt nysökande efter hur läsande, samtalande och skrivande med hjälp av olika modaliteter kan integreras och i interaktion med eleverna. Lärarna understryker också vikten att uppmärksamma både elevers och lärares språkanvändning samt tillgång till skrivna texter för aktivt meningsskapande. Utifrån resultaten diskuteras digitala resursers användning i språkundervisningen i det virtuella klassrummet ochi det fysiska klassrummet.

  • 10.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    Digitalisation in Education: Scaffolding Language and Scaffolding Learning2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim

    Digitalisation in education has been studied in terms of how it affects multimodality, literacy, and learning in the classroom (Jewitt, 2002; Bezemer & Kress, 2016; Jewitt & Kress, 2003).

    The Covid 19 pandemic highlighted the need for greater knowledge about digitalisation in education in Swedish schools. The change from face-to-face teaching to virtual teaching put a critical spotlight on teacher’s knowledge of didactic choices (Hodges et al., 2020).

    Here are presented preliminary results from ongoing practice-based research project ‘Digital resources in teaching’. 13 teachers at upper secondary school, together with a researcher, collaborated to make use of teacher knowledge of digital resources acquired during the pandemic. Challenges and opportunities were identified for scaffold language and scaffold learning (Gibbons, 2006). This presentation aims at discussing the use of digital breakout rooms in teaching, its implications for teachers and their pupils, with special focus on participation and engagement.

    Theoretical framework

    This study takes a multimodal approach to learning as its theoretical point of departure. Based on the notion of multimodal literacy (Jewitt & Kress, 2003), the study analyses how digital resources in a range of modes contribute to the shaping of knowledge and what it means to be a teacher in the virtual classroom. In accordance with Jewitt and Kress (2003), four aspects for representing meaning are considered: materiality, framing, design, and production.

    Methodology/research design

    Data were collected in 2020-2022 and consist of five videorecorded interviews with the same focus group involving three teachers. Additionally, audio-recorded observations of 16 lessons in virtual classrooms involving three different classes were collected. 

    Expected results/findings

    Preliminary findings show virtual teaching corresponds to a big change for both pupils and teachers, despite previous exposure to working with digital screens. The virtual group rooms, ‘breakout rooms’, were valuable in teaching, learning and interaction. Teachers noted breakout rooms contributed to more pupil engagement and participation. The usage of breakout rooms meant teachers started looking for ways to integrate reading, conversation and writing of different modalities. Teachers emphasise how virtual teaching put importance on language use and written text in meaning making. Written text and text composition becomes prioritised when teaching becomes virtual.

    Relevance to Nordic educational research

    This novel data contributes to greater understanding of how virtual teaching caused by the global pandemic has impacted teaching in Swedish upper secondary schools.

  • 11.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Digitalisering utmanar skrivundervisningen2014Inngår i: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, Vol. 58, nr 4, s. 10-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Digitalt skrivande i gymnasieskolans svenskundervisning: en ämnesdidaktisk studie av skrivprocessen2014Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the writing process in the teaching of the subject of Swedish at upper secondary school. This study analyses the relations between the pupils’ writing and the school environment in which the writing takes place and how the pupils position themselves and others in relation to their use of digital artefacts and norms in the classroom. The empirical material has been created in three classes at two different schools. The data consists of participant observations of 42 lessons, all of which were video recorded using two cameras, and audio recorded semi-structured interviews with 24 pupils and 3 teachers. Theoretically, the study is based on sociocultural perspectives on literacy and learning and a multimodal social semiotic understanding of meaning-making based on an interest in the use of resources that constitute meaning in the social environment. From an ecological perspective, writing is examined as discourses in which the participants and the environment interact. Analytic concepts are used by inspiration from Kress et al (2005) and Smidt (2002). The figure “Writing roles in fields of tension” has been constructed to illustrate the students’ writing roles and positioning's in the empirical material. The results show that the shift from paper and pen to computer and screen means more than a shift change in the use of artefacts. The teaching of digital writing has a point of departure as a project in communication. In multimodal environments, pupils are often left without access to a teacher due to the layout of the room. This leads to positioning in roles, such as help seeker and helper. The classrooms are characterised by the constant presence of social media and its demands on students’ attention. Earlier generations of writing processes emphasised the importance of prewriting, drafting and revision in stages. In the digital writing process these stages are lacking. In this context, the digital writing process can be understood as a “fourth generation process” consisting of writing, saving and sending. The fourth generation of writing process stresses on the writing at a micro- rather than macro level. The word processing functions of spelling and grammar offer clickable solutions to problems, but cannot be considered as tools for learning. In the digital classroom pupils are vulnerable, left to their own resources and have difficulties in handling complex assignments.

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  • 13.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Digitalt skrivande utmanar undervisningen2014Inngår i: Manus, ISSN 2000-4028, nr 3, s. 8-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    Feedback on writing in the virtual classroom. “It became a new way of thinking of learning for me as a teacher”2024Inngår i: Abstract Book, 2024, s. 69-69Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback on writing in the virtual classroom. “It became a new way of thinking of learning for me as a teacher”

    Research topic/aim

    The Covid-19-pandemic gave desires to stive for new pedagogical and didactic ways and habits of literacy use in classroom teaching. In this paper I explore the linking of teachers' feedback on writing and students' achievement of disciplinary literacy in social sciences in virtual classroom teaching at upper secondary school. The aim is to turn attention to the influence of the teachers' feedback as a tool for thinking, talking and meaning-making to develop disciplinary literacy (Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008, 2012; Sandahl, 2015; Gibbons, 2006) in students collective writing for learning. Questions asked are:

    • How does the teacher use feedback in writing to contribute to the students' knowledge development?
    • What function does the use of text and collective writing have in the virtual teaching?
    • How are the use of digital breakout rooms reshaping classroom teaching? 

    Theoretical framework

    This study takes a multimodal approach to learning and digitalisation in the classroom (Jewitt, 2006; Bezemer & Kress, 2016; Jewitt & Kress, 2003; Nordmark, 2023). In accordance with Jewitt and Kress (2003), four aspects for representing meaning are considered: materiality, framing, design, and production.

    Methodological design

    Data were collected in 2020-2022 and consist of classroom audio recordings in social science during the pandemic, and post-pandemic video recordings. In total 7 lessons and 10 video recorded interviews with students.

    Expected conclusions/findings

    Preliminary findings, the teacher's feedback on writing during the students' text composition is highly appreciated and seen as very valuable. Also that the teacher in virtual teaching classroom is always present as an expert who helps the students to develop the text and answer questions. The text-oriented teaching contributes to students gaining access to more complex forms of text and text composition through social studies subject concepts and thinking tools. Students identify writing in social studies as focused on the content and not on form and structure.

    Relevance to Nordic educational research

    This study is relevant in a Nordic context and contributes to greater understanding of how virtual classroom teaching requires language awareness, and teachers planning for students' active participation to scaffold learning in disciplinary literacy.

    References

    Gibbons, P. (2006). Stärk språket, stärk lärandet. Språk- och kunskapsutvecklande arbetssätt för och med andraspråkselever i klassrummet. Hallgren & Fallgren. 

    Jewitt, C. (2006). Technology, Literacy, Learning. A Multimodal Approach. Routledge.

    Jewitt, C. & Kress, G. (2003). Multimodal literacy. Peter Lang. 

    Jewitt, C., Bezemer, J. & O´Halloran, K. (2016). Introducing Multimodality. Routledge. 

    Nordmark, M. (2023). Legitimation of digitalisation in education. A case study of vocational student teachers´lesson plans. Utbildning & Lärande, 17(1), 65–83. https://doi.org/10.58714/ul.v17i1.12757

    Sandahl, J. (2015). Medborgarbildning i gymnasiet. Ämneskunnande och medborgarbildning i gymnasieskolans samhälls- och historieundervisning. [Doktorsavhandling, Stockholms universitet]

    Shanahan, C. & Shanahan, T. (2008). Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents: Rethinking Content Area Literacy. Harvard Educational Review, 78(1), 40­–59. 

    Shanahan, T. & Shanahan, C. (2012). What is Disciplinary Literacy and Why Does it Matter? Topics in Language Disorders, 32(1), 7-18.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    Learning from the Covid-19 pandemic: What is the role of digital resources and multimodal literacy in virtual teaching?2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning from the Covid-19 pandemic: What is the role of digital resources and multimodal literacy in virtual teaching?

    Research topic/aim

    The Covid-19 pandemic has entailed challenges as well as opportunities for education in Sweden. During the spring of 2020, teachers in Swedish upper secondary schools had less than a week to make the change from face-to-face to virtual teaching. In December 2020, they once again had to switch to virtual teaching. For teachers and pupils, these changes in teaching modality involved new uses of digital resources. The purpose of this study is therefore to highlight Swedish upper secondary school teachers' practices and perspectives on modifying their teaching with respect to the use of digital resources and multimodal literacy in the virtual classroom. 

    Theoretical framework

    This study takes a multimodal approach to learning as its theoretical point of departure. Based on the notion of multimodal literacy (Jewitt & Kress, 2003), the study analyses how digital resources in a range of modes contribute to the shaping of knowledge and what it means to be a teacher in the virtual classroom. In accordance with Jewitt and Kress (2003), four aspects for representing meaning are considered: materiality, framing, design, and production. 

    Methodology/research design

    Data for the study were collected in 2020-2021. The analysis is based on 19 video-recorded interviews with three focus groups involving a total of 13 teachers, as well as audio-recorded observations of 16 lessons in virtual classrooms involving three different classes. The focus group constellations being based on teachers being from three different schools. 

    Expected results/findings

    The results indicate that all teachers in the three focus groups emphasise the importance of the written text in the virtual classroom, while in the traditional classroom, written texts function more as a form of support. Access to digital pedagogical resources has been uneven among the three groups. Focus group 1 has limited access to digital resources and believes that the digital resources have functions as a storage place for making documents available and checking data on a platform. Focus group 2 has access to extensive digital resources and describes that this enables individualisations in the digital classroom. Focus group 3 has gained access to digital breakout rooms and argues that these were a pedagogical and didactic breakthrough for virtual teaching. The digital breakout rooms contribute to support learning in interaction between the participants in the multimodal literacy practice. 

    Relevance to Nordic educational research

    In Nordic countries, there is ample research on literacy studies in digitally rich environments. This study can contribute with a broader picture of how digital literacies are situated in ordinary and naturally occurring virtual classrooms. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, teachers have been faced with new challenges for instruction and teaching virtually. This study thus provides additional insights into the important role of focusing on pedagogical and didactical ways of involving teachers and pupils in the use of multimodal literacy and digital resources. 

    Reference

    Jewitt, C. & Kress, G. (2003). Multimodal Literacy. Peter Lang. 

  • 16.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Legitimation in teacher education: a need to shift focus from assessment to teaching2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Legitimation in teacher education: a need to shift focus from assessment to teaching

    Increasing demands are put on teacher training education to highlight digital perspectives in school practices. In this paper I discuss the way discourses construct legitimation for students in teacher training program. Specifically, while teacher students plan teaching for learning with digital resources for pupils in vocational program at upper secondary school. The language of legitimation is analysed from the framework of van Leeuwen (2007). Data consist of 25 students’ lesson plans, altogether 228 pages. The students are given freedom to decide the extent and content in the lesson plans; the assignment requirement is to plan for digitalization as a living element. Students get two advice: to familiarize themselves with assessment criteria, as well as to study general guidelines as formulated in the document for planning and implementation of teaching from the Swedish National Agency for Education. The results show pupils face a wide range of opportunities through modes and media, and attention is on how teachers can assess pupils’ multimodal texts. The digital element is about usages of resources. How the digital resources will contribute to development in learning is not prominent. In the student plans, the pupils’ writing instead consist mostly of documentation on task templates and evaluations. Thus, the construction of legitimation face reflection on problems for education training perspectives. Multimodal teaching is challenging for teacher students. Furthermore, it seems students plan their teaching for a practice in a strong discourse of assessment and less of teaching for learning.

  • 17.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    Legitimation of digitalisation in education. A case study of vocational student teachers´ lesson plans2023Inngår i: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 65-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, the curricula and subject syllabi in Sweden were revised, the aim being to increase the digital competence of pupils. This article presents a study of how vocational student teachers at upper-secondary school legitimise the use of digital tools in their lesson planning as a means to support the learning of pupils. This provides knowledge of what vocational student teachers view as central to their teaching. Using Theo van Leeuwen's legitimation analysis, the lesson plans of 25 vocational student teachers, as well as eight ethnographic interviews, were analysed. In legitimation, the vocational student teacher argues using references or actions that need to be performed, or not performed. The task of the argument is to justify language or actions so that they are acceptable to others. Legitimation also makes visible the relationships and responsibilities between different parties. The results show that vocational student teachers legitimise their choices to authority. The lesson plans are based on the relationship of vocational student teachers to their own actions in teaching. However, how pupils develop their learning and digital competence is not affected. The digital tools as resources in teaching are legitimised with reference to speed, agility, control, and overview. The use of digital tools links strongly to writing, which affects the educational environment and professional life.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Lärarstudenters lektionsplaneringar utifrån läs- och skrivdidaktiskt perspektiv2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    New patterns in code-switching?: Empirical explanations on adolescents 'emulate-switching' in a community of membership.2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Svenska.
    P(ICT)ures of writing development in teacher training and classroom teaching2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/aim

    Writing is a key competence in an increasingly digital society – and teachers and teacher education need knowledge of how students in the classroom are trained on written composition development. Using data from newly graduated teachers in years 4-6 and teachers at upper secondary school, I elucidate what of written composition development they bring with them from their teacher education to their own classroom teaching in Swedish.

     

    Theoretical framework

    Based on threshold concepts (Meyer & Land 2005), analyses of which knowledge in teaching writing is seen as central. Thus, the threshold concepts can name key concepts, elements, thoughts and experiences that the new teachers need to develop the students' writing. Meyer & Land (2005) understand threshold concepts like portals, which open up new understandings and perspectives. 

     

    Methodology/research design

    The data is created in spring 2020, in the first wave of Covid-19 in Sweden. The research is based on video-recorded semi-structured interviews with eight newly graded teachers three months after exam. Further analyses investigate relationships of written composition development to the curricula in the two teacher training programs. 

    Expected findings

    The preliminary findings indicate that teachers feel comfortable teaching with digital resources in writing, but they see many thresholds concerning didactic and pedagogical knowledge about how they can teach writing development. The teachers express the lack of tools to teach students to create texts, to develop texts to a higher quality and to support students who are in need of special support in writing. Indirectly, they have learned about writing when they themselves have written assignments, particularly the degree project has been a good resource for learning about writing and writing tutoring.

     

    Relevance to Nordic educational research

    This study can contribute with current pictures from newly graduated teachers teaching practices linked to recently completed teacher training in mother tongue education. It seems that digital resources is the new normal in classroom teaching but teaching and learning to learn is not yet linked to written composition development. Research on written composition is rare. Written composition is important for learning, meaning making and a potentially better future for studies, professional life and active participant in society.

  • 21.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Planning for assessment or teaching?: Studying lesson plans made by teacher students for pupils in upper secondary school2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research aim

    Teacher students are important to study as they represent the next generation of teachers. This study investigates lesson plans made by vocational teacher students. More specifically, lesson plans on the use of digital tools in the classroom. Emphasis is on digitalization and the teacher students are instructed to use the new Swedish guidelines (Skolverket, 2017). Lesson plans strongly linked to reading and writing are investigated to create knowledge about how the conditions for teaching and learning are represented.

    Theoretical framework

    The theoretical framework of the study is based on social semiotic multimodal legitimation analysis (van Leeuwen, 2007).

    Methodological design

    Data consist of 25 lesson plans, together 228 pages, in addition to interviews made with teacher students. In the task, students plan for digitization as a living element, and are given freedom to decide content as well as design. Students get two advice: to get acquainted with assessment criteriaand to study the document “Planning and implementation of teaching” from Swedish National Agency of Education.

    Expected findings

    Preliminary findings show teacher students are faced with a wide range of digital resources of different modalities and media. Plans are made about assessing pupils' multimodal texts. Teacher students’ digital elements are oriented towards the use of resources. It is not prominent how digital resources can contribute to development in knowledge seeking, information processing or learning.Tasks designed for pupils consist of writing shorter documentation, filling in matrices, and making evaluations. Lesson plans for classroom teaching appear to be in a strong discourse in favor of assessment and less about strengthening students' skills and competence through teaching.

    Relevance to Nordic education research

    The study addresses questions about of the dominant position of the assessment. Assessment is in the foreground, whereas teaching remains in the background. These are important issues because of the strong ongoing discourse of assessment in Sweden.

    References

    Bezemer, J. & Kress, G. (2016). Multimodality, learning and communication: a social semioticframe. London: Routledge.

    Jewitt, C. & Kress, G, Ed. (2003/2008). Multimodal literacy. New York: Lang.Skolverket (2016). IT-användning och IT-kompetens i skolan. Stockholm: Skolverket.

    Skolverket (2017). Få syn på digitaliseringen. Ett kommentarmaterial för gymnasieskolan,gymnasiesärskolan samt komvux och särvux på gymnasial nivå. Stockholm: Skolverket.

    Van Leeuwen, T. (2007). Legitimation in discourse and communication. Discourse & Communication, 1(1), p. 91-112.

  • 22.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Students’ ‘pre-writing phase’ - searching at the web2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    The use of computers challenges processes of writing.2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Writing roles: a model for understanding students' digital writing and the positions that they adopt as writers2017Inngår i: Computers and Composition, ISSN 8755-4615, E-ISSN 1873-2011, Vol. 46, s. 56-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in the field of written composition has mainly studied planning and revision. Nonetheless, the understanding of formulation is still poorly understood. This article elaborates the Writing roles model to elucidate challenges in digital writing in the research and pedagogy domains. Writing roles are based on empirical ethnographic data from Swedish lessons at upper secondary schools to create understandings of how digital writing and text processing in school affect students’ writing and the positions that they take as writers. The results show that the use of computers changes writing in school from individual projects to complex collective writing projects. Writing digital school texts thus becomes a literacy project in an ecology of communication with different levels of collaborative writing. Writing is linked to the relationships between students’ writing in interaction with reading, listening and talking, in addition to transitions to the school environment and how students position themselves and others in writing roles in relation to their use of computers. In the classroom, there is continuous negotiation and interplay through social media, both inside and outside the school. The capacity to participate in social activities is central for both giving and obtaining scaffolding in digital formulation processes.

  • 25.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Writing roles in fields of tensions between collective and individual digital writing.2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From theoretical understanding of New Literacy Studies and ecological perspective on literacy (Barton 1994/2010; Smidt 2002; Kress et al2005) this paper explore and discuss writing roles in fields of tensions between collective and individual digital writing in the teaching ofSwedish at upper secondary school. The focus of the study is an analysis of relations between pupils´ writing, school environment in whichthe writing takes place, and how pupils position themselves and others in relation to their use of digital artefacts and norms in the classrooms. Literacy studies are rarely focused on the teaching of Swedish at upper secondary school level. The study takes its point ofdeparture from a broader understanding of writing, and investigates how writing interacts with reading, talking and listening. The analysis is bases on participant observations and video recordings of 42 lessons in Swedish in 3 classes at upper secondary school, and on interviews with 24 pupils and 3 teachers taking part in the study. The findings show that the teaching of writing in the subject of Swedish at upper secondary school is a project in communication with others. This means that the individual writing relates to collective participation in classroom and in social media. The shift from paper and pencil to computer and screen means more than a shift change in the use of artefacts. In order to illustrate this I have created the figure "Writing roles in fields of tension" from analyses of the empirical material. Four writing roles crystallised: mentor, social performer, independent writer and help seeking writer. The figure highlights the dynamics of writing and also the complexity in the use of digital artefacts and interpretation of norms in the environment. The pupils' identity making meets different writing cultures, which become an ecological interplay of constant negotiation. Participation also creates writing identities inrelation to the collective environment, and leads to the writer identifying him- or herself with values and practices of the community.

  • 26.
    Takala, Marjatta
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Allard, Karin
    Örebro University.
    A Comparison of University Curriculum in Special Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden2019Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education, ISSN 2535-4051, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 20-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The education of special teachers’ is seldom studied, and when it is examined, it is compared primarily with general teacher education. The written academic curricula reflect scientific, professional, social, and ethical values, goals, and competences in education, school and society. This study analyses the special teacher education (STE) curricula from six Finnish and seven Swedish universities. The results show that Finnish STE curricula consists of 60 credits over one year , while the Swedish curricula comprises 90 credits over 1.5 years. Finnish STE can be called a “combo degree,” which addressed various learning difficulties, and Swedish STE transformed it into a specialization, with five different options. Teaching practice is essential in Finnish education, but does not exists as such in Sweden. Inclusive elements are somewhat present in the curricula, often in the form of co-operation. The core contents in these two countries are discussed and compared.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Takala, Marjatta
    et al.
    University of Oulu.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Allard, Karin
    Örebro University .
    Special teacher education universals2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic: Our aim is to compare special teacher education curricula in two Nordic countries, look do they have inclusive elements and reflect the results with other countries.

    Theoretical framework: General education seems to need special education to support pupils, although we live in the era of inclusion (European Agency for Special Needs and InclusiveEducation, 2016). In order to have these special educators, every country has an own system ofeducating them. It seems that the content and study time as well as requirements to students variesfrom country to country. In a study done by Darling, Dukes & Hall (2016), four universals werefound, namely: a) policy, b) practice, c) pedagogy, and d) teacher preparation/co-curricularactivities. Together 51% could be categorized into the last one, teacher preparation/co-curricularactivities, which included general learning activities used to teach/train teachers how to instructstudents as well as varied aspects of field experience and its critical role in the preparation of specialteachers. The smallest was policy (4%), with topics like bridging the gap between training and practice.

    Methodological design: In our study, we compared Finnish and Swedish special teacher education(STE) curriculum, meaning here the one year Finnish or 1,5year Swedish STE for qualified teachers.We looked at the internet based curricula of all six Finnish and seven Swedish universities offeringthis education. We did a content and text analysis to the curricula.

    Expected Findings: We found common topics as well as country specific issues. Both countries’STE includes a lot of core professional skills and knowledge, like the basic national documents andsupport systems with individual education plans and teachers’ responsibilities. The Swedish specialteacher students can choose between five specialization options, while the Finnish STE is a combodegree. There is no organized and supervised teaching practice in Sweden, but it is central n Finland.However, we also noticed that there could be global demands for STE. Like human universals, therecould be special education universals. One common issue is globalization, which should discussed inSTE. Another might be various learning difficulties. However, also the neoliberal education policymight have some effects on the goals of inclusion. The universals as well as the new educationalpolicy are discussed.

    Relevance to Nordic educational research: While the Nordic countries have rather similareducational requirement to pupils at school, also the requirements for teacher education and in thiscase STE, could be similar at least to a certain point. In order to create an optimal STE in cooperationwith neighbor countries, curriculum related issues differences need to be discussed

    References:

    Darling, S. M.; Dukes, C.; Hall, K. (2016). What Unites Us All: Establishing Special EducationTeacher Education Universals. Teacher Education and Special Education, 39(3), 209-219.

    European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. (2016). Leap forward for inclusion.Retrieved from https://www.european-agency.org/news/directors-blog/leap-forward-for-inclusion

  • 28.
    Takala, Marjatta
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Faculty of Education.
    Nordmark, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Svenska språket.
    Allard, Karin
    Örebro University, Education and Social Sciences.
    The Education of Special Educators in Sweden and Finland2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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